4.05.02 Basic Information: Demography / Population

Sat, 11/17/2007 - 08:17
Note: This Information Product is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information needed for the CLUP. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. In addition, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates. For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB: telephone +632 927 2698       Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis     The most important set of information for planning pertains to demography/ population. Population is the basis for determining the level of public services like schools, health centers, housing, welfare services, recreational facilities, power, and water supply. Population creates local demand for goods and services and thus affects the level of economic activities that can sustain their viable existence in the area. The size of the present and projected population is also an important input to assessing housing adequacy and calculating future housing demand. It likewise serves as a guide for allocating land for various uses. Various public facilities and services cater to specific segments of the population. Therefore, the objective of the GIS analysis is to process and present population data that must regard population in its totality as well as break it down into meaningful units like age, sex, occupation, etc. Certain patterns of population clustering and differentiation hold the key to understanding observed differences in consumption tastes and preferences, political beliefs, and social behavior. For comparison, it is therefore important that the population can be described with the distribution among barangays.     Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment     These are examples of useful indicators: Population Size If estimates about the population in a particular year other than a census year are desired, projection is resorted to. For this purpose, the NSO has prepared population projections by municipality/city and by province over 20-30 years, using low, medium and high assumptions. To draw a sharper picture of the population size of the city/municipality, it has to be compared with that of larger areas like the district or the province. The proportion of the municipalities/cities’ population to that of the larger area is expressed as a proportion or percentage. Similarly, the population size and relative share of each barangay to the total municipal population should be presented. Also, whenever available, urban (barangay) and rural (barangay) population shares to total municipal population should be shown. Age-Sex Distribution This is a very important set of information especially in the planning of specific social services and facilities. Specific age groups represent a demand for certain services. For example, dependent age (0-14, 65 and above) would require specialized health services and facilities; school age groups (3-6, pre-school; 7-12, elementary; 13-16, secondary) with school facilities; labor force (15-64) will have to be provided with jobs; or, females of reproductive age (10-45) may be the target of family planning programs. The age-sex distribution is usually presented in a bar graph that is as symmetrical as a pyramid. Any observed “deformation” of the symmetry could be explained in terms of the economic and/or social structure of the municipality/city. An example of this deformation is when there is a middle “bulge” on the side of the females. This indicates that there is an incidence of large female migrant labor, which may be explained by the existence of garment factories in the locality. The population pyramid provides, among others, a quick description of the relative size of the male and female population by age groups. The pyramid shows whether a population is predominantly young or old. At a glance the analyst is able to say whether the population of a particular municipality/city is expansive (where large numbers are in the younger ages), constructive (where a smaller number are in the younger age), or stationary (where roughly equal numbers of people are found in all age groups with slight tapering off in the older ages). The shape of the pyramid also indicates the fertility character of the population. In general, the broader the base of the pyramid, the higher is the fertility; conversely, a narrower base indicates a declining fertility. Household and Family The smallest social unit is the family or the household. The NSO defines a household as consisting of a person living alone or a group of persons who sleep in the same housing unit and have a common arrangement for the preparation and consumption of food. A family, on the other hand, is a group of persons living in the same household related by blood, marriage or adoption. For comparison purposes it is recommended to use household in the CLUP data. Housing Unit A housing unit is a structurally separate and independent place of abode which, by the way it has been constructed, converted or arranged is intended for habitation by one household. Structures or parts of structures which are not intended for habitation such as commercial, industrial, and cultural buildings or natural and man-made shelters such as caves, boats, abandoned trucks, culverts, and others, but which are used as living quarters by households. Population Distribution and Urbanization One characteristic of the population that has great implications on planning is the pattern of its distribution over the municipal territory. An indicator of population distribution is gross population density by barangay, which is expressed as the number of persons per unit of land area usually in hectares or square kilometers. However, there are portions of the municipal territory which are not habitable. Therefore some refinements are introduced like net population density which is the ratio of the population to total area of arable lands. An arable land, for convenience, is the total area of lands classified as “alienable and disposable.” Another indicator of population distribution is the extent of urbanization. This is consistent with the morphology (internal structure) of most Philippine municipalities/cities characterized by a compact urban area (poblacion) and scattered villages (barrios). Many villages have grown over the years and it is common nowadays to find rural barangays/barrios which have larger populations than urban barangays/ poblacions and are as urbanized. NSO defines urban areas as:
  1. a barangay that has a population size of 5,000 or more, or
  2. a barangay has at least one establishment with a minimum of 100 employees, or
  3. a barangay has 5 or more establishments with a minimum of 10 employees, and 5 or more facilities within the two-kilometer radius from the barangay hall. (Source: NSCB Resolution No. 9, Series of 2003)
Population Growth and Population Projections This is expressed as the change in the population size between two points in time. By determining the growth rates for each of the census periods (1903, 1918, 1939, 1948, 1960, 1970, 1975, 1980, 1990, 1995 and 2000) and plotting these on a graph, a growth trend can be shown. This trend is then compared with similar observations in other municipalities/cities of the province or the province itself for a better appreciation of the behavior of the population of a particular locality. Projecting the size of the future population is not an exact science, despite the use of mathematical formulas and operations. Be that as it may, an estimate of the size of the future population, whether in total or by component parts, is essential information in any planning exercise. It indicates, among other things, the amount of goods and services that must be provided as well as of resources that will have to be utilized to maintain or reach a certain level of acceptable human well-being.     Step 3: Create the Database     Attributes     The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. Those in bold are used in the examples. BI02 Historical Growth of PopulationBI03 Population Composition by School-Going, Working and Dependent Age-Group, Year YYYYBI04 Population, Household, Density by Barangay, Year YYYYBI05 Population by Age-Group and Gender, Year YYYYBI06 Employment Status by Population 15 Years and Over by Gender, Year YYYYBI07 Oversea Workers for the Past 5 Years from Year YYYYBI08 Tempo and Level of Urbanization for the Past 20 YearsBI09 Population Density by Barangay, Year YYYYBI10 Population by Mother Tongue, Year YYYYBI11 Population by Religious Affiliation, Year YYYYBI12 Population Projection by Barangay ,Year YYYYBI13 Population and Household Projections     The Custodian of sector data is the MPDO/CPDO. The data provider is the NSO.     The following steps need to be taken to get access the data:     Letter of Request to …. or Primary Survey: Visit somebody     Time to get the data is estimated to about ….. weeks.     Spatial     The common denominator will be the barangay     The feature type will be polygon.     Time to prepare the data is about … (Hard to define?)     Step 4: Analyze the Data SYMBOL   The population data is important and will be used in a number of cross-analyses within each Planning Sector.     The demography will also be used to show the population profile of the municipality/city as described in Step Two.     Step 5: Present the Data     The demographic analysis layers will be put on top of the Base Map. The example below shows that two rural barangays have much higher density than average and should qualify as urban barangays according to NSO’s classification.         The map below shows how the 4 major age groups are distributed by Barangay.      
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