GIS Cook Book

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Text Book

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0.0 GIS Cookbook

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0.01 Resolution of Board of Commissioners

BOARD RESOLUTION NO. 813


Series of 2007

APPROVING THE CLUP GIS GUIDEBOOK, A GUIDE TO COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE DATA MANAGEMENT

Signed Board Resolution in PDF will be available for download soon.

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0.02 Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Read Me First

  1. 1.01 About the Cookbook
  2. 1.02 The GIS Cookbook Framework
  3. 1.03 Scope and Limitations
  4. 1.04 The Target Group
  5. 1.05 Relationship of the GIS Cookbook to CLUP Guidebook Volume 1
  6. 1.06 Use of GIS as an Analysis or Presentation Tool in the CLUP Preparation
  7. 1.07 The Role of the Cookbook in Relation to the HLURB Previous Mapping Guidelines (Volume 7)
  8. 1.08 GIS on a Shoestring Budget: Maximizing the use of GIS within the municipal government organization
  9. 1.09 Map Appreciation

Chapter 2: Introduction to GIS

  1. 2.01 What is GIS?
  2. 2.02 ‘Digital Mapping’ and ‘Manual Mapping’ Compared
  3. 2.03 GIS for Presentation
  4. 2.04 GIS for Decision Makers
  5. 2.05 GIS for Beneficiaries/Stakeholders
  6. 2.06 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation in the LGU
  7. 2.07 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation between Cities/Municipalities and the Province
  8. 2.08 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation between LGUs and the National Government Agencies (NGAs)
  9. 2.09 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation between LGUs and Private Sector

Chapter 3: The Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS

  1. 3.01 Introduction
  2. 3.02 People (GIS Advocacy and Skills Development)
  3. 3.03 Methodology
  4. 3.04 Data
  5. 3.05 Software
  6. 3.06 Hardware (and Network Set Up)

Chapter 4: Methods - Procedures - Case Studies

  1. 4.01 LGU Case Studies
  2. 4.02 Strategies and Policies
  3. 4.03 GIS CLUP Start Package
  4. 4.04 External Technical Assistance in the CLUP Preparation
  5. 4.05 Information Product Descriptions - Basic Information
  6. 4.06 Information Product Descriptions - Socio-economic
  7. 4.07 Information Product Descriptions - Infrastructure
  8. 4.08 Information Product Descriptions - Environmental
  9. 4.09 Information Product Descriptions - Land Management
  10. 4.10 Needs Assessment
  11. 4.11 Risk & Suitability Analysis
  12. 4.12 Development Scenarios
  13. 4.13 Public Hearing Display
  14. 4.14 CLUP
  15. 4.15 Zoning Ordinance
  16. 4.16 CLUP Projects
  17. 4.17 An Overview of Central Institutions with Data for CLUP Preparation
  18. 4.18 Sample Municipal GIS Application Cum CLUP Dataset
  19. 4.19 Methods for Field Survey
  20. 4.20 Attribute Data Preparation
  21. 4.21 Spatial Data Preparation

Chapter 5: CLUP (Meta) Data

  1. 5.01 Quick Look, Table Index and Table Coding
  2. 5.02 Metadata for Basic Information
  3. 5.03 Metadata for Socio-economic
  4. 5.04 Metadata for Infrastructures
  5. 5.05 Metadata for Environment
  6. 5.06 Metadata Land Management
  7. 5.07 Metadata for Needs Analysis
  8. 5.08 Metadata for Project Monitoring
  9. 5.09 Metadata for Local Government Units
  10. 5.10 Metadata for Spatial Data

Chapter 6: Templates (Downloables)

  1. 6.01 LGU GIS Literacy Survey Form
  2. 6.02 LGU CLUP GIS Appraisal Form
  3. 6.03 GIS CLUP Start Package
  4. 6.04 GPS Survey Form
  5. 6.05 Data Request for the CLUP Preparation
  6. 6.06 Matrix with a Comparative Analysis of GIS Software Used and for Sale in the Philippines
  7. 6.07 Aerial Photo Project Formulation
  8. 6.08 Public Display in PowerPoint

Chapter 7: Training

  1. 7.01 GIS Training Agenda and Course Documentation
  2. 7.02 Training and Degree Programs on GIS in the Philippines
  3. 7.03 Tutorials on Some GIS Operations
  4. 7.04 CLUP Basemap Template Tutorial
  5. 7.05 Socio-economic Sector Tutorial
  6. 7.06.01 Infrastructure Sector Tutorial
  7. 7.07 Environment Sector Tutorial
  8. 7.08 Land Management Tutorial
  9. 7.09 How to Create the Needs Analysis Layer
  10. 7.10 Risk and Suitability Analysis Tutorial
  11. 7.11 Tutorial on How to Apply Recommended Color-Coding to a Draft CLUP

Chapter 8: Software

  1. 8.01 Mozilla Firefox
  2. 8.02 Adobe Reader
  3. 8.03 Enforma

Chapter 9: Mapping



Chapter 10: Glossary/List of Abbreviations

  1. Abbrevations
  2. Glossary

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0.03 Introduction

Land-use planning is a dynamic, evolving field that emerged out of the convergence of two concerns:

  1. The provision of urban infrastructure; and
  2. Social reform through land-use planning.

Today land-use planning has expanded to include the development, implementation and evaluation of a wide range of policies, while at the same time continuing its underlying focus on community well-being. Urban and regional planners, in both developing and developed countries, are specifically concerned with:

  1. Land use planning and management, especially between rural and urban uses, in coastal zones, among contemporary urban functions, and with regard to urban form;
  2. Environmental management and risk management in hazard prone areas;
  3. The design of the municipality/city and harmonization of conflicts with the surrounding region;
  4. Regional planning, with particular interest in global-local interaction, uneven land-use development, industrial location and regional economic growth;
  5. The identification of social needs and the design and provision of services and facilities to meet these needs;
  6. The distribution of benefits and costs of resource allocation and use among people;
  7. Citizen participation in planning; and
  8. Decision making processes, policy and program evaluation.

The field of land-use planning is experiencing such fundamental changes that are having a profound impact on the use of computer-based models in planning practice and education. One of these key changes is the dramatically increased availability of powerful and easy-to-use Geographic Information System(s) (GIS) software and hardware.

An appropriately designed, funded and staffed GIS is able to present complex relationships in a simple and easily understood scenario. The information products of a GIS are invaluable to the expert and layman alike. With an ever increasing need to automate and streamline information flows within the organization, the role of computers, computer networks and the necessary support to maintain a digital infrastructure is essential.

However, there is a casually quoted statistic that roughly half of all GIS implementations fail. Most failures are related to institutional issues, resistance to change, lack of political support, insufficient funding, and the fact that GIS innovation results in a radical change in information flow within an organization. Most assessments of GIS implementation success have focused on developed countries, where user support for hardware and software, availability of trained GIS professionals, and access to a reliable power supply are not problems. The considerations relevant for any GIS implementation are compounded by additional circumstances and constraints in developing countries.

Even when a GIS can be well executed from a technical point of view, project design strongly influences the effectiveness of the use of the information products that are generated. The timing of the user needs assessment, training, data collection, pilot phasing, and full project implementation, are critical to gaining institutional support and to ultimate project success. An awareness of land-use data products and analysis capabilities typically needs to be engendered in end-users at the outset so that the use of these products can be maximized fully.

The user needs assessment is a vital component of GIS implementation within a municipality. Thoroughly exploring potential data sources, integrating the GIS with more traditional information management within the municipality, and promoting an understanding of land use information and analysis capabilities early-on are critical to project success.

It is also important to have sufficient political support within the host institution to make the GIS installation a welcome change from the existing system of information management.

In battling with these issues, the GlS Cookbook endeavors to assist municipalities/cities that are determined to use GlS as a tool in CLUP preparation. GIS-based land-use planning tools can be used to more thoughtfully design everything from specific plans to zoning ordinances. They are also useful for eliciting and enjoining public participation not only in land use planning but also in land use decisions and visioning projects. The basic analytical methods of GIS tools include:

  1. Establishing a benchmark measurement of existing conditions to allow decision makers to see where the problems lie. They can then determine whether a new project will help correct these problems or just make them worse;
  2. Forecasting what will happen if a municipality continues to grow in the same way, then measuring the impacts – whether positive or negative – of alternative land-use scenarios;
  3. Comparing several alternative land-use scenarios in order to help select a preferred alternative for adoption and implementation;
  4. Evaluating policy decisions after they are implemented to ensure that they are meeting the original objectives.

By applying the guidelines found in the GIS Cookbook, the LGU will be able to avoid the major uncertainties usually encountered in setting up the system. The guidelines will also make the CLUP preparation process more transparent and interesting for all stakeholders.

The Guidelines are presented in a web based format on the Internet: www.hlurb.gov.ph. This electronic format will facilitate accessibility of the GIS Cookbook and will give HLURB the opportunity to keep the Guidelines most updated.

The GIS Cookbook is Volume 3 in the revised HLURB CLUP Guidelines portfolio and is accordingly synchronized with Volumes 1 and 2. It succeeds the Mapping Guidelines, found in the previous set of Guidelines, for a municipality that is interested to test GIS as a land-use planning instrument.

The GIS Cookbook is the product of the various series of consultations and workshops held nationwide involving a multidisciplinary cross-section of potential users of the book, ranging from the LGUs, the national government agencies involved in planning, the academe, to those private individuals and institutions involved in the planning profession. The various drafts have gone through these participative sessions after which comments and recommendations have been incorporated wherever applicable and feasible. A condensed write-up of the comments made during these consultative workshops is available for cross-reference.

For the user’s convenience, the pages of the document provide appropriate footers on the lower left of the page so they can be referenced with the List of Contents.

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0.04 Foreword

The publication of the CLUP GIS Guidebook is a landmark in local planning and development, a field that has gone a long way since the early 70s when land use planning was first placed mainstream into local development. Since then, Philippine municipalities and cities have gone through various stages of development, guided by their comprehensive land use plans (CLUPs) that were prepared in accordance with their mandates and in partnership with national government agencies, particularly the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB), and the local government units. Through the years, CLUPs have undergone several amendments and revisions. It would be safe to say that most CLUPs at this stage are now in their third or fourth generation of iterations.

Throughout the planning exercises undertaken by the LGUs, preparation of the CLUPs have been facilitated by the use of the various planning guidelines formulated by the HLURB. These guidelines, presented in the form of serialized thematic manuals, have also been updated as lessons from the field were integrated in the planning process.

To date, HLURB has revised some of these manuals and consolidated them into one volume, with a ground-breaking new volume is off the press.

With the introduction of the CLUP GIS Guidebook, it is hoped that the local planning process is further enhanced, leading to more informed decisions of the LGU executives and stakeholders, thus enabling towns and cities nationwide to contribute to the country’s sustainable development.





Hon. Vice-President NOLI L. DE CASTRO
Chairman, Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC)

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0.05 Acknowledgement

HLURB would like to acknowledge the assistance of the following in the preparation of this Guidebook for their active participation in the various consultation workshops conducted nationwide:

  1. Local Government Units (LGUs), particularly the City Planning and Development Coordinators (CPDCs), Municipal Planning and Development Coordinators (MPDCs), and Provincial Planning and Development Coordinators (PPDCs). For the active participation of the Municipalities of Ormoc and Laurel.

  2. National Government Agencies such as: Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM), Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR), Department of Agriculture (DA), Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Department of Tourism (DOT), Environmental Management Bureau (EMB), Forest Management Bureau (FMB), Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC), Land Management Bureau (LMB), League of Cities of the Philippines, Local Government Academy (LGA), Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA), Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MBG), National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), National Historical Institute (NHI), National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA), National Statistics Office (NSO), National Telecommunication Commission (NTC), National Transmission Corporation (Transco), Philippine National Police (PNP), Philippine, Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Population Commission (PopCom), Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB). Special thanks to Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) for providing us with the aerial photos and digital data.

  3. Other Stakeholders from the Academe, Private Sector, Non-Governmental Organizations, Consultancy Firms, Professional Organizations, namely: DARUMA Technologies, Inc., DRIM Consultancy Services, Far Eastern University - Center for Studies on the Urban Environment (FEU-SURE), FF Cruz & Co., Inc., GEODATA System Tech. Inc. (GSTI), Geodetic Engineers of the Philippines (GEP), Geo-Surveys & Mapping, Inc. (GSMI), GeoiDex, International Labour Organization (ASIST-AP), Manila Observatory, MAPUA Institute of Technology, Miriam College Foundation, National Center for Transportation Studies (NCTS), National College of Public Administration and Governance (NCPAG), NIKA Tech., Norconsult Management Services Phils., Inc., Palafox Associates, Philippine Institute of Environmental Planners (PIEP), Planning Resources Operations System (PROS Inc.), The UP School of Urban and Regional Planning (SURP), Sentro para sa Ikauunlad ng Katutubong Agham at Teknolohiya, Inc. (SIKAT), TAM Planners, Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry (TCAGP), UP Diliman - College of Architecture, UP Diliman - College of Geography, U.P. Planning and Development Research Foundation, Inc. (UP PLANADES), URBIS, World Wide Fund (WWF).

Special thanks to both Central and Regional Staffs of the Board for their kind cooperation in the provision of necessary inputs, comments and suggestions during the seemingly endless discussions.

Finally, we also would like to convey our sincere appreciation to those whose names may not appear in the list but have greatly contributed in the completion of this Guidebook.

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1.0 Read Me First

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1.01 About the Cookbook

The GIS Cookbook is a part of the Comprehensive Land Use Planning (CLUP) Guidelines issued by the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) to assist local government units (LGUs) in the preparation of their Comprehensive Land Use Plans. The guidelines consist of:

“CLUP Guidebook: A Guide to Comprehensive Land Use Plan Preparation”

This volume provides the stepwise process of formulating the CLUP. It opens the door to a flexible planning process and documentation in relation to the municipal profile, that enables those predominantly rural municipalities to gather only those information applicable and necessary for the formulation of their respective CLUPs, without having to undergo the same in-depth analysis and sophistication in the planning documentation and process as those highly urbanized cities and municipalities, which are more likely to face competing and conflicting land uses that will also generate more sophisticated geographic information products.

“CLUP GIS Guidebook: A Guide to Comprehensive Land Use Data Management”

Often referred to as the GIS Cookbook, this volume introduces new approaches and methods in the preparation, documentation and presentation of CLUP information. It also describes an approach to GIS implementation that would make it not only a tool for the LGU Planning Office but also an LGU asset, which can be useful to other functions. This guidebook is made in compliance to the proposed flow and changes in the CLUP sector studies.

The GIS Cookbook describes the fundamentals for a Geographic Information System (GIS) and other information systems needed in the CLUP formulation process. It guides the user in the application of GIS as a planning and information management tool, and provides geographic information products to enable the planners and stakeholders to formulate the CLUP in a participatory manner, resulting in a plan that serves its function of regulating and catalyzing development in the given municipality/city.

The use of the GIS Cookbook as companion guide to the other volumes in the CLUP Guide Series may be as follows:

1. For a municipality/city that has decided to use GIS as a tool in the CLUP preparation, the following will be applied:

CLUP GIS GuidebookCLUP Guidebooks 
In addition to the guide:

2. For a municipality/city that will apply a traditional approach and not use GIS as a tool the following Guidelines will be used:

CLUP GuidebookCLUP Sector Studies
Volume 7
(Previous Series)
CLUP GIS Guidebook
Only recommendations for conventional database management & other templates

The Cookbook is found on HLURB Homepage, www.hlurb.gov.ph and can be downloaded for free. A digital version can be provided on a CD at cost price.

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1.02 The GIS Cookbook Framework

The GIS Cookbook consists of two parts:

Part One is the Textbook which is the narrative component that describes what needs to be known in starting up a functioning GIS to be used as a tool in the CLUP preparation.

Part Two is the Toolbox which is a compendium of detailed instructions, templates, forms and dummies that will be of help in the actual work.

The Textbook is made up of the following chapters:

Chapter 1: Read Me First

This is a general introduction to the GIS Cookbook and its role in the HLURB CLUP Guide Series.

Chapter 2: Introduction to GIS

This provides a general idea of what GIS is and its various applications. It shows the advantages of using GIS in local governance specifically in the city and municipal levels, and particularly in the CLUP preparation process.

Chapter 3: The Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS

This outlines what are necessary in terms of skilled people, proper methodology, accurate data, sufficient software and hardware, to put into operation a GIS that is customized for the specific municipality/city. It also describes the various information products using GIS that are of help in the preparation of the CLUP.

The Toolbox consists of the following chapters:

Chapter 4: Methodology, Procedures and Case Studies

This provides the more elaborate descriptions for the detailed components of a GIS system for CLUP.

Chapter 5: CLUP ( Meta)Data

This gives information on how to organize the data and the recommended standards that need to be applied.

Chapter 6: Templates

This contains the various masters and templates to be used in the CLUP preparation.

Chapter 7: Training

This includes useful materials and tutorials to be used for skills development training.

Chapter 8: Software

This provides a selection of software that will be useful to access the Guidelines.

Chapter 9: Mapping (Volume 7)

This contains the scanned version of relevant portions of the Mapping Guidelines in Adobe Portable Document Format (pdf).

Chapter 10: Glossary and List of Abbreviations

This contains the technical terms and acronyms used in Volume 3.

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1.02.01 GIS Activities with reference to the Content of the Cookbook

The following matrix shows how the GIS Cookbook can be used in relation to the CLUP preparation:

  SITUATION
(WHAT TO DO)
COURSE OF ACTION
(HOW TO DO IT)
1 If you are a beginner in GIS it is recommended that you attend the Basic GIS and the Applied GIS Training Courses conducted by HLURB prior to using GIS in preparing the CLUP.
  1. Course Description and Training Program of the training modules are found in the Toolbox, Chapter 7.01.
  2. Contact HLURB (Regional Offices or Information Technology Group, through telephone +632 927 2698 and email address: gis@hlurb.gov.ph for information on scheduled trainings.
If you have previous training and experience in GIS you start here:
  SITUATION
(WHAT TO DO)
COURSE OF ACTION
(HOW TO DO IT)
2 There are 12 steps in the process of formulating the CLUP
  1. Refer to Volume 1
3 For each Step, one or several CLUP Information Products (IPs) are specified. IPs are defined as the instructive components that are needed to present a CLUP Step in a comprehensive way. It consists of tables, graphs and maps in both digital and paper-based formats.
  1. For more information about IPs, refer to Chapter 3.03.04.
  2. Examples of IPs are found in Chapter 3.03.07.
  3. A complete set of IP descriptions are included in the Toolbox, Chapters 4.05 – 4.09.
4 To prepare an IP, data needs to be gathered, stored and presented in a way that is easy to comprehend by the CLUP stakeholders.
  1. Examples of stakeholders are shown in page 22 of Volume 1.
  2. The data that needs to be captured is outlined in the Toolbox, Chapter 5.01.01 and in each IP respectively.
5 The CLUP attribute data is compiled in a number of tables. Some of the tables (called the Key tables) are required for all types of municipalities/ cities in order to do the analysis. There are also some tables (known as the Optional tables) that might be useful based on the specific profile, size, etc. of the respective LGUs being planned.
  1. A list of tables with prioritized (Key) and extensive (Optional) data is included in the Toolbox, Chapter 5.01.01.
  2. The LGU should consult HLURB Regional Office (RO) to find out what attribute datasets are required in the CLUP preparation.
6 The data is collected from the different sources, either from secondary sources or through primary field surveys conducted by the respective LGUs.
  1. The IP describes how the data should be gathered.
  2. Case studies on how to implement primary fields surveys are found in the Toolbox, Chapter 4.19.01.
  3. A list of CLUP data sources and what data is available from them is included in the Toolbox, Chapter 4.17.01.
7 The attribute data should be inserted in the above-mentioned (Excel) tables
  1. Templates can be copied/downloaded from the Toolbox, Chapter 5.
8 Some tables will be used in the GIS, while some will be used in the narrative text of the CLUP.
  1. A list of GIS tables and non-GIS tables is found in the Toolbox, Chapter 5.01.01.
9 The non-GIS tables should have a clear and concise layout.
  1. Templates can be copied/downloaded from the Toolbox, Chapter 5.
10 The spatial data is stored in GIS-format. It is recommended that standardized symbology, legend and (map) layout formats are used.
  1. The respective IPs provide the recommended Symbology and Legend to be used.
  2. The Palettes for the CLUP feature objects can be downloaded from the Toolbox, Chapter 4.21.02.
  3. Recommendations on layout and dimensions for printed maps are found in Chapter 5.10.01.

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1.03 Scope and Limitations

The GIS Cookbook is a guide on the application of GIS as a tool for CLUP preparation. It is generally intended for municipalities with minimal incomes, and whose CLUP formulation will involve only a minimum of data requirements and basic analysis. It will however, be useful for other LGUs, Highly Urbanized Cities (HUCs) and Independent Component Cities (ICCs), that have the resources to set up sophisticated GIS systems and acquire the necessary expertise.

The GIS Cookbook will not provide guidelines on the setting up of a corporate GIS for the entire municipality such as GIS applications for cadastral and tax mapping and the like. However, the GIS for CLUP could serve as a stepping stone towards the LGU’s acquisition of GIS Technology, once it appreciates how GIS proves to be useful not only in planning, but in various decision-making purposes as well. The minimal GIS on a “shoestring budget” outlined here, constitutes a platform that can be developed into a more sophisticated system when the LGU’s income status and financial resources improve.

Practical GIS knowledge is most valuable; however it is just one of the several requisite tools that the planner needs in performing his job. In addition, the planner should have the capability to manage and monitor the activities in the preparation of the CLUP, the skills to advocate for and present the Plan to officials and the public, and the proficiency to negotiate and synthesize opposing interests in the planning process. These are all requisites to a CLUP process that will contribute to rational land use decision-making.

Formulating the CLUP, and making the best use of the GIS Cookbook plus the other volumes in the CLUP Guide Series, requires a full-time LGU planner in charge of the CLUP preparation. These planning guidelines are meant to provide the municipal/city planner with the knowledge, the tools, and the confidence, to manage the preparation of the CLUP.

The aim of the GIS Cookbook (with its Toolbox) is to assist the municipal/city planner with minimal or no experience in GIS, given the support of the HLURB staff in the Regional Offices who have been trained in GIS.

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1.04 The Target Group

The ability to use computer-based applications or ‘GIS literacy’ in the country, based on a recent survey of municipalities and cities of their levels of expertise and familiarity with computers, is currently very low (NAMRIA, 2004). The survey results showed that less than 30 out of 1,650 surveyed LGUs, have functional GIS systems, and these are predominantly high income cities (see Map below).

The GIS Cookbook therefore has been designed to serve the needs of LGUs, particularly low-income municipalities/cities, or those in the ‘development stage,’ i.e. those LGUs still in the initial phases of establishing databases and developing appropriate skills.

The establishment of an optimal GIS system for a specific LGU is contingent on the capacity of the said LGU in terms of budget, manpower and other resources. Based on the IRA grant classification rules for LGUs, the GIS Cookbook classifies municipalities and cities into three groups as shown in the matrix below.

CLUP GroupMunicipalities CoveredRecommendations for GIS
ALGUs that shall comply with minimum requirements for the CLUP preparation Municipalities/cities of IRA Class 4-6 without any other special classifications.
This covers about 956 LGUs.
These municipalities/cities are estimated to have financial and staffing resources to build a basic GIS.

For final classification, the HLURB Regional Office should prepare a list of the LGUs according to the above-shown recommended groupings, based on its experiences with concerned LGUs.

This group includes majority of the LGUs, and is the main target user of the HLURB GIS Cookbook.

B LGUs that shall comply with modest requirements for the CLUP preparation Cities of IRA Class 4-6 and Municipalities/cities of IRA Class 1-3,

This covers about 544 LGUs.

These cities and municipalities are estimated to have financial and staffing resources to build a modest GIS, and will find the HLURB GIS Cookbook very useful.
C LGUs that shall comply with advanced requirements for the CLUP preparationCities of IRA Class 1-3

This covers about 117 LGUs.

These cities are estimated to have financial and staffing resources to build a sophisticated GIS without the need of the HLURB GIS Cookbook.

For final classification, the HLURB Regional Office should prepare a list of the LGUs according to the above-shown recommended groupings, based on its experiences with concerned LGUs.

Detailed information on the IRA Classification is found in the Toolbox, Chapter 5.09.

Help Us to Update
A GIS literacy questionnaire is available to update us with correct information. It can be found in the Toolbox, Chapter 6.01. Please send filled up questionnaires to Information Technology Group - Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board, Kalayaan Ave., Diliman, Quezon City. , Fax +632 927 2731.

Map Showing the GIS Literacy Levels in the Country

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1.04.01 The LGU Planner in Focus

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1.05 Relationship of the GIS Cookbook to CLUP Guidebook Volume 1

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1.05.01 Volume 1 in Brief

This volume provides the stepwise process of formulating the CLUP. It opens the door to a flexible planning process and documentation in relation to the municipal profile, that enables those predominantly rural municipalities to gather only those information applicable and necessary for the formulation of their respective CLUPs, without having to undergo the same in-depth analysis and sophistication in the planning documentation and process as those highly urbanized cities and municipalities, which are more likely to face competing and conflicting land uses that will also generate more sophisticated geographic information products.

Volume 1 summarizes the rationale for land use planning and the need for the CLUP. It also identifies and describes the steps in the process of CLUP preparation.

The GIS Cookbook provides the tools for GIS in the form of Information Products that are reflective of a planning process that is participatory, and a CLUP that is both regulatory and catalytic.

The step-wise process given in Volume 1 is shown as follows:

The GIS Cookbook elaborates on those Information Products (maps, graphs, tables, etc.) that are necessary to fully equip the Planner with the knowledge and understanding of the specific Step in the Planning Process.

It should be noted that some of the steps in the process shown in the above CLUP Process illustration, need not be sequential but can be done simultaneously, such as Steps 2, 3, and 4. And since some of these Steps will need more graphic displays of data than the others, it is important to exercise wider flexibility in order to maximize the time needed in the whole process. For example, if there is no available digital base map or baseline data yet, Step 4 can proceed simultaneously with Steps 2 and 3 as this requires a lengthier period to prepare. This is shown in the illustration below.

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1.05.02 GIS Information Products for the Steps in the Planning Process

Information Products are the instructional components needed to present a CLUP Step in a comprehensive way. They consist of tables, graphs and maps in both digital and paper-based formats.

Information Products for Step 1 – Getting Organized (to Work with the CLUP)
It is equally important to “plan for the planning process” in order to anticipate and prepare the resources necessary for the planning exercise, thus enabling a smooth implementation and timely accomplishment of the planning outputs.

Making use of GIS as a tool in CLUP preparation will require the mobilization of the ‘GIS Start Package’ (consisting of five components) to ensure that the needed resources for the GIS activities are readily available.

The GIS Cookbook provides the guidelines for the procurement of sustainable hardware, software, development of human resources and possible consultant involvement. In Step 1, it is recommended that the LGU consult with HLURB to find out the scope of data capture that would be applicable for the respective municipality/city based on class, size, economic resources and profile, and so that the budget can also be assessed properly. For more information, see Chapter 3 (The Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS) and referred subjects in the Toolbox.

Information Products for Step 2 – Identifying Stakeholders (of the CLUP)
No special GIS requirement has been identified for this Step in the CLUP process.

Information Products for Step 3 – Setting the Vision (for the CLUP)
No special GIS requirement has been identified for this Step in the CLUP process. However, if the city/municipality already has an existing Vision statement, it should be revisited in this Step for further refinement if necessary.

Information Products for Step 4 – Analyzing the Situation
Step 4 of the planning process - Situation Analysis - basically answers the question: Where are we now? It is both analytical and diagnostic, geared towards identifying issues, potentials and future development needs and the spatial requirements of the city/municipality. Assessment consists of technical and participatory methods. Technical assessment is based on factual data derived from surveys, official publications and records of the city/municipality, concerned national agencies and other entities. It involves the use of indicators such as proportions, rates, frequencies, qualities/conditions (e.g. severity, critical, etc.), standards and other parameters that are vital in characterizing the current situation. On the other hand, participatory assessment is based on the results of barangay/community consultations, focus group discussions (FGDs), meetings with key informants, multi-sectoral meetings, etc. These activities facilitate the generation of the community’s felt needs, desires, and perceived issues and opportunities. Suggestions to address issues and concerns can also be derived from this exercise.

It is important to prepare the digital CLUP Base Map at the outset because this takes time to accomplish (see the IP on Basemap preparation found in the Toolbox, Chapter 4.05.01). It is essential to have the Base Map readily available as soon as possible to facilitate sectoral data gathering and analysis.

It is also necessary to prepare the demographic data upon which the baseline studies and sectoral analyses for education, health, transport, agriculture, etc. will be based. It is recommended that only one population projection be used for all the sectoral studies.

In general there is a lack of accurate current data for municipal land use planning, and much time is needed to acquire data for the CLUP planning. Data acquisition makes up about 80% of the total cost of establishing a CLUP GIS.

With regard to data, see the distinction between Key and Optional indicators in Chapter 3.03.02. As mentioned previously, it is important to consult with HLURB at the outset of Step 1 in order to determine the level of data capture applicable to the municipality / city being planned, in accordance with its municipality class, size, economic resources and profile. This should result in a more focused specification of data tailored to the particular requirements of the specific LGU’s CLUP. Once the scope of data requirements has been determined, the data gathering activities should proceed per specifications, and the primary surveys and secondary data acquisition (from the respective entities) should be conducted in a timely manner. A template (Data Request for CLUP Preparation, found in the Toolbox, Chapter 6.05) in combination with the Information Products described in Chapter 4 should be used in this process.

Some of the basic data about demography is presented for the entire LGU, hence no GIS is used. In this case, demographic information is presented in Excel format as tables and graphs (see tables in Chapter 5.02).

Other basic demographic data are broken down to Barangays, and this may be elaborated in GIS format (see table in Chapter 5.02.04 as an example). Furthermore, the data extracted from these layers can be used as components of the baseline studies in this step and in Step 5. For example, when analyzing the provision of health services, the current and projected population data will be matched with the planning standards and the current availability of basic health facilities.

Under Step 4, thematic spatial layers -Baseline Studies- need to be prepared for all sectors and sub-sectors included in the CLUP. The locations of service facilities such as schools, health clinics, etc.; infrastructure such as roads, power transmission lines, etc.; and those areas under protection such as ancestral domains etc.; need to be defined with an accuracy that is acceptable for CLUP planning and analysis.

There may be two ways to find out the location of the sector’s features:

  1. Organize a field survey to capture the locations. For example, go to the locations of the health clinics and track the positional coordinates using a GPS.
  2. Get secondary source data and customize it to fit the specific criteria or the specific sector feature. For instance, to identify the distribution of various soil types, get a printed map from the Bureau of Soils and Management (BSWM), and this can be cropped and overlaid on the base map to constitute the soil sector component.

It is also recommended that a proper File and Folder system should be introduced in the computer(s) that will manipulate and store the CLUP GIS data (see Chapter 3.04.03, ‘Guidelines for File and Folder Management’).

In the Toolbox, instructions are given on how to carry out the following:

  1. How to conduct a field survey to get/retrieve spatial data (Chapter 4.19)
  2. How to convert secondary source data into spatial data layers (Chapter 4.21)

Chapter 4.19.02 also provides an example on how to conduct a comprehensive and integrated primary survey at the Barangay level. The survey will identify basic data as well as issues and concerns needed for baseline studies that may encourage participatory planning activities.

The Needs Assessment Information Products will be a comprehensive combination of maps which will reveal weaknesses or gaps in the municipality/city’s distribution of goods and services as well as the LGU’s basic needs based on population projections. GIS will prove useful for this and Chapter 1.06 shows how it can be used to make it transparent to the general public.

The Risk & Suitability Analysis Information Products will focus on the constraints and potentials originating from the natural environment and man-made/enforced restrictions/ rules and regulations. These will provide the bases for some examples for the formulation of a sustainable development plan for the municipality/city.

Information Products for Step 5 – Setting the Goals and Objectives (for the CLUP)
The next step after the data gathering and analysis is the formulation of goals and objectives that will help the municipality/city to achieve its vision. It is important that the goals and objectives reflect the “common good” and consensus of the broader community so that implementation of the plan effectively engages all sectors, and ownership is shared community-wide. A good way to achieve this is to conduct participatory goal-setting processes in public settings where the Needs Assessment and Risk & Suitability Analysis Information Products can be presented. The presentation should be adjusted to the audience’s assimilative levels (see Chapters 1.09 and 4.21.02).

Information Products for Step 6 – Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies
This step is critical in determining the future overall spatial development of the municipality/city. It involves the understanding of what is appropriate, feasible and possible through an exploration of different land use alternatives or scenarios. After exploring at least three alternatives, the municipality/city will prepare a draft structure/concept plan based on a preferred alternative. Depending on the planners’ levels of knowledge, the use of GIS at this stage will be limited to actual presentation and display work (for beginners), or advance to a more sophisticated spatial analysis (for those with more advanced skills).

The information products in this step are the three alternative Spatial Development Forms and the preferred structure/ concept plan (see Chapter 4.12 in the Toolbox).

Information Products for Step 7 – Preparing the Draft CLUP
It is at this stage that the location and details of the Land Use Plan components are put into final draft form. GIS will be useful in furnishing the templates which are based on map standards in terms of format and symbology (see Chapter 4.21.02). Thematic maps can also be extracted from the GIS and be included in the narrative text of the CLUP. The information product in this step is the Draft Land Use Plan Map.

Information Products for Step 8 – Preparing the Draft ZO
The drafting of the Zoning Ordinance (ZO) basically entails translating the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) into a legal document / tool. In general, Zoning has the same features or land use classifications as the CLUP, except that it provides for more detailed information on zone boundaries and use regulations / controls, among others. In the same way as the draft CLUP, there is a GIS application for the Zoning Ordinance that will facilitate the preparation thereof. The information product in this step is the Draft Zoning Map (see Chapter 4.15 in the Toolbox for details).

Information Products for Step 9 – Conducting Public Hearing on CLUP/ZO
This involves a 3-stage process namely: public display and information dissemination; conduct of public hearing/consultation, and the Land Use Committee Hearings. The process aims to inform the general public and ensure an objective and participatory review of the draft CLUP / ZO and to encourage ownership of the plan and gain support for its implementation.

GIS will be a useful instrument in translating the plan into a format that will be understood by the stakeholders. The information products in the previous step can be printed out and displayed and / or be included in a PowerPoint presentation. The information products in this step are the refined Land Use and Zoning Maps.

Information Products for Step 10 – Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
Step 10 involves the mandatory and comprehensive review of the CLUP and ZO, after which adoption of the CLUP and enactment of the ZO by the Sangguniang Bayan/ Panlungsod and approval by either the Sangguniang Panlalawigan or HLURB will take place.
This step will benefit from GIS in the form of excellent digital maps compared to the tedious process of reviewing analog maps.

Information Products for Step 11 – Implementing the CLUP and ZO
ProjectProjectImplementation of the CLUP will require resources, institutional structures and procedures, among others. The local government code allows flexibility for the LGU to design and implement its own organizational structure and staffing pattern, taking into consideration its vision, mission, goals and objectives as contained in the CLUP, and its accountability to the community.
GIS enables the planner to readily extract data from the database and CLUP project profile, making it easier for the LGU’s to manage / implement projects as well as share project information with stakeholders / project implementors.

Information Products for Step 12 – Monitoring & Evaluating the CLUP/ZO
With the CLUP and its implementation program established, assessment procedures for its effectiveness must be instituted. Monitoring and evaluation are performed to assess how fully and how effectively a plan is being carried out.

The combination of attribute and spatial data, which is a unique advantage of GIS, greatly facilitates the measurement of development outcomes and trends. For example, the tables and maps for development, clearances and permits will be excellent monitoring tools, that will provide useful inputs in analyzing land use changes, project implementation, and the attainment of the LGU’s vision, goals and objectives.

As the GIS software is developing strongly into more user-friendly interface it will also be easier to meet a growing demand for ‘political transparency’ and participatory planning.

The information products in this step are the decision maps, charts and figures reflecting status of projects.

Summary
The following graph summarizes the interaction between the Planning Steps and the Information Products:

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1.05.03 Preparing a CLUP Work Plan

A Project Management Software is useful in preparing the CLUP Work Plan in Step 1. A useful software of this kind is Microsoft’s MS Project, which helps the planner to align the planning activities with the available resources, and set milestones and deadlines for better management and results. By using its flexible reporting and analysis capabilities, the planner is assured of operational information to optimize resources, prioritize work, and align the CLUP planning with overall objectives. The following is a sample outline of Steps 1 to 4 in a Gantt chart using MS Project:

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1.06 Use of GIS as an Analysis or Presentation Tool in the CLUP Preparation

Please note that not all the ‘graphic’ information found in the CLUP can be defined in a GIS. There are, for example, graphs based on tables that will simply facilitate the reading of the report which are listed in the GIS Cookbook’s CLUP Metadatabase Specification. These examples of conventional databases (and the corresponding templates in Chapter 5 in the Toolbox) can be used by LGUs who have no access to GIS but have some knowledge of MS Excel.

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1.07 The Role of the Cookbook in Relation to the HLURB Previous Mapping Guidelines (Volume 7)

Although it is advantageous to use GIS in the preparation of the CLUP (and many other related activities of the LGU), some municipalities/cities may not be able to acquire a GIS system in the immediate future. In this case, the previous CLUP Guidelines Volume 7 (’Mapping’) is still available for use to guide users in manual mapping activities. However the GIS Cookbook’s recommendations for conventional data management and the appropriate templates will still be useful.

Relevant parts of Volume 7 are found in the Toolbox, Chapter 9.





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1.08 GIS on a Shoestring Budget: Maximizing the use of GIS within the municipal government organization.

The word ‘shoestring’ is used because the current structure of the GIS presented in the Cookbook is based on lower end technology solutions. It is necessary to emphasize that if the LGU does not have a sophisticated computer environment, i.e. existing departmental and/or cross-departmental networks, modern computers, computer-literate employees or the expertise to maintain the system, then it will not be advisable to proceed to higher end technology solutions.

As GIS technology flourishes, the opportunities for establishing GIS in lower-income municipalities/cities will increase. To take advantage of these opportunities, these municipalities/cities need to identify existing data sources within the larger organization. The data can then be accessed and/or exchanged, made possible by data sharing agreements that allow free access to GIS data. Furthermore, instead of hiring additional staff, work loads can be distributed among existing staff, thereby maximizing the use of in-house personnel to do additional GIS work. Training the in-house staff can also be made possible without additional expenses.

Finally, financing GIS hardware and software can be done through upgrading of existing systems or by including it as part of a larger project that requires GIS services. (See chapter 2.06.01 for more information on municipal integrated database management.)

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1.09 Map Appreciation

The general public and most stakeholders of the CLUP may not be familiar with maps. It is therefore a very important task for the planner to prepare mapped information that is easy to understand.

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1.09.01 (Geo)graphic Information

Maps are used to answer questions such as: "Where can I find…?", "How do I get to…?", "What feature can be found at…?", or "Where else do I find that feature?" or "What feature can be found to reveal attribute information about, for example schools, which can be compared and analyzed?”, and so forth.
Maps have to be well designed to be able to answer questions such as these. If the translation from data to graphics is successful, the resulting maps are the most efficient and effective means of communicating geospatial information. The map user is able to locate geographic objects, and he is informed of the characteristics of these geographic objects by means of the shape and color of the signs and symbols that represent them. The map reveals spatial relations and patterns, and gives the user the insight and overview of the distribution of particular phenomena.

Before maps can be designed, the planner should get a feel for the nature of the information, since this determines the graphic options. This is done through cartographic information analysis. Based on this knowledge, the planner can choose the correct symbols to represent the information in the map. The planner has a whole toolbox of visual variables available to match symbols to the nature of the data, which are applied according to cartographic rules and guidelines.

However, maps constructed using these basic cartographic guidelines may not necessarily be appealing. Although well-constructed, they could still look sterile. The design aspects required to create appealing maps also have to be included in the visualization process. “Appealing” in a communicative sense does not only mean having nice colors. One of the keywords here is contrast. Contrast will increase the communicative role of the map since it will create a kind of hierarchy in the map contents, assuming that not all information is of equal importance.

Google Earth on the Internet is a breakthrough for using spatial data. Formerly known as Earth Viewer. it maps the earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS 3D globe. Depending on the currentness and resolution of the data, it will show houses, the color of cars, and even the shadows of people and street signs for some selected areas. The screen dump above shows the Municipality of Laurel.Google Earth on the Internet is a breakthrough for using spatial data. Formerly known as Earth Viewer. it maps the earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS 3D globe. Depending on the currentness and resolution of the data, it will show houses, the color of cars, and even the shadows of people and street signs for some selected areas. The screen dump above shows the Municipality of Laurel.

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1.09.02 Participatory GIS

Participatory GIS implies making GIS available to all CLUP stakeholders, especially those marginalized groups in the municipality/city, in order to enhance their ability in generating, managing, analyzing and communicating information in the following contexts:

  1. Self-determination (for example, in protecting ancestral land and resource rights and entitlements);
  2. Management of conflicts among local community groups, and between communities and local authorities with regard to access, use, control and allocation of natural resources;
  3. Collaborative research and resource use planning and management;
  4. Good governance in terms of transparency and consensus decision-making with respect to land use;
  5. Raising awareness and assisting with education and social learning for the younger generation;
  6. Promotion of equity with reference to ethnicity, culture, gender, environmental justice and hazard mitigation.
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1.09.03 Visual Variables

Planners and cartographers convey spatial geographic information through a visual language consisting of a combination of the following:

  1. symbols (points, polylines, and polygons),
  2. variables (hue, orientation, value, shape, size and texture), and
  3. interpretation keys.

The effectiveness of a map in communicating its intended purpose depends on the selection of features, the way these features are depicted, and the ability of the users to objectively understand and relate these features to their life situation.

For instance, when a map is used to support active interaction among parties during the planning exercise, such as in the formulation of the CLUP Scenarios, it is important that the graphic vocabulary of the maps that have been prepared is fully understood by all parties and each feature is provided with a commonly defined key for interpretation (see Chapter 4.21.02 in the Toolbox).

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2.0 Introduction to GIS

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2.01 What is GIS?

A Geographic Information System (GIS) – is a computerized system for dealing with information about geographically located features.

Geographic information is embedded in over 80% of all the goods and services a municipality provides.

In a GIS one deals with geographic features, usually presented on top of some type of backdrop map (a Base Map). Also included are the descriptive properties of these features.

In a GIS, the features are indicated as points, lines, and polygons or as small squares in a grid. Attribute information regarding these features may also be attached. For example, features representing schools may have attribute information attached to them such as enrolment and teacher/pupil ratio.

With GIS, a number of operations and analytical processes can be performed both on the geographic data and on the tabular / attribute data.

In its simplest form, GIS can be used to create a map for the user on demand; in its more complex form, it becomes a database with millions of pieces of data that are geographically related, and can be displayed in a format that the user may select to make complex interrelationships visually understandable.

GIS is not only a software but is a system that includes the hardware, data, including the users and the organization needed to manage the data.

GIS Can Be Utilized in Many Situations such as Needs Analyses and Risk and Suitability Analyses


Among the various uses of GIS relative to CLUP are:

    Management, analysis and presentation of information, in map form;

    Show location, distribution, and qualitative information on services, facilities, infrastructure, and other sectoral aspects that are useful in sectoral studies, needs determination, and planning for provision of services. For example, it can show the distribution of public health centers, the types and capability of roads in the municipality/city, and other objects with a defined location;

    To identify hazardous areas in a municipality/city and overlay with the population density map in order to determine the risk factor as well as the suitability of the area for urban development vis-à-vis land management policies.

Geographic information is information about all those features that are possible to locate to a position. In other words, GIS is a tool to link features with geographic location, mostly presented on a map, together with other types of information such as tables and templates, texts, images, drawings or video sequences.

map attributemap attribute

GIS as Everybody’s Tool


Computer-assisted systems to capture, store, analyze and present geographic information have been available since the mid-80’s. However, even if many groups were interested in the technology, it has not been predominantly used due to the high cost of these systems, and the high technical skills required. In recent years, this situation has changed as GIS systems have become more user-friendly and affordable, thus opening up the technology for wider use.

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2.02 ‘Digital Mapping’ and ‘Manual Mapping’ Compared

The use of GIS enables:

  1. better work flow;
  2. higher quality information for decision-making;
  3. better integration among different offices / departments;
  4. quicker access to information;
  5. more efficient information dissemination.

All these lead to possible cost reduction and cost effectiveness.

The following matrix is a comparison of digital and manual mapping with respect to key activities:

ACTIVITIES:
DIGITAL MAPPING
PAPER MAPPING
PREPARATION Initial version tedious to prepare but quick and efficient to monitor Start from scratch every time
STORAGE Digital Database Standardized and integrated, compact memory capacity Different scales on different standards, voluminous and bulky
RETRIEVAL Quick retrieval Paper maps and tables
UPDATING Automatic search and replace by computer Manual check and revision
OVERLAY Systematically done
Faster integration of complex, multiple spatial and non spatial data sets
Expensive and time consuming
SPATIAL ANALYSIS Faster Time and energy consuming, slow
DISPLAY Easier and faster to prepare
Better quality Slow
Tedious and time-consuming

The computer has revolutionized the ways of communicating and analyzing information about the world, including decision-making. Geographic Information Technology (GIT) is now widely used for computer-assisted management and analysis of data concerning geographically related features.
GIS transforms data into timely information. It is capable of sorting out information and separating them into different layers, as well as combining them with other layers of information, according to the needs of the specific user. The information is stored in the computer in such a way that geographic data can be combined according to the needs of the specific user.

Integration Benefits
One remarkable facility of GIS is that it enables the coordinated use of data from many sources. This integrative ability is made possible by the geographic link through the defined coordinates in the geodetic reference system. The coordinated and integrated information exchange between a number of systems where the same basic data are used by many users for staff work, planning, decision making, information dissemination etc. is very cost-effective.

Information Availability
Using GIS requires a completely different and more systematic way of information management in order to make the information available. Disseminating information through GIS, makes it accessible to users, and enables transparency in governance for the municipality/city. GIS makes it possible to publish geographic and other data and distribute this data digitally in an instructive, easy and interactive manner.

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2.03 GIS for Presentation

The municipal/city CLUP, as a tool for local governance should be accessible and understood not only by the planners and implementers but by the general public.
The requisite information contained in the maps, tables, diagrams, and the plan itself should be easy to read and interpret in order to encourage an open exchange of information, and dialogue among planners, elected representatives and the general public. Public participation in planning and implementation of the CLUP is an integral part of the process, and the voice of the local constituents should always be heard in decisions concerning land use.
In order to make the Comprehensive Land Use Plan truly comprehensive, the GIS Cookbook will provide guidelines on how to address some of the following gaps in many of the current CLUPs that have been identified:

  1. Distinguish the difference between a ‘plan’ and a ‘map’
  2. Consistencies in scale and the use of the scale bar
  3. Use of the Legend and consistency of the symbols used in both the Legend and the Map itself.
  4. Appropriate use of point symbols and polygon symbols.
  5. Distinguish between thematic information and base information which are often mixed together or displayed without having a base map as a backdrop for easy reference.
  6. Appropriate use of hatching and raster using proper color-coding and / or line thickness, to make the thematic information clearer to the map reader.
  7. Use of informative charts, graphs, and other illustrative graphics in the narrative text instead of hard to read tables and matrices.
  8. Translating information into more understandable maps for easier comparison and analysis.

The capabilities of GIS for planning and analysis are often overlooked by planners who oftentimes use it mainly for mapping. The GIS Cookbook will introduce examples of how to use the analytical capabilities GIS to enable planners to make more efficient use of the technology.
An example is shown below to demonstrate how GIS can improve one aspect of the CLUP, which is the CLUP Base Map, through an integrated use of symbols and color codes, and how these can be used for making thematic maps that will facilitate analysis.

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2.04 GIS for Decision Makers

The decision-makers in the CLUP planning process include the municipal local executives such as the Mayor, the Vice Mayor, the Barangay Captains and the members of the Sangguniang Bayan, and all the other stakeholders who have a stake in setting the municipality’s/city’s future directions and the planned layout of land uses.

GIS plays an important role in decision making for sustainable development, given its ability to provide useful information for analysis and assessment.

The development process framework shown herein illustrates how GIS can track the results of the decision making process (which includes policy making, planning and management) and how it influences the driving forces of development (such as population, health and wealth, technology, politics and economics). GIS can be used to monitor the results (human impacts) of development, and what its impacts are, on the physical, social, and economic environment (environmental change).

The ensuing changes in these processes can be monitored through GIS (with the use of appropriate methods such as remote sensing, for example), and the resulting information can be processed and analyzed with the help of GIS, in order to provide timely, accurate, and concise information that can be provided to the decision makers, and the planners when they plan for the appropriate interventions for the driving forces to achieve sustainable development., thus completing the loop.

Sustainability of the whole cycle of development will be enabled by the availability of the information as gathered through GIS and its wider dissemination among the various stakeholders and the general public. This in turn raises public awareness of the issues regarding the impacts of development, and triggers the demand for public consensus and transparency in decision making.

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2.05 GIS for Beneficiaries / Stakeholders

The process of preparing the CLUP requires transparency and public participation.
Stakeholders’ participation is important in the planning process since this gives them the opportunity to play an active role in the decision-making and in the subsequent activities whose impacts and outcomes will affect them.

Encouraging public participation however is a daunting task, and an important step for enjoining the public to participate in the CLUP planning and implementation process is to raise the levels of their awareness of the value of their involvement in local governance.

To make the CLUP better understood by any local citizen, it is important to have a CLUP document that is simple, concise, and makes use of graphics that are easy to understand and are devoid of technical terms. In this way, the CLUP document becomes more comprehensible to the layman, and the proposals that will affect the ordinary citizen will be better understood by them.

In order for the CLUP to be appreciated by and useful for the various stakeholders, it will be necessary to prepare a CLUP version wherein the highlights of the plan are condensed for the layman. It could be
printed in a leaflet or primer that can be distributed to all the stakeholders.

In the planning process there will be a good number of presentations, meetings and hearings where stakeholders will be present. (For more details, see Volume 1: ‘A Guide to Comprehensive Land Use Plan Preparation’). There are now tools available to facilitate presentations that are readily available to LGUs such as PowerPoint presentations, which can be used to present the highlights of the CLUP to the stakeholders during consultative meetings and other forums.

There is also a template that can be used by the planner where applicable, see the Toolbox, Chapter 4.13.

Furthermore, there are guidelines on how a PowerPoint presentation can be enlarged so they can be and be used as a display.

For both the CLUP documentation and for display purposes during meetings, the end products of the GIS will provide opportunities to reach out to the stakeholders and communicate the CLUP document in a manner that they will appreciate.

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2.06 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation in the LGU

The LGUs are usually burdened by the various plans that are required of them by various national government agencies, in addition to those plans that are required in accordance with their own mandates. The information requirements for these plans can be simple or complex, and quite often will involve duplications, contradictions, inconsistencies, and incomplete information from among the different data custodians, resulting in plans that are in themselves difficult to apprehend by the LGU, much less the uninvolved stakeholders. The preparation of these plans can be facilitated by an integrated information management system that will enable the sharing and integration of all the information from the different data custodians in the municipal government resulting in a more coordinated and integrative planning and development for the municipality/city.

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2.06.01 Municipal Integrated Database Management

The contemporary demands of local governance in the face of the wide-ranging and various complexities of modern development, call for a more flexible local government structure that is truly responsive of the needs of a given municipality/city.

In order to hurdle the management requirements for these complex tasks, it is important to promote and strengthen the development of a cross-sectoral and intra-or inter-institutional connectivity that will greatly improve the planning and monitoring of the multiplicity of plans, programs, projects and activities, required in local governance. In the order of things in the municipal administration, the Planning and Development Office is given the task of coordinating most of these tasks.

In addition, the Municipal Planning and Development Office (MPDO) is in charge of collecting and analyzing data for the CLUP as well as for the Local Development Investment Plan (LDIP), which is an important tool for the annual budget preparation and ‘hands-on’ decision-making at local level. The MPDO is likewise responsible for land use-planning, environmental monitoring, and for issuing permits and clearances based on the zoning ordinances. These are activities wherein geographic information plays a crucial role.

However, the other offices such as the Engineering, Assessor’s, and Agriculture Offices are also custodians of data and are implementers of plans and projects that have spatial and environmental implications. Therefore, in the initial stage wherein only the MPDO is in possession of the necessary GIS equipment and software licenses, the MPDO should coordinate with the said offices and set the terms of reference for responsibilities in data gathering, processing, and exchange of information among the relevant LGU office users. This should be done in order to promote sustainability and transparency.

The challenge for the municipal planner and the MPDO is to promote the need for, and the importance of GIS among the various stakeholders in the municipal government structure (politicians, heads of departments, etc.). This should also ensure that data is acquired and maintained by all the relevant offices in such a way that this data can be easily imported to the GIS system.

A feasible approach is to develop, within the municipal/city government organization’s computer environment, a common computer file directory structure for all the different offices (and their corresponding computer environments) involved in CLUP and other planning activities.

If the municipality/city has a network then this computer file directory structure is only necessary on the server. If it is a stand-alone computer or series of stand-alone computers, then the computer file directory structure is necessary on the stand-alone computer(s). The common computer file directory structure allows a stable environment to update information, develop meta-data structures and develop user-friendly applications.

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2.06.02 Municipal Integrated Development Planning

The various national government agencies (NGAs) formulate policies, guidelines, plans, programs and projects, governing their sectors, and these are handed down to the LGU level for local government guidance, implementation, and compliance. Given the numerous NGAs and the corresponding policies, plans, programs and projects, that the LGUs have to contend with, it is usually left to them to integrate all of these within the local government context, and arrive at a set of plans, programs and projects that are aligned to the policies, and compliant to the guidelines. The LGU therefore plays a vital integrative role at the local level
In order to facilitate the tasks of the LGU, the GIS Cookbook identifies possible data sharing ‘shortcuts’ between information products needed for the CLUP and information prepared in other municipal plans and programs such as the examples found below.

The following are some of the kinds of plans that the LGU is expected to prepare, in coordination with the appropriate national government agencies:

  1. Agriculture and Fisheries Management Plan, including the Strategic Agriculture and Fisheries Development Zone (SAFDZ)
  2. Forest Management Plan or Forest Land Use Plan (FLUP)
  3. Sustainable Integrated Area Development Plan or Local Agenda 21 (SIADP)
  4. Coastal Resources Management Plan (CRMP)
  5. Solid Waste management Plan
  6. Agrarian Reform Community Development Plan

Examples of plans that require inter-sectoral functional committees are:

  1. Local Poverty Reduction Action Plan
  2. Disaster Management Plan
  3. Sustainable Development Plan
  4. Gender and Development Plan
  5. Food Security Plan
  6. Integrated Area Community Peace and Order and Public Safety Plan
  7. Local Development Plan / Local Investment Plan for Children
  8. Ecological Solid Waste Management Plan
  9. Human Resource Management Plan
  10. Revenue Enhancement Plan

Plans that fall within the concern of individual sectors:

  1. Action Plan for the Council for the Protection of Children
  2. Annual Culture and Arts Plan
  3. Agriculture and Fisheries Management Plan
  4. Local Tourism Plan
  5. Small and Medium Enterprise Development Plan Body
  6. Local Health & Nutrition Plan

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2.06.03 Examples on Coordination and Cooperation in an LGU

The use of digital data and the application of GIS open the door to improved coordination and cooperation among the different offices / departments in the municipal/city government. For example, the same digital road database that has been used and presented in the CLUP can also be used by the engineering department. Information regarding schools can be used and maintained by the education department and be analyzed in the CLUP, etc. Extracts from some case studies done in the GIS Cookbook Pilot LGUs are presented below. The full case studies are found in Chapter 4.01 in the Toolbox.

Example1: A Synchronized Building Permit Application cum CLUP Data Set
Once the CLUP and the Zoning Ordinance have been approved, they constitute the basis for the issuance of a number of different permits, such as Locational Clearances, Subdivision Development Permits, Plan Approvals, Building Permits and Business Permits. These permits when consolidated will form part of a considerable database that will provide the important inputs such as land use changes in the municipality/city and other development indicators, when the CLUP is updated.

Proposed design for digital format

  1. Existing Log Book

The proposed digital format for the Permits Logbook (or registry) was a simple system that was suited to the current ‘computer appreciation level’ of the Ormoc City Government. In future, the system can be developed into a more sophisticated one such as a network corporate solution. The Building Permit Logbook is translated into a digital format, using MS Excel, with the adjustments needed for consistency and digital processing.

A similar GIS application can be made for the Locational Clearances issued by the Zoning Officer.
The Case Study is found in Chapter 4.18.01.

Example 2: A Synchronized Business Permit Application cum CLUP Data Set

The Zoning and the CLUP is used as a basis for issuing the Business Permits. In the period before a revision of the CLUP, these permits can also be used as an indicator of commercial development in the municipality/city.

The proposed system presented a method of consolidating and building up of a Business GIS for the LGU that can be used for the issuance of Business Permits, update or revision of the CLUP, preparing statistical maps on developments in the LGU, and providing tourist information. The proposed tables to keep digital records of the Business Permits can be the start up level for those LGUs without current digital records. The system allows the LGUs to get started in MS Excel where a spread sheet containing the attributes, are stored and then linked to a GIS layer holding the surveyed locations of the business establishments that have been given the permits. In the case of LGUs with current digital systems, the suggestion is to instead keep the attribute database they are now using, and extend it with a link to the GIS.
Sample Map showing Business Permits and their classification in Barangay District 7 Ormoc CitySample Map showing Business Permits and their classification in Barangay District 7 Ormoc City
The Case Study is found in Chapter 4.18.02.

Example 3: Preparation of an ‘LGU Urban Poor’ GIS
While evaluating the prepared CLUPs in the pilot municipalities/cities, it was found that the housing sector of the Plans do not fully recognize the need to focus on the situation for the urban poor, and the corresponding actions needed to improve the situation of the informal settlers. The CLUPs merely describe the policies and whatever pilot projects are existing, and fail to provide comprehensive information and analysis of the housing situation, particularly on informal settlements.

The proposed system presented a simple method again based on the current ‘computer appreciation level’ in Ormoc City, and this system can be developed into a more sophisticated one such as a network corporate solution in the future. Two Excel spreadsheets have been designed to start with. One which shows the distribution of informal settlers’ families by Barangays with the indicators as shown in the matrix below.

The Case Study is found in Chapter 4.18.03.

Example 4: A Barangay Map Survey and Information Product
In Chapter 4.19.02 there is a description of how an integrated survey can be conducted for a given Barangay. The survey is part of the data gathering activities in the beginning of the CLUP preparation process (Steps 1 and 4). The objective of the surveys is to gather useful data needed for the preparation of the CLUP and the preparation of the Barangay Map that will be distributed to the Barangay Council members, and to be displayed in the Barangay Hall.

The purpose of the survey is to:

  1. Compare the Zoning with the actual land use;
  2. Identify major changes in land use (e.g. newly built-up areas, etc.);
  3. Identify relevant “issues” in the Barangay;
  4. Consolidate the results of the survey to be used as inputs in updating of the CLUP and Land Use Map
  5. Locate the facilities within the Barangay

Current Zoning/Land Use Map Covering the Barangay LinaoCurrent Zoning/Land Use Map Covering the Barangay Linao

Updated Land Use based on barangay survey and aerial photoUpdated Land Use based on barangay survey and aerial photo

With the data gathered in the survey, and the use of the aerial photos, the current barangay land use map can be updated accordingly. This newly-updated Barangay Land Use Map will be a good basis for updating the CLUP, and for a more accurate zoning for the barangay.

Barangay Map of LinaoBarangay Map of Linao

The Barangay Map for Linao (shown above) is printed in an A2 format which can be laminated so that it can be used in consultative discussions, and so that the local officials can draw on the map using whiteboard markers, and still re-use the map for other different projects.

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2.07 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation between Cities/Municipalities and the Province

The province exercises general supervision over component cities and municipalities to ensure that the acts of these LGUs are within the scope of their prescribed powers and functions.

Alongside this function, the province is also mandated to prepare the Provincial Physical Framework Plan (PPFP) that will delineate the desired general physical development of the province, showing where the protected areas and preserved lands are, and the development and growth areas such as the settlement areas are identified or established.

The PPFP likewise provides the development plan for the physical infrastructures and shows the prospective locations for these, in support of the preferred development strategy of the framework plan.
The province sees to it that the municipalities and cities within its jurisdiction have their own integrated social, economic, physical and environmental plans, and are implementing these plans accordingly. The province also monitors and evaluates the implementation of the programs and projects as formulated in their plans.
In formulating the CLUP, the LGUs should be guided by the PPFP and the significant provisions that will have direct influence on the LGUs’ respective development thrusts. These provisions include the LGU’s designated role in the province, the projected degree or level of development, the proposed programs and projects to be implemented in the LGU and the proposed general land uses.

The Sangguniang Panlalawigan (SP) of the province is tasked to review and approve the CLUPs of their respective municipalities/cities. During the review, the Provincial Land Use Committee (as the SP’s technical arm) will determine if the province’s various relevant sectoral and physical development plans pertaining to the concerned LGUs have been taken into consideration and integrated in their CLUPs.

The institutional linkages among the LGUs are well in place. However, there is room for improvement in the “information links” among them that allow prompt and uncomplicated access not only to the plans and programs of the Provincial Governments, but also to sectoral plans and programs of the national government agencies in the province.

The use of GIS within the LGUs is a vital factor in terms of data sharing in the preparation of the PPFPs and CLUPs, as well as in the review of the CLUPs by the Provincial Government. With the province coordinating with the LGUs, they can share the available digital data acquired by the province for thematic mapping purposes. It not only enhances the presentation of the maps but increases the accuracy of the information, as well.

Having a CLUP with GIS maps is beneficial because it would be easy for the planners in the province to review and compare the CLUPs of cities/municipalities within their jurisdiction and check if it is consistent within the thrust of the PPFP. Further, with the use of GIS, digital CLUPs can be easily incorporated to see and check if the adjacent land uses between and among municipalities are synchronized.

So far, only a few provinces have adopted GIS, but there has been no standard symbology adopted or proposed. The GIS Cookbook provides the recommended guidelines which can also be used as reference for the preparation of the PPFP.

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2.08 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation between LGUs and the National Government Agencies (NGAs)

Devolution under the Local Government Code is defined as the transfer of power and authority from the National Government to the LGUs to enable them to perform specific functions and responsibilities. The overarching objective here is to enable the LGUs to increase government efficiency, meet the demands of the community, and to serve as instrument of growth. This strategy allows tor the sharing and realignment of powers and resources of the central government with the LGUs.

However, despite devolution, many NGAs have still retained functions that are essential in the development of cities and municipalities. Alongside this, even the associated information, knowledge or data in relation to the said functions, are still lodged with these agencies.

Furthermore, the NGAs prepare their respective agency plans and programs that cover a given period of time. These plans, are accessed and used by the LGUs in the preparation of their own plans and programs. However, LGUs gain access by directly coordinating with the agency concerned.

The acquisition of information can be facilitated by NGAs by assisting LGUs in getting essential data for their CLUPs. For example, there is an ongoing harmonization project among Phivolcs, MGB, and PAGASA under the direction of the NDCC that is aimed at harmonizing their data sets in digitial format which they will make available to the LGUs in the immediate future.

A GIS can provide better presentation maps for CLUP purposes for LGUs. It would also be advantageous for both LGUs and HLURB in reviewing the plans and for decision making purposes. If digital zoning maps of LGUs are shared with HLURB this would facilitate the monitoring of the residential subdivision and condominium projects that are requesting for licenses. It will also reduce the redundancy of data conversion for HLURB.
GIS is useful in enhancing public service delivery. For instance, proponents who wish to secure permits can easily check if their projects conform with the zoning ordinance, if there is a GIS map. In this case, it will also enable the LGU to decide quickly.

Not all cities/municipalities can afford a GIS and more so, they might not have the technical expertise to operate the GIS. A recommended approach to solve this would be as follows:

  1. A province that has the GIS and technical expertise can provide assistance to its respective municipalities by means of a shared GIS. They can give hands-on training on the use of GIS in cooperation with HLURB.
  2. A province without GIS could establish one, with financial counterpart from component cities and municipalities. This way, the provinces/ LGUs can share technical expertise as well as information between and among them.

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2.09 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation between LGUs and Private Sector

The LGU plays a dominant role in the capture and use of geographic information for all stages of development related planning. The use of GIS supports more open, collaborative planning processes, and improves public access to geographic information in urban and rural planning issues. The private sector is also mobilized in local governance and planning, for example, privatization affects the capture and distribution of what were formerly public domain spatial data. A more accessible public database enables investors to analyze the impact of development projects in relation to municipal objectives for land uses.

A GIS system that allows mutual access to and interaction among public and private sectors provides the following benefits:

  1. Savings from elimination of redundancy;
  2. More resources available to improve data;
  3. Better understanding of user needs;
  4. Users gain better understanding of proper uses for the data sets;
  5. Conclusions/analysis have more credibility and chance of accuracy the more current and standardized the data is; Better accuracy of data and reports;
  6. Ability to identify source and credibility of data including liability;
  7. Ease of access which encourages more, and possibly new, uses;
  8. Standardization helps to compare data sets to clean out errors;
  9. Reduces data cost which serves as a barrier to entry for GIS learners /beginners & small businesses;
  10. New uses based on ability to combine data from different sources;
  11. Cycle time improvements make it easier and quicker to generate reports while also reducing the overall costs to generate a report. In addition, by using GIS it can help make private sector input more timely;
  12. Reduces distribution costs for transacting/exchanging data;
  13. Private sector may eventually provide additional funding sources if there is a central repository where they could gain access;
  14. Development of best practices;
  15. Increased expertise in the municipality;
  16. Increased chance of government access to private data as private data sources can use the cooperative
  17. GIS to market/showcase their GIS data.

Below are some examples of valuable cooperation between the Public and Private Sector:

  1. Creation of a model for GIS Data sharing. This might be a form of a Private Sector venture to provide access to data for a fee;
  2. Provide access to municipal data;
  3. Provide access to catalogued commercial data sets centralized in one single location or site;
  4. Sample data sets for educational purposes;
  5. Provide emergency response tools and data sets to both public and private sectors. This would enhance current operations by having data readily available 24 hours a day and 7 days a week instead of just when an extreme emergency strikes, although generally, emergency responses may be transboundary which makes data access and sharing difficult.


3.0 The Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS


3.01 Introduction

3.01.01 Think Big, Start Small
3.01.02 The Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS



3.01.01 Think Big, Start Small


The most significant limitations and obstacles to the operational use of GIS are not of a technical nature. They are rather institutional, organizational, procedural, and information quality issues. To improve the situation, there is a need for a GIS management policy dealing with institutional mandates and linkages, technology strategies, human skills development and financial management. An organization’s GIS capacity can be built up step-by-step while responding to the pressing needs for information on the environment. The first step is to define the information needs and priorities, and relate this to the state of existing information and capabilities of data producers and users.

3.01.02 The Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS



A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer-based tool for mapping and analyzing things that exist and events that happen in a given municipality / city. GIS technology integrates common database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the unique visualisation and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps. These abilities distinguish GIS from other information systems and make it valuable to a wide range of public and private enterprises for explaining events, predicting outcomes, and planning strategies.

The cornerstones of a functioning GIS are the following:

  1. People who are skilled and have been trained
  2. Spatial and attribute or descriptive data
  3. Analytical methods
  4. Computer Software
  5. Computer Hardware

A functioning GIS is the combination of all these which are all organized to automate, manage, and deliver information through geographic information.

It is a common mistake among GIS clients that after having seen GIS being presented by a salesperson and becoming impressed by the technique, they buy the GIS software and then think that the matter is solved.
Applying a strategy in which all five components are dealt with will result in a successful introduction to GIS. In the following chapters are the recommendations made for all the cornerstones of a functioning GIS in connection with the CLUP.


3.02 People (GIS Advocacy and Skills Development)

3.02.01 Advocacy for a Municipal GIS with Elected Officials and LGU Management
3.02.02 Management, Institutional and Organizational Issues in the Development of a Municipal GIS (Action) Plan for the Introduction of an LGU GIS
3.02.03 Preparation of a (CLUP) GIS Training Program for LGU Staff
3.02.04 Recommendations for Training
3.02.05 Training for Using GIS as a Tool in CLUP Preparation
3.02.06 GIS Training Opportunities
3.02.07 Some Recommendations for External Technical Assistance in CLUP Preparation


When a municipality is getting started in GIS, the initiative should come from within the organization. The LGU management should know its own organization well enough to be able to make it more efficient in delivering the services that the local constituents expect of it. And in order to maintain its organizational efficiency, the LGU’s GIS staff should initially consist of people who are already in the organization. If a new employee can be hired, he/she should bring technical knowledge and experience. Otherwise, those existing employees, such as a draftsman for example, can be trained. The LGU management can encourage them into the shift by giving a supportive and positive attitude. In a municipality, the GIS staff may have primary job responsibilities in other areas of concern. Since GIS is an add-on to the employees’ existing duties, the LGU management must be sure there is enough time to give each activity its due.

To give proper attention to the GIS, some other work responsibilities of the staff must be lessened or altogether cleared, especially if the employee managing the GIS operation has other responsibilities. Some of the current employees may apply for GIS positions and they should be considered based on their existing knowledge and ability to be trained for the position. The key is to have a team of people who have knowledge of both the organization and GIS.

Training for existing staff that will be part of the GIS Team can focus on technical matters while training for newly-hired staff should also include, aside from the technical matters, training on how the organization operates. It is important for the GIS staff to understand the existing operation of the organization in order to enhance the use of the GIS to its fullest.

3.02.01 Advocacy for a Municipal GIS with Elected Officials and LGU Management

Phases
To ensure success of the GIS, the commitment of the LGU management must be total. It should be demonstrated by putting this commitment into concrete actions that will have to be sustained throughout the operation of the GIS.

To get GIS as a tool for everybody within the organization is a process that can take place in a span of at least five to ten years. The whole process can be viewed as a project with four phases.

Phase One can be called ‘the convincing phase,’ whose purpose is to the get politicians and the top management convinced about the benefits of implementing a GIS for the municipal (spatial) planning activities such as the revision of the CLUP.

Phase Two is ‘the inventory phase,’ with the objective of finding out the capacity of the LGU (or the internal ‘state of the art’), what’s going on in the surrounding world, where to utilize lessons learned, and who are the prospective members in the project team.

Phase Three is ‘the design phase,’ where the project team is established, the important initial data sets (both available within the LGU organization and outside it) have been identified and acquired, and a viewer GIS is being installed within the organization. In this phase a requirement specification for ‘corporate’ GIS (how the data can be shared by the stakeholders) and for a metadata base are completed.

Phase Four is ‘the implementation phase,’ wherein the development of the corporate GIS is made and the GIS applications implemented. The provision of data to users is on-going, the knowledge enhancement plan is implemented and the GIS network is up and running. In this phase additional data sets for installation on the GIS server are decided and new requirements on GIS functionality are recorded for a future development project.

In order to succeed with the fourth phase of implementing GIS it is absolutely necessary to get through, and achieve good results from, the first three phases.

Below are some issues that have to be considered during the process:

Analyze and Discuss the Benefits of GIS
The core questions in discussing the benefits of GIS are:

  1. How can the use of GIS contribute to the LGU management?
  2. What are the prerequisites for increasing the internal efficiency within the organization?
  3. How can decision-making be supported by GIS?

Chapter 2 includes plenty of justifications which can feed these discussions.

Incorporate GIS into the IT strategy
The introduction of GIS requires a clear commitment and the active involvement of the entire LGU organization in order to succeed. The initial step is to establish the GIS strategy and incorporate it in the Information System Strategic Plan of the LGU.

Training Needs Assessment and Skills Enhancement
An important component of the action plan is to find out the needs for education and training. Based on the training needs assessment, a GIS Knowledge Enhancement Plan (KEP) should be formulated. It is important to determine the training needs of the staff that will comprise the GIS core team. The HLURB Regional Offices will assist in the building of the basic capacity of LGUs, and the intention is to develop a training facility at HLURB that will provide applied GIS CLUP training.

Create a GIS Network
The team leader – a ‘Geographic Information Officer’ (GIO) needs to be appointed, who will network with other colleagues in the different offices within the LGU organization. It would be advantageous if these colleagues have the same skill as the GIO in order to have a strong internal GIS organization.

A separate training program is normally necessary for the members of the GIS network. A low-income municipality with low computer proficiency may not be able to appoint a GIO, in which case the MPDC, or a knowledgeable person from the LGU organization may be assigned the task of GIO.

Accomplish Activity and Information Need Analysis Processes
Another initial activity in the GIS implementation is the analysis of the processes concerning the needs for and current uses of geographic data, and the requirement for GIS software. This should enable the LGU management to make the right decision for data management, the procurement of a suitable GIS software, and efficient access to needed data.

Information within the Organization
At the outset, it is important to establish what internal information is available, the quality of such information, and to analyze the information needs of identified target groups within the organization.

Ensure Immediate Access to Software and Data
GIS software and local basic data sets must be available for use prior to training of staff. It is also important to give the trainees the opportunity to start working with GIS directly after training.

3.02.02 Management, Institutional and Organizational Issues in the Development of a Municipal GIS (Action) Plan for the Introduction of an LGU GIS

Implementation of GIS should be the result of a strategic decision by the LGU management, and emanating from the IT or GIS Strategy (if such is available). Development of the GIS system should proceed on the basis of the organization’s information needs and the availability of geographic data. A step by step process should be followed, beginning with the use of simple applications which are needed by the various users in their daily work, and progressing to more advanced and complex user applications. Using GIS for CLUP preparation is one application that starts from simple tasks and can grow into a more sophisticated use of the tool.

The Geographic Information Officer Has a Key Role
The GIO must be a good project manager and negotiator; he must be diplomatic; and, he must be very familiar with the business. It is not enough that he is highly proficient with GIS. And the GIS team that supports the GIO should operate as a cohesive GIS human network, with skills corresponding to that of the GIO. This is the way of establishing a robust GIS organization.

Plan Carefully for the GIS Implementation
The first task is the formulation of an implementation plan based on the results of a survey of information needs for the different business activities. Chapter 4.02.01 in the Toolbox presents an example of an implementation strategy for using GIS in CLUP preparation.

Availability of Data – A True Success Factor
An important factor in GIS implementation is the availability of relevant data. It is therefore necessary to evaluate existing data sources prior to formulating the implementation plan. Chapter 6.02 includes a form that outlines the steps in finding out the current status of available attribute and spatial data needed for the CLUP preparation. Likewise, Chapter 5 of the Toolbox gives more details on the attribute tables that need to be compiled.

The implementation of GIS is facilitated if the staff already has knowledge about how non-spatial databases are designed and how to work with the attribute datasets in Excel. Implementing GIS and training the staff (including the end users) must be done in parallel to ensure success.
It is important to have the trained end users work with GIS soon after the training in order to keep the momentum of work and the knowledge fresh, and the enthusiasm to work with the new tools is still high.

Common Functionality and Activity-Specific Applications
“Common GIS functionality” refers to a centrally implemented GIS that is simultaneously available and or accessible to all users.
“Activity-specific applications” however, are developed for a specific branch or service or group of users. Development of such applications should be the responsibility of the specific office concerned. These applications have to be compliant with standards and structures that are applicable for the entire organization.

The CLUP GIS can perform these operations of common GIS functionality and activity-specific applications, and this versatility will enable users within the organization to freely use and exchange data for use in other applications. Chapter 4.18 gives examples on the multi usage quality of a versatile geographic information system.

3.02.03 Preparation of a (CLUP) GIS Training Program for LGU Staff

One of the causes of poor and unproductive use of GIS is the lack of training for the people who are supposed to operate the tools related to the system. If users don't know how to address spatial problems and use the computer to find the geographical answers, they won't be able to know how to apply GIS. It is important, therefore, to assess training needs and options.

One of the most important factors for successful GIS implementation is the availability of trained staff. Efficient staffing and appropriate training must be part of the GIS implementation strategy. Some of the conditions that can help retain staff are:

  1. interesting and challenging tasks
  2. supportive management environment
  3. continuing opportunities for staff development (attendance to GIS-related seminars, contact with other GIS professionals, etc.)

There are two main staff groups who are expected to work directly with the GIS system:

  1. GIS primary users consisting of the planners and / or the planning team involved in the CLUP preparation
  2. GIS end users consisting of staff that will use the results of the CLUP preparation process such as the sector data, land-use plan, ZO; etc. in their daily work

Geographic Information Officer
The ‘Geographic Information Officer’ (GIO) who will manage the CLUP GIS application will have to be appointed at the outset and be given sufficient training. He should be competent in general management as well as GIS. The GIO’s proficiency in managing people, information, priorities, and time will contribute to the success of GIS implementation. Management seminars provide opportunities for enhancing such proficiency, by listening to experts and by interacting with others in similar positions. Courses designed to help in specific subjects such as general management skills, project management, strategic management, and total quality management, will all be helpful to the GIO.

For low-income municipalities, the MPDC will most likely fit the role of GIO. However, if there are opportunities or other projects for strengthening the LGU’s IT capacity, and there is an available full time competent staff person with knowledge in implementation of computerization strategies, then that person can be designated as GIO.

For a low-income municipality where the CLUP GIS is one of the first computerized applications, there is a training program included in the Toolbox, Chapter 7.01.
Introductory trainings for advocacy purposes should also be conducted for the LGU officials and the LGU top and middle level management.

GIS Primary Users
The primary users comprise the staff that is responsible for creating, maintaining, and operating both the data and the system infrastructure. Defining the common ground for information, such as agreeing on a uniform metadata base and entry of data into databases plus capacity building and training, are important matters that need to be dealt with at the start. The primary users will require regular refresher courses to keep them updated on current and new techniques and methods.

In addition to the GIS staff, training for system administration staff (network administrator, database administrator, and hardware technicians) must be considered by those larger cities / municipalities that can afford to mobilize these positions.

In the CLUP GIS preparation it is recommended that the respective sectoral offices are made responsible for sector data capture and maintenance. These sectoral offices will need custodians who will monitor the maintenance of the sector database and give support to the end users regarding CLUP project studies, data maintenance, and map production.

GIS End UsersThe prospective user of a GIS must be confident with analyzing and manipulating attribute data in order to be receptive to learning about GIS. GIS end users need training in the software and applications with which they will be working. GIS is inherently a multi-disciplinary science and attention should also be given to training in other areas where the technology will complement the work that users do every day.

Introductory trainings for advocacy purposes should also be conducted for the LGU officials and the LGU top and middle level management.


Organizational Chart for Laurel


Example of an Organizational Chart for a City


3.02.04 Recommendations for Training



Database management in LGUs varies from the traditional analogue (paper based) system to secured digital operations. Generally, a minority of the workforce involved in database management has achieved a computer awareness level where only MS Office Word and Excel software are being mastered. One objective in general training for the LGU should be the elimination of disparities among the various LGU offices and reach a level where everyone ‘speaks the same language.’ The training program should consist of a step-by-step process allowing all the prospective trainees to be given a general introductory training in GIS, while providing opportunities for specific trainings to produce local expertise in attribute and spatial database management. During the learning process it is very important that the trainees have data from their own offices to practice with.

In the preparation of the GIS Cookbook, two training modules (Basic GIS training and Applied GIS training) have been prepared to give support to ‘non-computer literate’ staff that will be involved in the CLUP preparation using GIS.

GIS Staff Computer Literacy and GIS Training Needs Assessment
When the GIS team has been organized and mobilized, a training needs assessment should be conducted which will be presented in a KEP (Knowledge Enhancement Program).

The number of GIS users that will browse geographic information on a daily basis should be determined. The number of GIS primary users who will give support to the respective offices regarding GIS project studies, data maintenance, and map production should also be determined.

After the training needs assessment has been conducted, the number of staff that need GIS training can be established. However, at least two persons in each office must have sufficient skills to manage the sector (attribute) databases. During the implementation phase, more work staff will be needed to populate the datasets.

3.02.05 Training for Using GIS as a Tool in CLUP Preparation

HLURB has prepared a training package for municipal planners who are literate in MS Office but have no previous experience of GIS software:

Module 1, (one week) Basic Computer Training and Introduction to Digital Database Management
The new application is presented and the rationales for a digital database are given. There is also a beginner or review component for word-processing and data entry into spreadsheet and prepared forms. The participants will bring information about their job activities and there will be practical exercises on how to fill the forms, etc. It will also give an introduction to GIS, which will give the participants an understanding of what a GIS is, what it is intended for and how it is structured. The module also includes basic knowledge about hardware and trouble-shooting.

Module 2, (one week) Applied CLUP Database Management Training
This module is intended for GIS primary users who will be managing a sector database. It should enable the trainees to be competent with database building and management. The participants will use real data from their own sector and the outcome of the training will be a set of databases included in the CLUP sector database. It also includes an introduction to GIS, which will give the participants an understanding of what a GIS is, how it can be used and how it is structured. At the end of the course participants will have a working knowledge of the concepts, terminology and tools used to create and manage integrated mapping data in a local government environment with special reference to the CLUP.

The CLUP GIS training modules and programs are found in the Toolbox, Chapter 7.01.

Specialist Training
For special trainings that may be required by the more specialized GIS staff such as the GIS Software Expert and GIS Database Analyst, as well as the system administrators such as the Computer System Manager, Network Administrator, Database Administrator and Hardware Technicians, the best option is to find suitable advanced training opportunities in the private market. Such special trainings however will not be applicable to the GIS Cookbook’s target group of municipalities.

Advocacy and Applied Training
This module is intended for Municipal/City Councilors, LGU top and middle management officers, who will not directly work with the GIS system, but need to know how GIS can assist in decision-making, and the requirements for a sustained GIS. The GIS Cookbook provides guidelines (see for example Chapter 2) for advocacy which can be used for raising awareness among the local officials and LGU senior management, about the advantages of a GIS

3.02.06 GIS Training Opportunities

Current training opportunities for learning GIS in the country may be available at the following:

  1. University of Philippines which offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Geodesy. These courses are primarily intended for students who want to specialize in GIS and Remote Sensing.
  2. Geodata which is the country’s authorized distributor of ESRI software (such as ArcView, ArcGIS, etc.) offers basic and advanced short-term trainings on how to manage the software. However, their exercises are based on refined and very accurate data from the USA, which is not reflective of the situation in the Philippines.
  3. NAMRIA has a computer laboratory and offers short-term trainings customized to the Philippine environment. The agency has conducted on-demand courses targeted for national agencies and LGUs
  4. HLURB, as mentioned above, will provide on-demand training on how to use GIS as a tool in CLUP preparation. It will be conducted for municipalities that are in the pipeline to update their CLUPs.

For more information, please refer to Toolbox, Chapter 7.

3.02.07 Some Recommendations for External Technical Assistance in CLUP Preparation

The HLURB Regional Offices extend technical assistance in the preparation of the CLUP. Nowadays however, LGUs also engage the services of consultants in the preparation of their CLUPs. The HLURB CLUP Guidelines are meant to encourage LGUs to take the lead in the planning activities, with technical assistance from technical experts as needed. The GIS Cookbook provides guidelines for preparing the Terms of Reference for the hiring of technical experts in CLUP preparation using GIS.

General Recommendations
The following recommendations are given for the procurement of technical expertise to assist in the GIS development activities of the LGU. They can be included in the Terms of Reference for the technical expert’s activities, and incorporated in the MoA between the LGU and HLURB or in the contract between the LGU and the private consultant for the CLUP preparation:

  1. The technical expert shall use the same software environment as the LGU (in HLURB’s case, it is Arc View 9). All end products of the technical expert’s work should be delivered in shape files in a digital format;
  2. Upon completion of the technical expert’s work, all attribute and spatial data, micros, applications, etc., are turned over to, and become property of the LGU, and can be freely manipulated by the LGU. All outputs of the consultancy work such as, but not limited to, digital data, survey data, statistical data, etc. shall be turned over to the LGU;
  3. The LGU shall be the primary distributor of all data produced under the consultancy;
  4. The end products, such as data, micros, applications, etc., cannot be sold by the technical expert to a third party without the consent of the LGU;
  5. On the job training should always be provided, with the objective that the assigned LGU staff will acquire or enhance their capability to manage, make revisions and updates of the CLUP after completion of the technical expert’s contract.

Please refer to Chapter 4.04 in the Toolbox for more details regarding what should be considered in a ToR and included in a MoA for CLUP preparation using GIS.


3.03 Methodology

3.03.01 The Flow from Data to Information to CLUP Application
3.03.02 What are (KEY) Indicators?
3.03.03 An Example on How to Apply the Methodology to Increase the Information Value
3.03.04 Information Product Description – What do you want to get out of the GIS?
3.03.05 Objectives of Information Products Preparation
3.03.06 Basic Steps for the Preparation of Information Products
3.03.07 Information Products for CLUP
3.03.08 Land Cover Mapping Using Remote Sensing Data



3.03.01 The Flow from Data to Information to CLUP Application


Definition

Knowledge which is the basis of competence is by itself not sufficient. There must be an understanding of the meaning of what is known, but again, this is not enough either to complete competence. Wisdom must be applied as well in order to achieve the desired outcome. Knowledge and understanding can often be taught, but wisdom is usually acquired through experience.
Information is qualified data. It is “processed data.” Data is only useful if it is interpreted and transformed into information. This transformation from data to information requires knowledge and understanding. One needs wisdom to be able to grasp the information and apply it usefully.
Data and information need to be structured and stored in a way that makes them readily accessible to those who are to use them. Some applications of information are often repetitive and can therefore be automated. These automated processes are themselves often called applications.
An information management system such as GIS must be combined with the competence levels within the organization. These levels of competence should also be developed to improve the quality of the applications of information at a higher rate to improve overall productivity.

3.03.02 What are (KEY) Indicators?


Definition
Indicators are intended to be part of an enabling process, measuring sector-wide progress of all activities (and actors) towards achieving goals. The indicators of municipal activity emphasize sustainability and efficiency goals rather than simple production goals.
The major emphasis is in developing capacity for establishing indicators that will help in policy review and implementation, and which can be monitored regularly. The aim is to engender commitment, develop the expertise, and to set the routine for collecting data for all sectors included in the CLUP.
Important characteristics of indicators are that they should be:
  1. easily understood by all stakeholders;
  2. related to the interests of one or more groups of stakeholders;
  3. measurable using immediately available data at the municipal level;
  4. clearly related to municipal policy goals and capable of being changed by the use of policy instruments;
  5. linked where possible to the three themes of economic, social and environmental sustainability.

Sectoral data when overlaid together will be used to determine the overall status of the provision of the basic utilities/facilities/services for the municipality.
Indicators should be based on two levels of priority:
First priority or 'key' indicators require only immediately available data and present the facts that are of interest to a broader audience rather than only to specialists in the field.
Second priority or ‘extensive’ indicators contain indicators of lower policy relevance but of much interest for the sector specialist or which are more difficult to collect or define.
The indicators should be readily available, easily collected or estimated, and should not require special surveys or studies. Indicators are not data; they are ‘models’ simplifying a complex subject to a few numbers, which can be easily grasped and understood by policy makers and the general public.
Indicators are statistics directed specifically towards policy concerns and which point towards successful outcomes and conclusions for policy. They should be user driven, and are generally highly aggregated and have easily recognizable purposes. Classic examples of indicators include unemployment rates or GDP growth rates, which are statistics that are authoritative and recognizable indicators of the performance of the economy.
Example on Key Indicators for Basic Needs/Life Quality Targets
The following list exemplifies the most basic needs, and linked to the need specification is an indicator which makes it possible to measure increased (or decreased) need fulfillment over time:

Basic Needs / Targets
Key Indicator
Provide a Job Percentage of Unemployment per Barangay
Provide Adequate Housing Percentage of Households per Barangay who live in an Informal Settlements
Provide Access to Safe Water Percentage of Households per Barangay with Access to Drinking Water within ----meters.
Provide Access to Decent Sanitation Percentage of Households per Barangay with a sanitary toilet.
Provide Connection to Electricity Services Percentage of Households per Barangay with Electricity Connection
Provide Primary Education Percentage of Households per Barangay with a Primary School with Sufficient Classrooms and Teachers within ------ meters.
Provide Primary Health Care Percentage of Households per Barangay with a Health Clinic with Sufficient Staff and Medicine within ------ meters.

The CLUP should reflect the basic needs of the less privileged people

3.03.03 An Example on How to Apply the Methodology to Increase the Information Value


A Table with no GIS Implication
Let’s look at one example of a table which has no GIS implication. The table below presents the secondary school enrolment by males and females in government and private secondary schools and is taken from a CLUP. This is an extract from the old Education Sector Guidelines of HLURB. (A revision is under way and will be included in Volume 2) An improved table version is likewise presented to show the increased information value.

Information Product ChecklistObservation Made
Is the table defined as a CLUP data requirement in the (old) Guidelines?No. Then why is it here? There is no clarification in the text as to why the table is included in the report.
Does the table have an index number?Yes
Does the table have a title that corresponds to the table content?Yes. However, is providing the proportion between Government and Private schools the most important indicator? If the gender disrowibution is more important, then the table should have been titled accordingly.
Is there a date of data in the table?Yes. This makes it easy to access if the data is of immediate interest or obsolete
Is there a comprehensive ‘Source’ for the table?Yes. However, the acronym should be known to everybody. There should be a list of acronyms included in the report.
Is the table referred to in the text?No. However, the text is adjacent to the table.
Is the wording consistent?There is no explanation distinguishing the difference between ‘secondary’ and ‘high school.” It also does not clarify the difference between a ‘public’ and a ‘government’ school.
In order to avoid confusion, there should be consistency in the use of terms. Use only one term instead of two terms that mean the same.
It would also be useful to add explanatory graphs to the text to increase the availability and understanding of definitions and standards, as shown below.
Does the table add something to the narrative text?Not really, since it simply duplicates what is explained in the text. The only difference is that the text provides the percentage indicators.
Does the table data qualify as ‘information’?No. The data in the table does not contain anything to compare with. The table presents a disrowibution of enrolment between private and public, and nothing more. It also presents a gender disrowibution, which again is not exrowaordinary.
In other words, the table does not present comparative information that can be noted, showing for example some compliance to or deviation from standards, or some deficit in targets. The table does not warrant action on the part of the decision maker or user.
Is the table easy to work with?No. It is done in MS Word and not in Excel, hence it cannot be manipulated easily.
Does the table have a rational layout?Yes. However, there should be a row at the bottom showing the totals.
Does the table have a good design that facilitates reading?It is possible to enhance the table design as shown in the example below.

This is the result of the analysis, which can be used in the CLUP narrative part.

For assistance, a template is found in the tool box that can be copied into CLUP.

A Table with GIS Implication
As pointed out previously, most of the services and utilities that a municipality provides have a geographic reference – a location on a map. Using mapped information in a GIS will increase the information value and make it easier for the stakeholders particularly LGU officials, planners and the general public to analyze the situation and make informed decisions. Information ‘hidden’ in a table will become transparent and more visual in the process of deciding what actions are needed to improve the situation.

For example the status of the road system in the municipality is presented in the following way in a CLUP:

Based on this table it is possible to calculate for a total road improvement. However, it is not easy for a decision maker/planner to prioritize, given limited funds available which is normally the case in a low-income LGU. By translating the results of the survey done to get the data compiled in above the table above into a map layer in a GIS, and combining the attribute information from the survey, it will be much easier to prioritize projects so as to optimize funds. The example shows an extract of such a road layer on top of a simple CLUP Base Map.

By combining the road layer information with population data (how many people are using the road?) and traffic counts (what types of vehicles and how many are using the road?) it is possible to assess how important the road is, in the context of the overall road network in the municipality/city.

By using unit cost for repair/upgrading of a road in “critical” condition, the GIS can provide the costs that can be incurred for the repair/upgrade of the said road, which can be compared with the available budget for infrastructure improvements.

The map is also useful in determining the existing road system vis-à-vis current land-uses and other socio-economic activities. The map presents a bird’s eye view of accessibility from one destination point to another.

3.03.04 Information Product Description – What do you want to get out of the GIS?

The key to preparing a GIS is knowing what you want to get out of it. If you know what information you want to produce, then you can determine what data you have to put in. One should also know what functions have to be performed on that data in order to get the required information results you want to produce. If you do not know what you want to produce, you can have no real idea of what to put in or what functionality you want in your system.

Information Product Descriptions are the building blocks for the information needed in the CLUP planning process.

The establishment of Information Product Descriptions (IPD) entails specifying and describing what one expects the GIS to create. The IPD contains the requirements to come up with the final product. When the IPD is made, specification on what the GIS must be able to master is prepared for the first time. Once done, the rest of the planning activities follow what are outlined in the descriptions. Defining each product that the GIS must create will help provide adequate justification for obtaining GIS hardware and software.

At this stage in the preparation process it is important for the planner to consult with the representatives of the concerned office or sector together with other concerned stakeholders to:

  1. clarify the information products that need to be produced by the system;
  2. establish what data is needed to create the information products;
  3. identify the system functions that will be used to create the information products.

While it may require some hard work, once solid information product descriptions have been generated, the rest of the GIS planning is ‘easy’.

The following list will serve as a useful guide for the planning team in preparing the IPD for the first time, or if there are additional information product requirements for the CLUP as a result of the consultation. A useful information product description includes a title, the name of the department and person who needs the information product, and the following components:

Summary of the information product – a narrative text providing an overview of the information product, who requested it, and what it is used for. When writing the IPD, before getting into the details of it, there should be a summary of the information product needed and its purpose.

Map requirements — details of maps needed for an information product, including a sketch of sample maps. The first step in creating an IPD is to describe each map that has to be an output. It is important to include a sketch of the map with the IPD. The sketch can be simple, but should show at least one of every feature type that the final product is expected to display.

List and report requirements — details of the information that will be in any reports, lists, or tables for an information product, including headings and typical data entries. An information product is not always a map. It could be a list of figures, a table, or a report. Or, there may be a map product that needs a list, table, or report as a supplement. The information product description should identify each of these lists, tables, or reports. Each list, table, or report should have a title, appropriate column headings, typical entries, and details of the data file that contains the source information.

Document and image requirements — details of documents and images that have to be retrieved to create an information product. An information product may be a document or image or include a document or image as a supplement. In the IPD, each image or document that the user needs to retrieve from the GIS should be identified.

Steps to make the product — details of the data and GIS functions needed to create the information product. The second, third, and fourth components of the information product description (map, list, and document requirements) clarify details of the information product that is required. Once something is known about the information product, the steps needed to create it can be outlined.

Logical linkages — details of any linkages that need to be established between data elements in the database to create the product. The next step in describing an information product is to determine the relationships that are required between data elements. These relationships are called "logical linkages," and they must be in place in order to be able to build the database later on. In the IPD, one needs to establish how data from the same or different datasets must be combined to create the information product.

There are three types of logical linkages:

  1. Relationships between tables and graphic entities — these are relationships between characteristics (attributes) of features and the features themselves (points, lines, polygons);
  2. Relationships between maps — these are relationships between different maps (or data layers);
  3. Relationships between attributes — these are relationships between characteristics.

3.03.05 Objectives of Information Products Preparation

With GIS support it is possible to create better source material for
analysis and decision-maiking.
Tailored GIS applications, and integration with other IT support, can
make it easier to search for data, data processing and presentation.
The weak components in the system are data reliability, data quality,
data completeness and data relevance together with the skills of the staff
to interpret the results correctly.

Production of Source Material for Decision with GIS Support
Information produced by using GIS often is presented as maps together with tabular data and/or additional text. The presentation may also include images, diagrams or video sequences. The GIS software will be tailored or expanded in accordance with the tasks which are to be performed, and the skills of the staff. Therefore it must not be difficult to get a requested decision source material by using a well-designed GIS. The decisive factor is to define the needs based on relevant business activities before creating this tailored GIS

To Select Relevant Data
It can be difficult to decide which data is to be used and how to analyze the data in order to create a source material for decisions by using a GIS application. The needs for data are a result of the way of performing the business activities and the shape of the specific issue.

To Interpret the Source Material for a Decision
The second major challenge might be to interpret the information produced with GIS support. What conclusions can be drawn from the results of an analysis operation? What are the uncertainties? In which parts of the interpretation are there uncertainties?

There are a number of critical issues affecting the possibility of giving good answers to these rather difficult questions. Such issues are:

  1. What does the geographic information that I used, stand for? And what does it not stand for?
  2. How complete are the business activities described therein, prior to the development of the GIS application? Was there a proper activity modeling process as a bottom line for the application development?
  3. Is it possible, and realistic, to use this specific GIS application for the analysis operations or data processing operations necessary for the specific issue?

3.03.06 Basic Steps for the Preparation of Information Products

In a typical GIS analysis activity like the CLUP preparation, the objectives of the activity are identified, the database containing the data needed to solve the problem is created, and the results of the analysis are presented. Below are the steps that should be considered when the information product for a subject is prepared:

1. Background and Objective of the GIS Analysis

The first step is to give a short overview of the particular information product and the objective of the GIS analysis. The following questions should be considered in identifying the objectives:



  1. What is the problem to solve? How is it solved now? Are there alternative ways to solve it using a GlS?
  2. What step of the planning process are we in?
  3. Who is the intended audience of these products i.e., the public, LGU staff, LGU officials?
  4. What are included in the final products of the activity – reports, working maps, presentation-quality maps?
  5. Will the Information Product be one of the baseline studies? Will it be needed for ‘Needs Analysis” or for ”Suitability Analysis”? Will the data be used for other purposes? What are the requirements for these?
  6. In this step it is important to determine the answers to the questions above, determine the scope of the activity as well as how to proceed.

2. Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Achievement/to Evaluate Performance/Evaluate Suitability
Define the planning standards and common practices that are applicable for the sector. (For example, for the education sector there are planning standards for accessibility, student/teacher ratios, student/classroom ratios, student/school yard ratios, student/schoolbook ratios; physical condition of buildings and plots, etc.). Regarding information about what planning methods that can be used, please refer to guidelines on sector studies. In the absence of a national standard, the local planner may opt for an acceptable/reasonable value based on the specific municipal objective for the planning issue at hand.

The Information Products are grouped into the following:

  1. Base Line Studies- When sector studies are prepared, most of the data can be translated into spatial data which will be further used in Needs Assessment.
  2. For Needs Assessment, indicators are important for measuring the quality of service being provided or for determining the physical condition of a facility for a particular service.
  3. For Suitability Analysis, this refers to identifying what areas in the municipality are considered suitable for future urban expansion. However, there has to be criteria for determining those areas which are considered as suitable (suitability criteria).
  4. Scenario-building. This visualizes three different options that show alternative courses of action based on identified needs and existing constraints.
  5. CLUP/ZONING -The comprehensive results of the discussions over scenarios and spatial strategies will result in the draft CLUP. Zoning further subdivides the community into zones or districts.
  6. Projects – this establishes a basic GIS application about the status of various projects resulting in a Basic Project Monitoring GIS in coordination with other offices within the LGU.

3. Create a Database
The third step is to create a database, which consists of the following: designing the database, automating data for the database, and managing the database.

Designing the database includes identifying the attribute and spatial data requirements for analysis, determining the required feature attributes, setting the study area boundary, and choosing the coordinate system to use. The GIS Cookbook provides the digital templates for tables ready to be used for encoding the data. The Metadata table has also been prepared containing the list of tables that have to be accomplished, showing both the optional and key tables.

Automating of the data involves digitizing or converting data from other systems and formats into a useable format, as well as verifying the data, and correcting errors. Attribute data, however, should be encoded using the tables that have been prepared.

Managing the database involves verifying coordinate systems and joining adjacent layers.

Creating the database is a critical and time-consuming part of the activity. The completeness and accuracy of the data for use in the analyses determines the accuracy of the results.

4. Analyze the Data
The fourth step is to analyze the data, which consists of a range of tasks from simple mapping to creating complex spatial models. A model is a representation of reality used to simulate a process, predict an outcome, or analyze a problem.

A spatial model involves applying one to three categories of GlS functionality to some spatial data. These functions are:

  1. Geometric modeling functions – calculating distances, generating buffers, and calculating areas and perimeters;
  2. Coincidence modeling functions – overlaying data sets to find places where values coincide;
  3. Adjacency modeling functions – allocating, path finding, and restricting.

The result of this step may be a simple process to evaluate for example, the service that is being provided for a barangay, which will be an input for assessing the needs of the said barangay. Or it may be to determine the actual physical conditions in terms of the environment, and the hazards within the municipality.

The GIS can quickly perform such analysis that would be impossible or very time-consuming if done manually. Alternative scenarios can be created by changing the methods or parameters and running the analysis again.

5. Present the Results
The fifth step is to present the results of the analysis. The final products should effectively communicate the findings to the target audience (stakeholders). In most cases, the results of the GIS analysis can best be shown on a map, or they may also be presented in charts and reports of selected data. These charts and reports can be printed separately, or be embedded in documents created by other applications, or placed in the maps.

In the following, examples on CLUP Information Products from the various planning sectors are compiled and presented. A complete representation of the Information Products for the planning sector subject is found in the Toolbox, Chapter 4.05 – 4.12.

3.03.07 Information Products for CLUP

Below are some examples of the Information Products that may be needed for CLUP Preparation.

Information Products for CLUP NEEDS ASSESSMENT

Information Products for Identifying Suitable Areas for Urban Expansion

3.03.08 Land Cover Mapping Using Remote Sensing Data

Remote Sensing (RS) is a means of acquiring information about an object without contacting it physically using airborne equipment and techniques to determine the characteristics of an area. Aerial photographs and satellite images are the most common forms of remote sensing data.

Introduction
Land cover mapping is one of the most important and typical applications of RS data. Land cover corresponds to the physical condition of the ground surface, for example, forest, grassland, concrete pavement etc., while land use reflects human activities such as the use of the land, for example, industrial zones, residential zones, agricultural fields etc. Generally land cover does not coincide with land use. A land use class is composed of several land covers. RS data can provide land cover information rather than land use information. Initially the land cover classification system should be established, which is usually defined as levels and classes. The level and class should be designed in consideration of the purpose of use (national, regional or local), the spatial and spectral resolution of the RS data, user's request and so on.

For beginners in GIS, most probably it will take some time to start with digital RS techniques. Instead, most of the time will be used for setting up the GIS, getting the data organized and preparing the information for the CLUP, using GIS as a support.

RS will require that learning more about a new ‘data environment’, involving how to extract information from pixel/raster data which is different from the vector data analyses in the GIS. Likewise, an RS software or RS module addition to the GIS software will be needed, and these might be costly additions for a low-income municipality to set up.

Methods
Digital Classification
When RS data is available in digital format, digital processing and analysis may be performed using a computer. Digital image classification is performed to automatically identify targets and extract information. Techniques such as unsupervised classification are largely automated while others such as supervised classification require considerable human input in the classification process. However, rarely is digital processing and analysis carried out as a complete replacement for manual interpretation.

For the users of RS, it is not sufficient to display only the results obtained from image processing. For example, detecting land cover change in an area is not enough, because the final goal should be to analyze the causes of change or to evaluate the impacts of these changes. Therefore the result should be overlaid on maps of land use zoning. In addition, the classification of RS imagery will become more accurate if the auxiliary data contained in maps are combined with the image data.

Manual visual interpretation of paper or on-the- screen data of aerial photo/and satellite imagery is still today a good way for extracting features, especially line features.

Change Detection
Change detection via satellite data is probably the most promising application from remote sensing. It can be done often without too high data costs and can deliver reliable results. Often it is not possible to get data with very high resolution covering the same area because of the costs, instead, satellite data can be used. The best way of using remote sensing for change detection is to point out areas where changes occurred. One of the most important advantages is that you get a date for the change. Not the exact date, but a time interval when the changes appeared. For changes in vegetation most often a spatial resolution of 15-30 meter is enough, but for detailed change detection one might need a 5- 10 meter spatial resolution. For more detailed urban mapping a 10-meter spatial resolution data such as SPOT Pan will be most suitable.

Aerial photos can be used for land use change mapping, but it should be noted that changes shown in a very high resolution photo often is caused by other things such as the movement of vehicles, or the different shadows of vegetation, etc. There will be lots of changes that are of no interest. One should also be aware of shadow effects in the flight direction. Aerial photos are not taken during the same solar conditions.

What’s in the Toolbox of Remote Sensing?
The following case studies will give some ideas on what issues could emerge when remote sensing is being applied in the field of spatial planning.

  1. Study on remote sensing and change detection in Bangladesh, see Chapter 4.18.04.
  2. Overview of Satellite Data currently on the market, see Chapter 5.10.03.
  3. A Remote Sensing tool, Enforma, that can be downloaded, including a tutorial with some exercises from the Philippines, see Chapter 8.03.


3.04 Data

3.04.01 Types of Data Used in a GIS
3.04.02 Data Preparation
3.04.03 Data Management
3.04.04 Legal Implications on Data Capturing and Storing


3.04.01 Types of Data Used in a GIS

Although the two terms, data and information, are often used interchangeably, they mean two different things. Data can be described as different observations which are collected and stored. Information is processed data which is useful in answering queries or solving a problem.

“Analogue data,” “paper version” or “hard copy” are terms often used to denote any document or dataset produced on paper while “digital data” or “soft copy” refer to files processed by GIS software in the computer. The result of the computer manipulated data can be transformed into a paper format such as the printout of a map.

Geographic data are inherently a form of spatial data organized in a geographic database. This database can be considered as a collection of spatially referenced data that acts as a model of reality. There are two important components of this geographic database: its geographic position and its attributes or properties. In other words, spatial data (where is it?) and attribute data (what is it?)

Spatial Data
Spatial data pertains to the location and spatial dimensions of geographical entities, and data that can be linked to locations in geographic space, usually via features on a map.

Attribute Data
Attribute data refer to the properties of a specific, precisely defined location. The data are often statistical but may be in text, images or multi-media. These are linked in the GIS to spatial data that define the location. They are often referred to as non-spatial data since they do not in themselves represent location information.

Spatial data can be represented into two fundamental approaches:

  1. Vector data wherein objects or conditions in the real world are represented by points and lines and polygons that define their boundaries, much as if they were being drawn on a map. The position of each object is defined by its placement in a map space that is organized by a coordinate reference system, as shown below.
  2. Raster data wherein the space is regularly subdivided into cells (usually square in shape), as shown in the figure below. The location of geographic objects or conditions is defined by the row and column positions of the cells they occupy. The area that each cell represents defines the spatial resolution available. The value stored for each cell indicates the type of object or condition that is found at that location in the raster model, and the homogeneous units are the cells.


[size=14]Comparison of the Raster and Vector Models. The landscape in 1 is shown in a raster representation (2) and in a vector representation (3). The pine forest stand (P) and spruce forest stand (S) are features. The river is a line feature, and the house (H) is a point feature.

Some basic properties of raster and vector data are as follows:

  1. Each entity in a vector file appears as an individual data object. It is easy to record information about an object or to compute characteristics such as its exact length or surface area. It is difficult to derive this kind of information from a raster file because raster files contain little (and sometimes no) geometric information.
  2. Some applications can be handled much more easily with raster techniques than with vector techniques. Raster works best for applications where individual features are not important.
Comparison of Raster and Vector Data

Raster
Vector
Advantages Good for complex analysis
Efficient for overlays
Data structure common for imagery
Compact data structure
Efficient for encoding topology
True representation of shape
Disadvantages Large datasets
Topology hard to represent
Maps less "realistic"
Complex structure
Overlay operations difficult
Might imply false sense of accuracy

3.04.02 Data Preparation

Search for Data
Possibly the most important component of a GIS is the data. Geographic data and related attribute data can be collected in-house or acquired from a public agency or a commercial data provider. For the database building, standards for data acquisition and data entry, data maintenance and storage, data analysis and processing, data display and reporting have to be defined. By formulating and agreeing on a metadata base, specifications can be developed that facilitate the system integration.

The process of putting data into a GIS takes time. The process can be slow and laborious; and time equals money. Every year someone promises that next year there is going to be a faster, more intelligent scanning system that is going to get data into the system much easier. Things are indeed getting better and more and more data is becoming available in digital form, but the process of building a database still typically represents 80% of the first five-year costs of establishing a GIS. This is real money expenditure and that is where much of GIS time is going to be spent.

In this context one has to remember that the LGU is primarily an institution for data users, not data producers. Consequently, if customized GIS data is available on the market, it is better to purchase the data, instead of starting an in-house ‘production line’ to transfer data to a GIS format. The GIS Cookbook presents a collection of CLUP Data custodians to facilitate the data searching by LGUs in their CLUP preparation. There is an inventory of available or accessible attribute and spatial data that are needed in preparing the CLUP. (Chapter 4.17.01 in the Toolbox.)

Data Capture
In the data capturing process the data are taken from the real-world [/b](primary source), or from a secondary source such as a paper map, and entered into GIS software.

The Preparation of Primary (Attribute) CLUP Data
When the ‘Search-for-Data’ process starts, in some cases attribute data will not be stored in a digital format. In ArcGIS and most other GIS software have a tool to manipulate attribute data. However, for beginners in GIS it is recommended to use MS Excel for two reasons:

  1. The custodian of the attribute data will (hopefully) be a representative from the specific sector (education, engineering, etc.) and the staff will most probably be familiar with the Microsoft Software package, which includes Excel.
  2. The custodian of the spatial data will be the MPDO, and since the software is an expensive part of the GIS start package, it should be the unit that holds the GIS software license. As a consequence, it will be the MPDO who will assist the attribute data custodians in including the attribute datasets into the GIS. Furthermore, the MPDO will have to extend services by providing GIS browsers and producing print outs for the other GIS stakeholders so that they will be able to use the information in their tasks.

Eventually, the stakeholders will have the confidence to work with the attribute data in the GIS software and the methodology recommended during the ‘introductory phase’ mentioned above will cease to be a problem.

Aside from using Excel, it is also recommended that files to be used in the GIS should be stored in dBase file formats DBF4 (dBase IV). This is because in many instances, the dBase format can be used in the older version of the GIS software, for example ArcView 3.x. However, since the dBase IV format saves only the text and values as they are displayed in cells of the active worksheet, special attention is needed, as described in Chapter 4.20.01. How this is practiced is shown in Chapter 7.03.03.

The Preparation of Spatial CLUP Data
In the ‘Search-for-Data’ process, there will be instances wherein primary data gathering of spatial features will be done. It is recommended that a GPS be used in this activity. Chapter 4.19 in the Toolbox will show what to do in this case. There will also be analogue spatial data (paper drawn maps) that must be transformed into digital format. The process of capturing, processing and converting analogue spatial data into digital format is the same whether it is for basemap purposes or other maps for the CLUP. Chapter 4.21 will discuss these matters.

Map Accuracy and Level of Acceptance

GIS technology has broadened our view of a map. Instead of a static entity, a map is now a dynamic presentation of geographic data. The advantages are outstanding but there are also risks involved. In this case study, the importance of observing positional accuracy between the input data and the end product in the form of a CLUP map is shown.

Six accuracy issues can be identified in a GIS:

  1. Positional accuracy by which the location has been determined;
  2. Attribute accuracy for the information describing a geometric element;
  3. Logical consistency which means that lines are connected, polygons closed, etc.;
  4. Completeness, which describes if the data is valid for the whole area or for parts of it;
  5. Currentness that describes the time for data collection;
  6. Lineage that describes all operations and manipulations that were used to produce the data (air photo interpretation, digitizing, etc.)
In the preparation of the CLUPs using GI Technology, secondary source data will be used. The LGU planner must rely on data captured by a national agency (e.g. geologic map, soil map, erosion map, flooding map, etc.). The source data will most likely be in a paper format, the data has been produced using manual methods, scales may vary, and little is known about the accuracy (few metadata is attached).

Chapter 4 in the Toolbox provides some metadata specifications for some of the data, but a lot more needs to be done to assist the planner. The source maps, in order to be useful in a CLUP GIS database, must be transformed into a digital layer. However, data from paper format will only be converted into digital format.
Scanning and georeferencing are discussed in Chapter 4.21 where acceptance and accuracy should be observed in these processes. It is likely that errors inherent in the paper source will be also be transferred to the digital form including any errors that might have been incurred during scanning and georeferencing processes. The accuracy of the digital data will depend on the accuracy of the secondary source, and comparison would only be between secondary data sources. The way how to treat errors between primary and secondary sources will be discussed in the Toolbox.

How much error (errors from source and from scanning and georeferencing) is acceptable? The answer depends on how much accuracy the secondary source can provide. If the accuracy of a secondary source is not known, the data could be compared with other secondary sources which have similar features that are comparable.

However, one must be cautious in comparing data. Most secondary source data done manually would contain a lot of errors. It is also possible that there are secondary sources which were produced digitally like orthophotos and GPS surveys. These sources would have greater accuracy than all other secondary sources, and these secondary source data will have to be evaluated differently.

Lessons Learned The spatial data, especially the data for the Base Map:

  1. must be captured with agreed and acceptable (positional) accuracy;
  2. must be properly georeferenced;
  3. must be defined in the right projection;
  4. must have enough information about how it was prepared (metadata)

It should not be expected of a planner to be able to assess whether ‘technicalities regarding the cartography’ are properly set from the beginning. There should be enough guaranties for the planner that the data has a workable standard so he can focus on his professional task, which is the actual planning and the preparation of the CLUP.

Metadata

Metadata is the term used to describe the summary information or characteristics of a set of data or "data about data".

Metadata can be defined as geospatial data describing its characteristics in terms of content, quality, processing history, format etc, into a common set of terms and definitions. In simple words, metadata is “data about data”. A map legend on a paper map is a type of metadata that describes the different map elements, publishing date, projection and coordinate system, etc.

A common perception of GIS data is that it consists of two parts: spatial data (coordinates and topology), and attribute data (descriptive information). However, without proper documentation, GIS data will remain incomplete. It is thus equally important that GIS data also includes a metadata component. Metadata creation is typically considered to be an obligation of the data producer. The data user needs metadata to determine whether or not a particular data set exists, and to decide whether or not the data is appropriate for use. Proper metadata should describe the who, what, when, where, why and how regarding all aspects of a GIS data set.

The use or creation of Metadata is often ignored or avoided. However, with the rise in use of digital data, the advantage of including metadata for datasets is increasingly recognized. Whereas cartographers rigidly provided metadata within a paper map’s legend, the evolution of computers and GIS has seen a decline in this practice. As organizations start to recognize the value of this ancillary information, they often begin to look at incorporating metadata collection within the data management process.

Metadata helps people who use geo spatial data find the data they need and determine the best way to use it. Metadata benefits the data-producing organization as well. As personnel change in an organization, undocumented data may lose their value. Incoming and newcomer staff may have little understanding of the contents and uses for a digital database and may find they can't trust results generated from these data. Lack of knowledge about other organizations' data can lead to duplication of effort. It may seem burdensome to add the cost of generating metadata to the cost of data collection, but in the long run the value of the data depends on its documentation.

In the GIS Cookbook there are Metadata Specifications and Standards for the attributes as well as the spatial datasets.

What Are Standards and Why Use Them?

The benefits of using GIS will be truly achieved once data is shared and exchanged between and among producers and users of geographic data. A prerequisite for such cooperation should be the capability of reading and interpreting the data among the exchanging entities. One basic condition is to standardize data, technically and conceptually

Paper Maps Means Conceptual Standards As Well The printed map, in itself, represents a standardized way of describing geographic information. With our knowledge, experience and intuition we understand a meaning, an image and properties of that road which is described with a certain symbol. It works pretty well as long as we deal with a certain map category. The problem is that the important aspects can easily draw in all information on the maps when performing analysis procedures by using a number of different thematic maps.

Computer Assistance Will Increase the Demands for Systematic Management of Data When changing to the digital world, there is a need to describe the tasks in a logical manner to get the computer to do what we want.

A Corporate Language GIS, as well as our own language, is created to transfer and disseminate information. A corporate language consists of a corporate vocabulary and a corporate grammar. In the computer world we talk about corporate feature names, feature definitions, attribute lists and uniformly defined data format and data base design. This is standardization.

Use of Geographic Data Many organizations use many types of geographic data from numerous data vendors or producers. These data should be used together. Standardization concerning geographic data such as using the same projection is an absolute prerequisite.

As we use many data types from different producers it is also necessary with information about who is producing what, about data quality, about data capture methods etc. This is metadata. A uniform metadata structure also requires standardization, in order to easily understand the meaning of metadata.

Use of Geographic Data A standard is agreed upon by a group of users who have cooperated in order to standardize a certain thing. The work is approved by the standardization organization and appointed official standard. In addition to the official standards for geographic data, a certain group can decide to apply a standardized data description for a certain purpose. In this case the result will occur as a de facto- standard. This needs no approval by a standardization organization since it is just for the use of the internal organization that agreed on this standard. Today there are a number of official standards concerning geographic data. Those are developed within the International Standard Organization (ISO), for example ISO TC 211 (Global level).

There are also a lot of other unofficial standards. One example is the product de facto- standard established by Microsoft as this company is dominating the software market for computers. Another strong player is Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), the world leading vendor of GIS software.

In the Philippines, the Inter Agency Task Force on Geographic Information (IATFGI) has made serious effort to come up with technical standards for geodata.

The preparation of the GIS Cookbook has been coordinated with their recommendation and applicable metadata specifications have been adopted. However, the metadata specifications have been improved focusing not only on national government institutions but the local government data environment as well.

3.04.03 Data Management

In a GIS it is very important that data is named and stored in a logical way otherwise it will be difficult to find, which version that should be used, and to maintain the information property.

If there are no previous file and folder management standards in the municipality, the following guidelines should be followed. In case there is a recognized file and folder system in the municipality then that system’s standards should be used. The guidelines are meant for a stand alone computer environment, with the files stored locally in one computer. In the case of networks, standards for data sharing should be applied.

Guidelines for File and Folder Management

The goal is to minimize duplication of datasets and to have the data well organized and easily accessible. This will help avoid confusion during the CLUP preparation, and in future revisions of the CLUP.

To facilitate an overview of the folders, the subfolders should be organized in a specific order. They are automatically placed first in numerical and then alphabetical order. If you start with digits you can decide the appropriate order. It might not be necessary to use figures for all folders, but this is preferable for the most used or important folders. It is important to name the folders and files in a coherent way, so that will be easier to view the content of the drive. Using meaningful names and abbreviations can help see at a glance what each dataset is.

The folder structure described below is a proposed setup that can be used in the preparation of the CLUP. It is recommended for better organization and management of files in case no previous standard has been used by the municipality.

All the files such as written reports and other documents, graphs and photos used in the narrative part of the CLUP and the geodata needed to build up the CLUP GIS, are organized into 4 folders, which then are divided into subfolders and sub-sub folders accordingly: 01_CLUPGIS; 02_CLUPdoc; 03_CLUPpic; 04_CLUPmix.

01_CLUPGIS – contains the data, mostly tables/spreadsheets that is needed for the GIS. The building stones of the GIS consist basically of spatial data (which configures the features on the map), and attribute data (which describes the specific map feature). For example, a school is represented as a point on the map (spatial data) and when you click on it one will find information on how many teachers, classrooms, etc. (attribute data) the school holds.

Aside from the geodata there are also (Excel) table data that have no GIS representation, and can be used in the narrative part of the CLUP report as tables or graphs originating from the spreadsheets.
The components of the CLUP GIS data are divided into sector folders which follow IATFGl recommendations on metadata as shown below.

Code Name of folder Content of sector folder
BM Basic Information Fundamental data sets that can be used to make the sector data described above more meaningful. Displaying or analyzing the base data with the sector data assists the user in making more effective and well-informed decisions.
SE Socio-economic The ‘software issues’ which in a GIS context are combined due to international GIS standards and technical rationales. Data related to public services and economic development.
EN Environment The ‘valid to’ tag, which identifies data that can be used to protect and develop environmental sustainability, conditions in the municipality.
IS Infrastructure Infrastructure is the ‘man made features’ ‘with layers, which depict the location, distribution, volume, standards and type of infrastructure utilities within the municipality.
LM Land (use) Management Land-use Management’ symbolizes the ‘price tag’ with layers which provide basis for zoning, land ownership, taxation and assessment of land values, which can be inputted to fiscal resources of the municipality.
PR Project Management Monitoring development activities in projects that have been initiated by the CLUP or have impact on the land use.

Each of the sector folders is divided by planning component subjects (Housing, Education, etc.) in order to differentiate between table files being used for preparatory activities (both for the GIS and to be inserted in the CLUP narrative text), and files that are being used in the GIS. Each planning component subject folder is further subdivided into two subfolders, namely ‘Tables’ and ‘GIS.’

A ‘Quick-look’ file placed together with the sector subfolders in the CLUPGIS folder describes important information about the data, which could be of good use and facilitate understanding by a new user/custodian. Refer to Chapter 5.01.01 for more information about the ‘Quick-look’ file.

The GIS Cookbook does not give any recommendation how the data used in the CLUP Report should be organized. However, below are some general suggestions:

02_CLUPdoc – contains drafts of the CLUP document eventually divided into subfolders for drafts and final version. Each subfolder is recommended to have numbered subfolders corresponding to the division of chapter in the document, such as, 01_Introduction; 02_Baseline Studies; etc.

03_CLUPpic – contains all types of imagery, such as photos, satellite imagery, aerial photos, graphic illustrations, etc. For easy reference it is recommended that all imagery used in the final version should be placed in a separate subfolder and if there are several images, these may be subdivided into chapters such as 02_CLUPdoc.

04_CLUPmix – contains miscellaneous files, preferably organized into subfolders according to the steps in Volume 1 prepared, such as minutes from meetings and consultations; correspondence, etc.

A preset directory that can be copied and inserted in the computer is also found in the Toolbox.

Guidelines for Naming of Files It is important to name the folders and files in a coherent way, so that it will be easier to view the content of the drive. Using meaningful names and abbreviations can help see at a glance what each dataset is.

The following guidelines are recommended, where the name of the folder or file should be:

  1. Clear and comprehensive;
  2. Not too long, not more than 40 characters (including space between words);
  3. Written following the sentence rule (start with capital letter);
  4. Acronyms with capital letters;
  5. No dots, slashes and backslashes. Only underscore can be used.

The following table sets out the characters that may NOT be used in file or folder names, as they are generally reserved by the operating system and will cause file retrieval problems if used:

Character Description
/ Or \ Slashes (“/” or “\”) – these are used
by the operating systems to denote directories.
: Or; Colons (“:”) or semi-colons (“;”)
* Asterisks – used in search criteria as wildcards
% Percent symbol
() or [] or{} Brackets
. Period – used to denote the file extension
? Questions marks – bad form
= Equals sign
“ or ‘ Quotation marks
< or > Greater than or less than signs
$ Dollar sign – this has a special usage for security permissions.
~ Tilde – used by the operating system to truncate files names
that are too long.
! Exclamation marks – bad form.
It is recommended that the geodata files be named as follows:

  1. Product/ feature name + year (2 digits) + eventual more detailed description about the feature + property, version or other property information. file extension
  2. For example: Admin96b_pline.shp. where:

    1. ‘Admin’ is the code for an administrative feature;[/li]
    2. ‘96’ indicates the year the data was captured/revised (for example when the CLUP was prepared);[/li]
    3. ‘b’ defines the type of administrative feature, namely a barangay (b is the coding for a barangay);[/li]
    4. ‘_pline’ is the polyline version (as there is also a polygon version of the same feature needed for the base map)

The shape file format defines the geometry and attributes of geographically referenced features in as many as five files with specific file extensions that should be stored in the same project workspace. They are:
. shp - the file that stores the feature geometry. Geographic features in a shapefile can be represented by points, (poly) lines, or polygons (areas).
.shx - the file that stores the index of the feature geometry.
.dbf - the dBASE file that stores the attribute information of features. When a shapefile is added as a theme to a view, this file is displayed as a feature table.
.sbn and .sbx - the files that store the spatial index of the features. These two files may not exist until you perform theme on theme selection, spatial join, or create an index on a theme's Shape field. If you have write access to the source data directory, the index files will be persistent and remain after your ArcGIS session is complete. If you do not have write access to the source data directory, they will be removed when you close the project or exit ArcGIS.
.ain and .aih - the files that store the attribute index of the active fields in a table or a theme's attribute table. These two files may not exist until you perform link or join on the tables. If you have write access to the source data directory, the index files will be persistent and remain after your ArcGIS session is complete. If you do not have write access to the source data directory, they will be removed when you close the project or exit ArcGIS
.apr is a project file in ArcView3
.mxd is a map document in ArcGIS.

Data Sharing GIS and supporting technologies will lead to the development of decision support systems that facilitate the municipal planning process. By using indicators and alternative development scenarios it is possible to measure the performance of the LGU and future land-use.

Planning support systems like the CLUP GIS can measure and compare performances of different planning scenarios according to planner- or citizen-defined indicators for land use, transportation, education, natural resources, and employment, to name a few.

However, the ultimate goal is to bring together all potential players to work collaboratively on a common vision for their community. GIS-based planning support systems allow planners to quickly and efficiently create and test alternative development scenarios and determine their likely impacts on future land use patterns and associated population and employment trends, thus allowing public officials to make informed planning decisions. With a basic understanding and implementation of data sharing one can provide more information to local residents and the municipality without increasing capital or personnel costs. Employing these techniques will actually reduce the amount of time spent updating municipal management and planning data and increase accuracy and timeliness.

The idea that is advocated for in the GIS Cookbook is that much of the data presented in the CLUP tables (see Chapter 5 in the Toolbox) can be designed/formatted so they can be used both in the CLUP preparation and in the day-to-day work of the respective sector office (health, education, social welfare, building and business permits, etc.) that is responsible for providing the specific municipal service.

Once municipal offices (and other government agencies interacting with the LGUs) agree to share or replicate the data, they face the challenge of maintaining up-to-date datasets. Both attribute and spatial data are changing continuously as new social services, infrastructure, etc. are provided, or more accurate data is collected. To maintain up-to-date databases the various data “owners” (custodians) must exchange their most current datasets with those they share their data with.

This can be done in two ways:

  1. Complete data load. This is the most straightforward approach. The current dataset is removed and completely replaced with the new dataset. However, this approach is sometimes impractical due to the volume of data, which may be difficult to distribute and take a prohibitively long time to reload, resulting in the database being inaccessible to the users for extended periods of time;
  2. Change only updates. This approach requires smaller data volumes to be distributed as only the records that have changed (modifiications, deletions and additions) are exchanged. Change only updates also reduce the time for the data load because of the smaller data volume. The update process is more complex than the complete data load approach.

Corporate datasets and working databases may also have different data models (or schemas). Posting scripts are used to control the transfer of the data between the different databases, and these scripts must be capable of handling these different configuration issues and formats, as shown in the figure below.

Unique Feature Identifiers: To simplify the update process, unique ID’s are used to keep track of joining tables, which features have changed, etc. Consequently all CLUP GIS tables, (see Chapter 5) have been given a field for a unique ID. For example, a school unit will always be identified with a unique alphanumeric ID which is referred to by all users and used when joining tables in a GIS. A good example on unique ID is to start from the coding of municipalities (and barangays) that is used by NSO (see Chapter 5.09.01 for more detailed information).

Data Ownership: It is important to clarify data ownership to eliminate potential conflicts.

For example, who ‘owns’ the table data for education? Which department is responsible for maintaining the school unit locations and attribute data about enrolment? Data ownership may also have to be shared. For example in a low-income municipality it might be the best solution that the planning unit takes responsibility for the data management of the spatial data, and see to it that the locations of schools are properly identified, while the school unit keeps records on the attributes such as number of classrooms and teachers, etc.

However, aside from agreeing about unique IDs and Data Custodianship, for municipal offices that share data with external users (those outside their administrative sphere of influence), “change only updates” result in a number of potential challenges that may include versioning, data transactions, data validation, coordinate systems and accuracy. Sometimes the CLUP/corporate datasets (shape files, Excel) are a different format to the external databases (ESRI Geodatabase, Oracle Spatial, MapInfo TAB, GeoMedia, AutoCAD, etc.). To cope with these issues there is a need for special GIS and IT knowledge.

In the Toolbox (Chapter 4.18), some examples illustrate the benefit of data sharing.

Data Security
Whatever the current value of the database, if it is properly maintained, this will increase considerably over the years. A successful GIS will be an integral part of daily operations. Over time, the value of information derived from the GIS database grows beyond a monetary cost to one measured by the functionality it provides to the work. Consequently, considerations for the protection of the GIS from damage will be necessary at some stage.

The possibility of the system and data being destroyed or severely damaged is real and deserves attention. The system is vulnerable to both deliberate and accidental damages. A disgruntled employee might purposely corrupt data, hackers may steal information, or a computer virus could find its way into the server. Natural disasters also pose a threat. Earthquakes, floods, fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, and lightning are all examples of natural hazards that could disrupt a GIS.

While deviant behavior and natural disasters are intriguing subjects, threats more common are found in day-to-day operations. Examples include coffee being spilt in the wrong place, a well-intentioned employee who accidentally deletes or corrupts a database, or a power disruption with no automatic battery backup.

When conducting a security review, the physical, logical, and archival security of the databases are examined.

Physical security measures protect and control access to the computer equipment containing the databases. Protection of database storage includes guarding against human intrusions (such as unauthorized personnel) and environmental factors (such as fire, flood, or earthquake).

Logical security measures protect and control access to the data itself. For example, users may be restricted to certain types of terminals, particular datasets, and particular functions. One common security measure is to ensure that only database management staff have editing and update rights to particular datasets.

Archival security is essential for many applications. Metadata, information about past coding and updating practices, the location of data, and the type of media on which data is stored, must be kept track of to allow for data recovery.

The table below illustrates the sections and subsections that might be included in a document that describes the security recommendations of systems and databases for a municipality. Recommendations are made that affect the current and future operations. This document will also help set priorities for actions and costs involved. Further, the security recommendations should be approved and a budget allocated to put the measures into effect.

Physical Security
Logical Security
Archival Security
Prevent access to main data storage from unauthorized entrances. Develop a policy for terminal access Establish an audit trail for copies of data
Review the construction plans for the office buildings to ensure appropriate
errand climate control
Create an access matrix by document types Establish an offsite backup facility
Upgrade fire protection Review protection of storage media Create and organize metadata
Initiate document sign out and follow up procedures Implement virus protection standards Purchase storage media

Backup Basics There are many ways one can unintentionally lose information on a computer; a power surge, lightning, floods, for instance. Sometimes the equipment just fails. Backup copies of files kept in a separate place is a good practice to ensure that the information is still there when something happens to the original files in the computer.

Before making backup copies, a checklist of files for backup should be made. This will help determine what files to back up, and also provide a reference list which will be useful in retrieving backed-up files.

Backup copies should be stored in external storage media, such as an external hard disk drive or flash drive, CDs, DVDs, or some other storage formats.

The size of the files needed for the CLUP database will be relatively modest providing not so much raster data is included. Consequently, the recommendation is that the CLUP folder should be written to a DVD/CD on a regular interval (like once a month) and the backup be kept in a safe environment outside the office.

3.04.04 Legal Implications on Data Capturing and Storing

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
IPR is currently governed by Republic Act No. 8293, known as the Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines (IPC), which was enacted and signed into law in 1997, and took effect on January 1, 1998.

It consists of Copyright and Related Rights, Trademarks and Service Marks, Geographical Indications, Industrial Designs, Patents, Lay-out Designs (Topographies) integrated circuits and Protection of undisclosed information.

Copyright and Related Rights
Copyright – is the protection extended to expressions and not to ideas, procedures, and methods of operation or mathematical concepts as such. These expressions may be in the forms of literary, scholarly, scientific and artistic works.

Related Rights – is the protection extended to derivative works, to include among others, dramatizations, translations, adaptations, abridgements, arrangements, and other alterations of literary or artistic works.

Programs / Software
Computer programs are protected by the IPC. The Code expressly protects computer programs as literary works. It also protects copyright in the manuals and packaging, which accompany the software.
Some notable points about the IPC law are:

  1. It protects databases and tables;
  2. It grants an exclusive rental right to the copyright owner;
  3. It recognizes and expands the protection of an author’s moral rights, i.e., the right of an author to preserve the integrity of his work and name;
  4. It penalizes the possession of infringing software for the purpose of sale.

IPC allows reproduction of backup copies or adaptation of a computer programs without authorization of the author / copyright owner provided that the copy is necessary for:

  1. the use of the computer program in conjunction with
    a computer for the purpose, and to the extent, for which the computer program
    has been obtained;
  2. archival purposes, and, for the replacement of the lawfully
    owned copy of the program in the event that the lawfully obtained copy of
    the computer program is lost, destroyed or rendered unusable.

Such copy must be destroyed in the event that continued possession of the copy of the computer program ceases to be lawful.

Enforcement
The Intellectual Property Rights Code protects the owner’s copyright, giving him the exclusive right to do certain things with the work, which in this case consists of the computer program, the manuals, and the packaging. These “exclusive rights” include:

  1. The right to copy the whole program or a substantial part of it.
  2. The right to adapt or translate the program.
  3. The right to rent the program to another person.

This means that one may only copy, adapt or rent a computer program if the copyright owner gives the permission to do this. This permission is given in the form of license. Every purchase of a legitimate copy of a computer program entitles one to receive a license agreement.


3.05 Software

3.05.01 Overview
3.05.02 Open Source GIS
3.05.03 Recommendations on GIS Software Setup for CLUP Preparation (Based on Best Practices)
3.05.04 Maintenance and Licensing


GIS and image processing software are still not very user-friendly and are not up to par with other software, such as MS Office. Software vendors are beginning to address this, largely due to market and user demands, but there is still a long way to go.
Although GIS software is becoming less expensive, it still constitutes a major share of the initial costs in setting up a GIS for CLUP preparation.

3.05.01 Overview

In most organizations GIS can be used for a number of different staff tasks with various requirements on analysis operations and presentations. Instead of focusing on selection of software, the basic questions are:

  1. In which staff work is GIS supposed to be used in order to get good enough support?
  2. How is GIS planned to store data and make data available?
  3. How is the data planned for use in different applications and staff tasks?

Thus, selection of software should be a result of considerations and decisions about which business activities should be supported by use of GIS and the kind of data that should be used.

In the case of the formulation of the CLUP, there is a number of GIS software available on the market that can be used for land-use preparation. Some of them can be described as common GIS software that includes all basic functionality for data capture, data production, data storing, data processing, analysis operations and presentations. Some of them are commercial software, but there are also freeware and shareware programs available. A few are using open source.

As an alternative, applications can be developed within the organization. However, this is not recommended, as the life cycle costs of such applications tend to be high. Instead it is recommended to purchase commercial software and then make necessary modifications /updates.

The planned use for the software, and the categories of users are very decisive factors for the selection of GIS software. The range of GIS use is very wide – from browsing pre-drawn maps to advanced analysis operations. This means that it might be necessary to select different software solutions with due consideration of the types of users. However, as a start for a low-income municipality, it would be enough to procure one software license to be used by the planner(s) and use a freeware GIS browser for the CLUP stakeholders.

3.05.02 Open Source GIS

Open Source programs are applications in which you can access the source code. In recent years, the GIS industry has witnessed a dramatic growth in the development and adoption of open source technologies and there is a number of Open Source GIS Software available on the market for free or at a low price. The technical GIS community has adopted open source technology and it now mainstreams GIS. Broader IT industries have come on board as open source products have matured. The availability of GIS open source software provides researchers and solution developers access to a wider range of tools than what is currently offered by the commercial companies. However, for the target group of the GIS Cookbook, the low-income municipalities with limited experience of computer technology, it is not recommended to use Open Source GIS as it is still complicated for the beginner to work with. It might be an alternative later when the staff is more confident with the computer environment.

3.05.03 Recommendations on GIS Software Setup for CLUP Preparation (Based on Best Practices)

The graph below shows the brands of GIS software that are commonly used by the LGUs in the Philippines some years ago. The findings originate from the NAMRIA nation-wide survey and if the trend is the same as with the rest of the world, the situation today will give an even bigger dominant position to ESRI which is the provider of ArcView, ArcGIS, ArcInfo, etc. As Microsoft Word drove Word Perfect out of the market some ten years ago it is also likely that ESRI will outmaneuver most of its competitors in the long run, simply because much resources are needed to keep software apace with users’ preferences and needs.

A geographic model is an abstraction of the real world that employs a set of data objects that supports map display, query, editing and analysis. To date there have been three generations of software in use, separately or integrated together and different GIS software make it possible to a greater or lesser extent to represent natural behaviors and relationships of features. These models are as follows:

  1. The CAD Data Model is the very first computerized mapping system that draws vector layers. However the representation of the attribute data is very limited. In this era, maps were created with CAD software;
  2. The Coverage Data Model introduced better options to combine spatial data with attribute data. The major advantage of the coverage data model is the user’s ability to customize feature tables. Not only could fields be added, but the database relationship could be set up to external database tables. The Coverage Data Model is still the dominant model in GIS. An example of the software that handles this data model is ArcView 3 using shapefiles.
  3. ArcGIS/ArcView 8 introduces a new object-oriented data model called the Geodatabase Data Model, which makes the features in the GIS datasets more proficient by endowing them with more natural features.

The GIS Cookbook recommends that data be prepared in a Coverage Data Model (Shape files, Excel/dBase attributes). However, as ESRI has terminated the development of the ArcView 3 environment, it is recommended that GIS software that also can manage Geodatabase Data Model such as ArcGIS be procured by a low-income municipality.

The reasons are briefly as follows:

  1. More flexibility for future improvements and upgrading of the GIS is possible;
  2. The amount of data required for the CLUP is not voluminous so it requires a Geodatabase Data Model;
  3. The queries and analysis used for the CLUP are relatively simple and do not require a Geodatabase Data Model;
  4. The amount of data sharing does not initially need a network solution.

However, it is more advantageous to use a Geodatabase GIS Software when it comes to displaying and visualizing the information products of the CLUP

A checklist with items and costs is enclosed in the Toolbox, Chapter 4.03.01.

3.05.04 Maintenance and Licensing

Most commercial software manufacturers are offering (often quite expensively) annual maintenance agreements that provide general support and troubleshooting. For the CLUP GIS however, it is not recommended for a low-income municipality to sign up for such an agreement as the problems that will occur will mostly not be related to the actual software but to inconsistencies among the other GIS elements, namely: training, data, hardware and the actual application - the CLUP GIS. In this case, the main provider of useful advice will be HLURB.

Licensed software comes normally with a password and a dongle which only allows the software to be used in one computer at a time. In the Philippines like the rest of the world, there are cracked versions that enable the use of the software without any restrictions. Although the price of the software is a hefty investment for a low-income municipality, it is not advisable to use pirated software, which is illegal.


3.06 Hardware (and Network Set Up)

3.06.01 Computer
3.06.02 Peripherals
3.06.03 Network


Developments in the PC market have led to faster and cheaper machines that support multiple operating systems. Peripherals remain costly and difficult to repair. Maintenance and technical support continue to be problems, although the development of local markets has begun to help. PC-technology is most often the appropriate choice for municipal-scale projects in developing countries. As with any project, it is important to evaluate the user needs, and pick hardware appropriate to the project, the long-term goals of the installation, and which can be realistically supported.

3.06.01 Computer

Today, GIS software runs on a wide range of hardware types, from centralized computer servers to desktop computers used in stand-alone or networked configurations.

Consequently, all new PC hardware will function well with GIS software today. As the GIS processes files that might be quite voluminous in size, it is recommended that special attention is given to boost internal memory (RAM) to 1024 MB.

A laptop is more expensive than a PC with the same performance but might be more practical to use for surveys and consultations (connected with a projector).

3.06.02 Peripherals

Aside from a functioning computer the following peripherals are useful:

An A3 (ink cartridge) color printer. The A3 format (or the somewhat smaller portfolio size) has been proven to be a most suitable format to present maps on a municipal ‘scale’ to be included in reports, etc., and can also be used for other graphs aiming to visualize the work of the Planning Office (posters, brochures, banners, etc.) in an attractive way.

There should be extra sets of ink cartridges in stock and must be always replenished. They are however ‘perishables’ and have an expiration date, and the ink eventually runs dry.

In most cases, for quality prints, the ‘fast-print/economy-print’ mode will save a lot of ink and money as many prints might contain maps and illustrations.

Laser printers, which have become much cheaper lately, are a cost saving alternative for large quantity printing of monochromatic documents compared to using an ink cartridge printer.

Although prices have come down from the previous years, a low-income municipality will not frequently need a plotter that can print in larger formats than A3. Instead, try to make friends with a nearby private or public institution with such plotter that can help with the reproduction during the few times it is needed.

Digital cameras have become very cost-effective and easy-to-use instruments for monitoring and maintenance activities. It is recommended that the Municipal Planning Office procure one for its use. A camera with 3 MB picture resolution is more than enough for photo documentation in a CLUP.

A handheld GPS is affordable nowadays and is most useful in capturing spatial locations of objects in the CLUP. It is advantageous (but not extremely necessary) to bring a laptop and data cable to transfer positions. A car lighter plug for the GPS is also necessary because the battery is often at risk of running low in the middle of a field work. Nowadays, GPS is already being integrated into PDAs and cellphones. Software installed in these PDA GPS allows user-made datasets like their base map which allows them to view the positions being observed in real time without the need of a laptop. Other units also have Bluetooth or WLAN which allows wireless connection to a laptop or PDA with a GIS software via Bluetooth or WLAN, and allows real time readings.

An A4 scanner has an affordable price tag and is extremely useful once one has got the right touch. In combination with Optical Character Reading (OCR) software it will save a lot of time when large amounts of paper data need to be put into digital format.





External USB hard disks are becoming inexpensive, and are very useful as a back up for a small planning office.

The flash disk memory (USB flash drive) has replaced the floppy disk and is very handy in data sharing. A USB flash drive is like a small hard drive, about 2-3 inches long, that plugs into the computer through a USB port. Data can be downloaded into it for storage. It is portable and files can be saved, modified, or deleted as often as needed. However, because of their size, USB flash drives are easy to misplace. The flash disk is normally a sufficient solution for data sharing (but not data storing) in a low-income municipality. (But might need a driver if you are using old computers)

A computer projector is slowly going down in price and can be useful at large meetings. Lumen (ANSI) and resolution (dpi) are the quality indicators and keep in mind that the lamp is very expensive to replace.

Access to a reliable power supply is still a major problem in many developing countries, though this is improving in some urban areas. The use of voltage regulators and Universal Power Supply (UPS) units is critical to safeguarding hardware and mitigating work loss and stoppages. In environments where adequate office space may be scarce and heating and cooling systems may be less than adequate, working conditions can be troublesome.

3.06.03 Network

In the CLUP GIS Guidelines, not much attention will be paid to networked GIS solutions as such models miss the mark in the situation when a low-income LGU is starting up a GIS for CLUP preparation.

However, for information purposes there are four kinds of networks, namely:

Local Area Network (LAN), which connects computers in limited numbers in, for example, an office, using a server,

Wide Area Network (WAN) is a more complex system in which a number of LANs are linked together. It is suitable for a large LGU with a corporate GIS with several office buildings spread over an area.

Network Attached Storage (NAS) is a network designed to attach computer storage devices such as disk array controllers and tape libraries to servers.

Storage Area Network (SAN) is a network designed to attach computer storage devices such as disk array controllers and tape libraries to servers.

The relatively small amount of data that is needed to prepare a CLUP and the frequency of sharing the data kept within reasonable bounds do not justify a network solution. Instead, data sharing using flash disks or read and writable CD-ROMs is a cheaper and sufficient solution. And in due time when the amount of data becomes unmanageable in a stand alone computer environment, and the pace of data sharing requires a more sophisticated solution, the municipality/city will be motivated to step up connectivity by introducing a network. It is then recommended to install a wireless solution, which in a few years time will be both cheaper and more reliable than a line network.


Tool Box

Ver 1.0


4. Methods - Procedures - Case Studies


4.01 LGU Case Studies


4.01.01 The Use of GIS in the Municipality of Laurel

Laurel is a 4th class municipality bounded on the north by the bustling city of Tagaytay, and has Taal Lake on its east side. It has a population of about 31,000 (2004) distributed in 16 rural and 5 urban barangays and occupying about 7,129 hectares of fertile soil in the Province of Batangas. Agricultural and fishery production are the leading sources of income for the majority of its residents. The propagation of tilapia fingerlings in ponds has been considered as best alternative to agricultural crop production due to its bigger demand from the fish cage operators in Taal Lake. The road from Manila going to Laurel is lined with residential homes, subdivisions and small resorts, however, the municipality is proud of having its physical developments based on the carrying capacity principle of the area.

Laurel started to use GIS in its planning activities in 2002, after the Planning and Coordination Office was involved in a training program conducted by NAMRIA. It represents the majority of Philippine LGUs in its rural profile with very limited economical resources, which are the main target users for the GIS Cookbook.

During the period when HLURB assisted the LGU in developing its GIS the Mayor, Honorable John Benedict P. Panganiban, was a first term Local Chief Executive. He is a young law graduate, and he got his political training from his father who was the previous Mayor of the municipality. Mayor Panganiban also relied on the technical expertise of the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator, (MPDC), Engr. Ciriaco B Calinisan. The Mayor has little background in GIS but he is familiar with maps and other information products, which originate from the GIS, such as, the Brief Profile of Laurel, which has utilized data from the GIS, and the available Municipal Base Maps which are displayed on the walls of the Barangay Halls for easy reference.

The municipal councilors and LGU senior management have attended in February 2006, a Workshop to prepare an Executive-Legislative Agenda for Local Governance and Development, which is a Policy Statement and Business Plan for the strategic development of Laurel. This activity is promoted by Department of Interior and Local Government, and it facilitates the preparatory steps for the formulation of the CLUP Vision, Goals and Objectives of the municipality.

The major challenges which the Mayor reports the LGU has to contend with are:

  1. Improvement of road conditions;
  2. Generation of jobs for the more than 30% of working age groups that are unemployed;
  3. Curbing the excessive proliferation of fish cages in Lake Taal;
  4. Advocating for the introduction of telephone landlines for cheaper communication fees and access to Internet.

On the other hand the municipality

  1. Has no informal settlements;
  2. Has adequate school and health facilities;
  3. Has no illegal dumpsite because it has a significant recycling program.

MPDC Calinisan returned from an overseas job in Saudi Arabia in 1988, and while waiting for another assignment abroad, he was approached by the Vice Mayor who asked him to take up the position as the MPDC on a temporary basis. At that time, there was little in terms of planning activities in the municipality, and there was just an out-of-scale and outdated municipal map on the office wall. Being a native of Laurel and wanting to help the Mayor, he accepted the job, and stayed on since then. The first CLUP, which was approved in 1995, took two years to prepare, with the assistance of the HLURB Regional Staff, since there was no MPDO staff then. The revision of the CLUP was done in 2001 with the UP School of Urban and Regional Planning (SURP) assisting them as a project of its students At the same time Laurel was included in a GIS training program implemented by NAMRIA. As a result, GIS was used in the CLUP revision.

In 2006, it has been decided to update the CLUP, and the next revision will be done with the use of the new HLURB Guidelines including the GIS Cookbook.

The MPDC is assisted by two staff assistants namely:

  1. One clerk (Planning Officer 1) who has training in GIS;
  2. One statistician (Planning Officer 2).

Another staff person, who was previously working with the MPDC but is now with the Engineering Office, also received GIS training.

MPDC Calinisan reports that the situation in his office of having limited staff resources is the same in the majority of LGUs throughout the country. He considers GIS to be a very useful tool not only for land use planning but also for other sector offices in the LGU, with whom he has encouraged data sharing. Municipal Engineering Office is also using GIS and some other Offices, like the Education District Office, have shown interest. The limited provision of computers has so far constrained the introduction of data sharing.

Provision of computer support is difficult for Laurel. Computer hardware has to be procured in Manila and there is very little competence in computer maintenance and repair in the municipality.

Plotting of large scale maps derived from the GIS is not possible to do in Laurel. It cannot afford its have its own plotter and there is no urgent and continuous need for it. Instead, the MPDC occasionally goes to NAMRIA in Fort Bonifacio where he can be assisted.

Mrs. Geraldine Canta is a Planning Officer of the MPDO who knows how to master basic operations in a GIS and is able to update and expand the municipal databases. She is assisted by a Statistician, who frequently uses the GPS to track the continuous need for spatial data information. The software being used for the GIS include Excel for the attribute data and ArcView 3 for the geodata. Ms. Canta realizes that projections are confusing in the GIS and the text in the software help function is difficult to understand. She confirms that there is hardly any help is found in Laurel when there is a problem with the hardware.

It is also reported that the other offices in the LGU are getting interested in using the GIS but the expensive software is a constraint for these municipal units to use the technology. As for now she helps the other offices print maps and other information products from the GIS.


4.01.02 The Use of GIS In ORMOC City

Ormoc City in the north-western part of Leyte is the first non-provincial Capital City of the Philippines proclaimed in September 4, 1947.

It is a coastal city with Ormoc Bay on the west side while the plains of the valley runs from the north to the south where numerous rivers and streams traverse these plains.

As of 2004, population count was 172,159 distributed in 110 barangays having a total land area of 464.3 square kilometers. City officials believe that this total number of barangays in the city is quite a big number in terms of territorial divisions as compared to the small population count in many of the barangays.

There are notably several resettlement areas especially for those affected by the November 1991 flash flood tragedy that are located in 9 barangays distributed in 18.4 hectares.

Land use and classification in the city is most dominant for agricultural purposes at 26,298.29 hectares or 56.64% of the total land area. This is followed by 32.38% forest areas. Built-up uses for residential, commercial, institutional areas, functional open spaces and roads comprise 5.75% while special uses for industrial purposes make up 5.22% of the total land area.

The local government of Ormoc is quite keen on combining the use of ICT and GIS in propelling the growth of the City particularly in building critical infrastructures and modernization of utilities and facilities.

How GIS Got Started:
It was through the initiative of former Mayor now Congressman Eufrocino Codilla Sr. that GIS use got started in Ormoc.

GIS was first utilized for land use plan preparation when in 1998, the city acquired an aerial photo with MapInfo. Along with the introduction of this new technology came the immediate need to train staff from various local government offices on the use of GIS. The Assessor’s Office, the Planning and Development Office and the Engineering Office made up the first batch that received training.

Thus, since 1998, there have been many infrastructures built and many roads were opened or widened as housing projects were built through the use of GIS technology.

Current Mayor Eric Codilla and City Planning Development Officer Raoul Cam cited the many uses of GIS for Ormoc since 1998 through the last 8 years up till the present. They believe that GIS is useful in the following:

  1. Production of maps, information sheets and folders;
  2. Updating the comprehensive land use plan which provides the details of a particular area;
  3. Production of digitized Barangay maps based on tax mapping;
  4. Production of colour images and effective visualization which makes it a good and well appreciated marketing tool;
  5. Serving as an educational material and guideline for GIS application at the municipal and barangay levels, since with GIS, officials are able to get actual measurements, get the descriptions and compute distance in the area;
  6. Helping locate watershed areas, forest covers and agricultural lands, which is most helpful since the City is pressing for efficiency in food production. It can analyse and plot the actual position of ricefields and sugarcane plantations using colour differentiations and distinctions;
  7. Resolving boundary disputes between private properties of residents and in determining actual land use, such as in the case of the boundary dispute between Ormoc City and the Municipality of Kananga, or in the sharing of among the 6 barangays in Ormoc of the Php 40M revenue they receive from PNOC annually;
  8. Time saving, since it would take months to manually prepare ordinary maps while it takes only two days to accomplish this in GIS;
  9. Meeting the objective of efficient tax collection;
  10. Identifying points with the use of orthophotomosaic (aerial) images, where roads may be built to traverse agricultural lands or see which improvements may be done in the efforts to expand the congested city business center and;
  11. Preparing the Master Development Plan and in laying the groundwork for development such as, identifying the best location to build a bridge or the best possible location to build a four lane road with an island, or where to put the drainage system.

Current GIS Applications:
The city is wilful in developing the use of computer technology for local government processes. For example, a website for the city has been constructed and the computerization of in-house systems is near completion for business permits, tax assessment system, water system and procurement systems.

Today´s GIS application emphasizes the importance of sharing data and technology within the local government offices through various networking efforts. The emphasis is on building-up data on infrastructure, utilization, and other services and the plan is to optimize the best possible results of GIS utilization in the City.

The GIS center holds office at the Planning and Development Office with two fulltime staff running the day to day operation.

The GIS personnel agree that a high resolution image is more useful in urban areas. In agricultural areas, they believe that GIS could promote the rice enhancement program of the local government where production has increased from an average of 66 cavans to 140 cavans within the 1,000 hectares coverage of the program. Diversification of agricultural production is also an important thrust where use of GIS may be applied.

Lately, the city government is seriously looking at the possibility of utilizing Lake Danao to supply water. City Engineer Juliana Flores reckons that GIS can help in the visualization of this plan and will be useful in the preparation of a feasibility study.

Challenges Ahead:
In the future, city officials consider using GIS as a counter-insurgency tool such that the Army can even determine the terrain and detect possible encounters between the military and insurgents.

They are concerned that the aerial photos are already eight years old and need upgrading. They think that satellite images are a much cheaper choice but according to GIS specialists, it is hard to take pictures of the ground due to the terrain in the archipelago that accounts for the presence of clouds.

In terms of technology to be used, the best resolution they could think so far is the 1:10,000 resolution that would be most useful in areas where development is fast and hence, updating is needed on a more periodic basis. But the mayor noted that since GIS is quite expensive at P150,000 per license, the cheaper GIS technology must be always be considered.

Undoubtedly, Ormoc officials are well aware that the advantages of GIS is beyond compare and this is where training as an important aspect of sustainability in GIS utilization must be made a part of the package. They cited other areas where the community is left not knowing how to use the system because the consultants who left soon after the project completion, were not able to transfer basic skills in the community. Skills training and staff development in GIS must be made a continuing effort and part of the agenda of the City government.

By and large, GIS application in Ormoc City is one that is prime for customization to suit localized community requirements. Combined with strong ICT practice, the city has gained a boost in its planned economic edge. By addressing the challenges ahead, GIS is not only deemed as the better option for problems that are geographic in nature, it may just be the solution to many linked and long drawn-out woes and difficulties. After all, it is but fitting to emphasize that the measure of success for the utilization of any technology, is the quality of life that the target residents may hopefully attain. Although not easily quantifiable, it is one that goes beyond systems and implementation processes.


4.01.03 How We Use GIS in Pateros

Pateros is located in the south eastern part of Metro Manila, bounded by Pasig City on the North, Taguig on the South and Makati City on the West. It is the smallest of the seventeen cities and municipalities comprising Metro Manila. The land is approximately only 183 hectares composed of 10 barangays.

Its primary land use classification is residential comprising of 84 % of the total land. Because of its size, population density, narrow roads and most of all, proximity to larger cities, Pateros has no comparative advantage in terms of development. Hence, it has very limited economical resources. It appears that it has become a bedroom municipality to other neighboring cities/municipalities where most of them are employed.

The Mayor, Hon. Rosendo T. Capco, has succeeded his brother as the Local Chief Executive in 2001. It is his second term as Mayor, being a lawyer he has served as kagawad during the term of his brother Jose T. Capco Jr. He has lived in one of the largest barangay, Barangay Sta. Ana, where most urban poor communities are located and he served as lawyer under the legal aid program to DSWD helping this community. As the successor to his brother, he has helped in continuing and implementing the programs that was initiated during that time.

The Mayor is not so knowledgeable in GIS but gives his full support and confidence to the Planning office headed by Angelus Ponce. The Sanguniang Bayan of Pateros has approved its CLUP on May 21, 2003.

Pateros has very limited resources to finance projects, but the Mayor boasts that he has helped 25 urban poor communities out of 60, to acquire the land through the Community Mortgage Program (CMT). Although there are still remaining urban poor communities, the problem lies in the landowners unwilling to sell their property to give way to the urban poor settlers who are leasing the land. Pateros is fully dependent on the National Housing Authority to provide relocation sites.

The major challenges, which the Mayor reports he has to battle with is to:

  1. Generate income;
  2. Improve traffic conditions;
  3. Dredging of the river;
  4. Resettlement of informal settlements along the river banks.

On the other hand the municipality

  1. Has good peace and order situation;
  2. Hall of Fame Awardee for Nutrition by the National Nutrition Council;
  3. High literacy rate (about 97 %).

How GIS Got Started
Pateros was part of the second batch of pilot municipalities for the two-year Municipal Base Mapping Project (MBMP) which had NAMRIA as lead implementing agency with assistance from the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. At present, Pateros is updating its database composed of spatial data needed by the internal and external users in the future. Currently, they are digitizing the maps of schools, health centers, population density and overseas workers together with updating the attribute data.

Although there was a consultant that prepared their CLUP, the spatial data that was generated could not be overlaid with maps prepared from other sources. There were no metadata for the digital data given to them by the consultants that makes it hard to apply the correct settings for other data to make it homogenous. This is the reason that the thematic maps that are currently being prepared by the Planning Office use the NAMRIA digitized maps as the basemap. The data provided to them by the consultants where then manually adjusted to fit and conform to this dataset.

Ms. Angelus Ponce relates that although Pateros is a first class municipality with 40 million/year in income, they are not able to purchase new computers as the funds are priorities to finance the projects needed by the municipality.

Two staff assists the MPDC:

Arlene Ortiz – which was trained during the MBM project and has also attended training for ArcGIS;

Gregorio Lyo –who manages the municipality’s website also attended training for ArcGIS.

The Planning staff used to go to MMDA to have their large scale maps plotted but right now, they use the A3 printer for printing the maps.

Ms. Ortiz is an Industrial Technology Graduate cum Planning Officer and knows how to master basic operations in a GIS and is able to update and expand the municipal databases. Mr. Iyo is a Computer Science Graduate, who provides technical support, research to track the continuous need of spatial data information. He is also responsible in the maintenance and update of their website. They use Excel to process their tabular data, which can then be imported into ArcView 3.2, the GIS software.

A constraint to further improve their skills in GIS is the lack of time to practice. The two planning staff has other tasks outside the planning functions to perform. Further skill they need to improve is the use of GPS to capture data. They already have the receiver and know how operations of the device. However, the skills to upload and process these data for their GIS needs to be learned and also the time to go into this field survey has to be scheduled.






4.02 Strategies and Policies


4.02.01 GIS Implementation Strategy

Background
Only a few of the 1,650 LGUs in the Philippines (consisting of cities, towns and rural municipalities of various classes) have established a functional local Geographic Information System (GIS). However, majority of them, including low-income towns, are now using computers mainly for word processing and spreadsheets.

Introduction
The design of implementation of a GIS is a major, long-term undertaking. The entire process, from when the LGU becomes aware of the technology through to when it is finally implemented takes one or more years. The implementation of a GIS is where technology and people meet and computer-generated data is a potent political tool in its power to influence. The introduction of new technology will also change an organization in ways that cannot be entirely predicted. Likewise, new ideas, such as GIS, have to be ‘sold’ within the LGU.

Most GIS are complex systems. All computer systems can be prone to failures, hence consideration should be given to the probability of such failures, the potential effects they have on operations, and the recovery procedures to be used. The more consequences there are due to failure, the more important it becomes to have alternative methods to generate specific information.

Recommended List of Actions in the Future
The following is an ideal step by step implementation process for the establishment of GIS in an LGU, particularly for its use in the preparation of the CLUP. It is a process that is facilitated by the HLURB, and it is assumed in this case that the target municipality has not used GIS before

  Action taken by: ACTIVITY DOCUMENTATION
1 HLURB HLURB promotes the CLUP GIS Starting Package and training opportunities
at occasions where LGU representatives meet.
Attends and gives information about CLUP GIS at the annual meetings of League
of Municipalities/Cities, Councilors League, Vice-Mayor’s League,
Union of Local Administrator of the Philippines , League of Planners and
Development Coordinators of the Philippines, PIEP, and the like.
  1. Information Leaflet
  2. Homepage

2 LGU LGU decides to update CLUP and wants to use GIS; approaches HLURB RO to
seek advice.
  1. Letter of Intent
3 CPDC/MPDC with HLURB HLURB visits the LGU, briefs them about local GIS for CLUP preparation
and about the GIS Cookbook, training program, the Starting Package and assesses
the feasibility for GIS development in the LGU.
  1. Invitation letter to LGU representatives
  2. PowerPoint presentation on Local GIS
  3. Information Leaflet
  4. LGU Computerization Proficiency Form

4 HLURB,

LGU
If the study finds it feasible that the LGU has enough resources and capability
to start up a GIS, a MoA between HLURB and the LGU is signed.
  1. Memorandum of Agreement on the cooperation
    for the CLUP and GIS
  2. GIS Start Package
  3. CV for the 2 trainees
  4. List of issues to bring to the Basic/beginner
    Training

5 LGU The CLUP Budget (including cost for GIS) is prepared and approved.
  1. CLUP Budget
  2. SB Resolution authorizing the LCE to enter into
    MOA
  3. SB Resolution regarding the CLUP Budget

6 LGU Procurement of hardware and software.
  1. Bidding Documents
7 HLURB CO HLURB transmits fresh information on LGU GIS status to the National GIS
Literacy Level Survey.
  1. National GIS Literacy Level (ArcView) Project
8 HLURB HLURB assists in the inventory and compilation of available data at national/regional
level that can be used in the CLUP GIS, as provided in the MOA.
  1. List of secondary source materials to be used
    during CLUP preparation.
  2. CD with data

9 LGU LGU trainees, one of whom should be the appointed GIO, prepare for the
training.
  1. List of Issues to bring to the Basic/Beginner
    Training
  2. Travel Order
10 HLURB HLURB prepares for the Basic/beginner Training.
  1. List of Trainees
  2. Budget Presentation
  3. Course Agenda
  4. List of Resource Persons
  5. Course Material compiled in a ring file
  6. Checklist for logistics (accommodation, transport,
    venue, hardware and software, meals, snacks, etc.)
  7. Performance Test
  8. Course Evaluation Form
  9. CD/floppy with the work results from the training

  10. Certificates
11 HLURB CO

LGU
HLURB conducts Basic/Beginner training.  
12 HLURB HLURB instructs LGU trainees about the interim activities to be undertaken
by the LGU after the Basic/beginner and prior to the Applied CLUP Training.
  1. List of databases and other materials to be
    prepared prior to the Applied CLUP Training
13 HLURB RO/CO HLURB evaluates the performance of the LGU at Basic/beginner Training
and determines if it is feasible to conduct the CLUP GIS Applied Training
  1. LGU Evaluation Form
14 HLURB RO HLURB starts up the Log Book of communications with the LGU, which records
the actions taken and the results thereof.
  1. Log Book format
15 LGU LGU trainees brief the local officials and heads of different offices.
  1. CD with the work results from the training
  2. Power Point presentation on Local GIS
16 LGU LGU trainees with the help of LGU staff prepare databases and other materials
to be used during the Applied CLUP Training.
  1. List of databases and other materials to be
    prepared prior to the Applied CLUP Training
17 HLURB HLURB prepares for Applied CLUP Training
  1. List of Trainees (hopefully the same as previous)

  2. Budget Presentation
  3. Course Agenda
  4. List of Resource Persons
  5. Course Material compiled in a ring file
  6. Checklist for logistics (accommodation, transport,
    venue, hardware and software, meals, snacks, etc.)
  7. Performance Test
  8. Course Evaluation Form
  9. CD/floppy with the work results from the training

  10. Certificates
18 LGU LGU trainees prepare for the Applied CLUP Training
  1. List of Issues to bring to the Applied CLUP
    Training
  2. Travel Order
19 HLURB

LGU
HLURB conducts Applied CLUP Training
  1. Action Plan
20 LGU LGU prepares Action Plan (Short Term Plan) based on above  
21 LGU LGU trainees present their achievements in Applied CLUP Training in a
wider forum and initiate the formation of an LGU GIS Task Force with representatives
from various departments.
  1. CD/floppy with the work results from the training
  2. LGU GIS Implementation Strategy

22 LGU The LGU mobilizes the LGU GIS Task Force that will review and update the
existing data in preparation of applicable GIS databases.
  1. LGU Metadatabase
23 LGU LGU GIS Task Force prepares a list of prioritized activities regarding
compilation of attribute data.
  1. LGU Metadatabase
24 LGU LGU GIS Task Force prepares a list of analogue map information that need
to be digitized.
  1. LGU Metadatabase
25 HLURB During one-year period after the Applied Training, HLURB extends back
up support to the LGU as per Start Package agreement.
  1. Log Book
26 LGU LGU GIS Task Force prepares a GIS Implementation Plan.
  1. GIS Implementation Plan-Guidelines
  2. Protocols from the Local Chief Executive.
27 HLURB Within one year after the Applied Training, HLURB performs an evaluation
of the progress of GIS development and revises the National GIS Literacy
Level.
  1. National GIS Literacy Level (ArcView) project
28 LGU LGU provides the updated Geographic Data to HLURB on an annual basis.
  1. MOA
29 HLURB HLURB delivers data to concerned Central Institutions for sharing.  
The linkage between the steps in the CLUP Planning Process and the CLUP GIS Implementation Strategy is shown below.

4.02.02 Basic GIS Policies for Data Format, Data Transfer, Data Import/Export, Data Storage, Data Security and Software

This example illustrates the policies that are useful to apply in interaction with consultants and in relation to general systems and databases development in a municipality which is starting up with GIS and where the CLUP is the first application. In this case there might not be an approved GIS strategy, there is no existing network, and the Planning Office is the lead in the development network.

Purpose
The purpose is to present GIS policies that will be applied for preparing a CLUP and the CLUP data that has a municipal corporate function.

GIS Strategy
The Municipal GIS is based on a corporate geodatabase, with no network.
GIS Software

The GIS will utilize ESRI Software. (This is recommended based on HLURB’s current software that is being used. However, the LGU may opt to utilize different software, in which case, this will not be tackled in the GIS Cookbook because the HLURB staff is trained in ESRI software).

Data Format
The Municipal geodatabase file standard is shape files.
The structuring of the non-spatial sector attribute databases and tables will be done in consultation with the Planning Office.

Base data will be supplied via the CLUP GIS and this will form the core of all other thematic GIS projects.

Data Storage
The CLUP geodatabase resides in a stand alone computer environment in an exclusive PC at the Planning Office with a back up function located in a secure environment. All backing up and maintenance of the geodatabase is done by the Planning Office. The Planning Office will implement an auditor-approved backing up strategy and only data stored in the exclusive PC will have a secure back up protocol.

All GIS projects are to reside within the exclusive PC at the Planning Office.
Both GIS spatial and non-spatial attribute datasets will reside within the exclusive PC at the Planning Office.

Data Maintenance
The custodians of the sector non-spatial data will take responsibility for updating and maintaining their own datasets. Each sector office will be responsible for the integrity of its own data. The sector offices will take ownership of the data and ensure that editing and correctness is in line with the standards required.

The custodians of the data will determine the restrictions to be placed on their data.

Updating of the geodatabase will be restricted to certain identified data custodians.

Data Transfer
The GIS will be distributed to all clients through ArcGIS and ArcExplorer. General access for all users is through copying from the exclusive PC at the Planning Office with the use of CDs or Flash disks.

Data Import/Export
CAD can be used as a design and planning tool but not as a GIS / mapping tool.

Cadastre and other GIS data will be extracted from the corporate database using dedicated routines for importing into other systems, e. g. CAD or design packages. The standard CAD package used by the Municipality is AutoCAD.

When importing data either to a CAD drawing or to the GIS the following formats will be acceptable: AutoCAD DXF files; ESRI shapefiles.
The following defaults will apply when transporting data: Scale equal or larger than 1:10,000; A0 Paper size; artesian co-ordinate system.

Geographic Data Coordinate System

  1. UTM projection;
  2. Luzon datum;
  3. UTM coordinate system.

Note: These are based on the existing guidelines instituted by the IATFGI on data sharing. If new standards or guidelines are formulated, these standards should be superseded by the new guidelines.
Data Security

In all cases read-only rights will be granted unless written instructions to the contrary are received from the authorized data custodian.


4.02.03 Advanced GIS Policies for Data Format, Data Transfer, Data Import/Export, Data Storage, Data Security and Software

This example illustrates policies that are useful to apply in interaction with consultants and in relation to general systems and databases development in a municipality which has embarked on a more ‘sophisticated’ implementation. In this case there is also an approved GIS strategy, a network and a separate GIS function ‘behind’ the policies.

Purpose
The purpose is to present GIS policies that will be applied for preparing ‘GIS compatible’ sector applications in case these applications have a corporate significance. It will present the common denominators for having the application harmonize with the GIS Strategy approved by the Sangguniang Bayan in (month) (year).

It is recommended that the policies will be included in the bid documents when the development of a thematic application has been decided on.

GIS Strategy
The Municipal GIS is based on a corporate geodatabase, thus enabling all levels of management and users direct access to the latest, up-to-date information.

Please observe that the policies are not applicable to stand-alone thematic applications, which will be used by a few staff without the need of network connectivity.

GIS Software
The GIS will utilize the ESRI product suite. However, upon approval by the GIS Task Team/GIS Unit, it may be permissible to utilize third party software as a feeder or edit tool to the corporate GIS. These cases will be thoroughly investigated before implementation. In each case they will remain as tools for the ESRI-based corporate GIS and will not be utilized as GIS standard software in themselves.

Data Format
The Municipal corporate database standard is Microsoft SQL and all corporate GIS spatial and attribute data are to be stored within this database. The GIS will be managed by Arc SDE which will be installed on the Microsoft SQL server.

Data formats such as dBase, MS-Access and Excel spreadsheets can be utilized in stand-alone applications.

Only under conditions approved by the GIS Task Force eam/GIS Unit can the above mentioned database formats be used in applications associated with GIS.

The structuring of the attribute databases and tables will be done in consultation with the GIS Unit.

Base data will be supplied via the corporate GIS and this will form the core of all thematic GIS projects.

Data Storage
The corporate geodatabase resides on a central server that is in a secure area. All data will be stored on the central server as no workstations will be included in the back-up strategy. All backing up and maintenance of the database is planned and implemented in consultation with the IT Office. The IT Office will implement an auditor-approved backing up strategy and only data stored in the central server will have a secure back-up protocol.

Utilizing large-sized shape files to store data is to be discouraged.

ll GIS projects are to reside within the corporate database.

Both GIS spatial and attribute datasets will reside within the corporate database.

Data Maintenance
The custodians of the data will take responsibility for updating and maintaining their own datasets. Each sector office will be responsible for the integrity of its own data. The sector offices will take ownership of their data and ensure that editing and correctness is in line with the standards required.

The custodians of the data will determine the restrictions to be placed on their data.

Updating of the geodatabase will be restricted to certain identified data custodians who will have appropriate access to the Relational Database Management System (DBMS).

Updating of the corporate database will be done with ArcInfo or ArcEditor.

Data Transfer
The GIS will be distributed to all clients through the following ESRI products: Arc View; Arc IMS or Arc Explorer.

General access for all users is through an Intranet or Internet web page.

Shapefiles may be used for transferring data to and from the geodatabase.

GIS analysis will be possible within the confines of the Local Area Network (LAN) at speeds of not less than 10Mb/sec. Terminal services client access will be set up for remote users (users outside of the immediate LAN but connected to the Municipal Wide Area Network). This will enable live updating and immediate distribution of the updated information.

Data Import/Export
CAD can be used as a design and planning tool but not as GIS / mapping tool.

Cadastre and other GIS data will be extracted from the corporate database using dedicated routines for importing into other systems e. g. CAD or design packages. The standard CAD package used by the Municipality is AutoCAD.

When importing data either to a CAD drawing or to the GIS, the following formats will be acceptable: AutoCAD DXF files; ESRI shapefiles.
The following defaults will apply when transporting data: Scale 1:1000; A0 Paper size; cartesian coordinate system.

Geographic Data Coordinate System

  1. UTM projection;
  2. Luzon datum;
  3. UTM coordinate system.

Data Security
The GIS/IT Office will ensure that all relative securities and login controls are strictly adhered to.

Security will be applied at SDE (GIS management system), database and server levels.

In all cases read-only rights will be granted unless written instructions to the contrary are received from the authorized data custodian.

Access to the databases will be controlled via groups. Individual users will be added to groups and these groups will be granted the appropriate rights.


4.02.04 Cost-benefit Analysis of a (Municipal) GIS

The major costs required for a GIS project is classified into the following three categories:

  1. Cost for Hardware and Software
    PC-based GIS system will range from ….Pesos for a PC, peripherals and
    software, as listed in Chapter 3.05 and Chapter 3.06;
  2. Cost for Establishment of Database
    Map digitization, scanning, error check, updating and database management
    are the most expensive, with a share of about 80 percent of the total cost.
  3. Cost of Staff Skills Development, Maintenance and Daily Operations
    Personnel, supplies and materials, electricity, trainings, etc. are necessary. It is important to point out to the senior management decision makers the advantages and the cost savings to be gained from implementing GIS in the long run instead of the conventional analog system.

The justification to promote the use of GIS project is to emphasize the following points:

  1. Better decision-making with the help provided by GIS, which will save unnecessary costs due to mismanagement;
  2. Higher productivity can be expected because of implementation of a more systematized and standardized management of geospatial data and information;
  3. Savings of personnel cost because the total productivity will be higher under a restructured scheme;
  4. Optimized use of databases by secondary users in and outside the organization, especially when used in other ways than originally aimed. However, as more users and clients get involved, series of new questions will be raised to the managers, such as the rules and prices for access to and use of information. When users emerge from new offices and organizations, this concern will be very important.

The Figure below shows the benefits of a GIS compared with investment costs. GIS is a long term investment, which implies that the total cost will be compensated in about ten years.


4.02.05 Examples of Job Descriptions for GIS Staffing

Technology innovations, increased demand, and new found applications have caused the field of GIS to expand. And as the field becomes more varied and complex, the individual job requirements for GIS continue to branch out. The organizational structure and management direction will determine the type of GIS organization to be created. The changes in the organization must be based on existing technology and experiences which have accumulated over the years. Policies are continuously being formulated to provide more efficient procedures in managing GIS activities. These, too need to be considered in managing the changes in the GIS organizational structure. Future trends in the field of information technology indicate that spatial data will become an integral part of every information infrastructure as shown with the increasing demand for geographic-based data.

Despite the different approaches in installing a GIS environment, a GIS organization must be structured based on the functions of the technology. These functions include customer support, operations, data management, and applications management and support. GIS units may also have staff dedicated to project management. GIS units require staff support for these functions. A large municipality may even have multiple staff positions supporting each of these functions while a low-income LGU has to rely on an IT unit with regard to all functions except from actual operations.

Based on research on GIS job classifications in national and local government, the model job descriptions can be divided into six special categories based on job responsibilities. These are:

  1. Managers;
  2. Coordinators;
  3. Specialists;
  4. Programmers;
  5. Analysts;
  6. Technicians.

GIS Director

  1. Conduct a planning workshop to formulate an plan for GIS long-term growth and short-term operations;
  2. Provide leadership and focus on the economic development aspect of GIS management;
  3. Manage the agency’s GIS functions in coordination and conjunction with the GIS needs of other offices;
  4. Perform on-going objective evaluation of GIS effectiveness; recommend and implement changes necessary to meet the goals;
  5. Interact regularly with staff from other offices and organizations to ensure that GIS functions meet both needs and external public needs.

GIS Manager

  1. Lead GIS implementation and maintenance activities including resource planning, policy and procedures development, departmental needs assessment, systems analysis, inter-governmental agreements;
  2. Coordinate and supervise GIS activities and personnel (spatial analysis, data modeling, development and management of databases, metadata, digital mapping, and GIS data standards and quality assurance procedures);
  3. Manage GIS data development and/or conversion projects including providing technical expertise, obtaining milestones, and meeting deadlines;
  4. Provide technical expertise and assistance to meet the needs and requests of other government agencies and the general public related to the GIS system.

GIS Coordinator

  1. Responsible for coordinating activities related to the development, deployment, and use of GIS;
  2. Provide guidance and training to users;
  3. Facilitate interdepartmental cooperation, database administration and GIS web site administration;
  4. Assist in the development and administration of the GIS budget, and work closely with user departments, consultants, vendors, external users, and the general public in the coordination and utilization of GIS services.

GIS Senior Developer/Project Manager

  1. Serve as the project manager for GIS development projects;
  2. Lead hands-on technical role in planning for and implementing GIS data model migration;
  3. Provide GIS analytical and technical expertise for the analysis, design, development, testing and implementation of GIS-based applications;
  4. Provide GIS software and programming expertise;
  5. Geo-spatial data administration, database design and development;
  6. Execute complex geo-spatial analysis using GIS software tools and techniques;
  7. Write technical user documentation for application products;
  8. Troubleshoot problems associated with existing GIS applications and tools.

GIS Specialist/Sr. GIS Specialist/Sr. Programmer/Analyst

  1. Generate and maintain geodatabases layers and associated attribute information;
  2. Work as a high level technical expert in design, development, implementation, and testing of complex GIS applications or significant enhancements to existing GIS applications.
  3. Act as highest-level technical expert, addressing issues of standards, strategy, technical requirements, and long-term administration and maintenance;
  4. Implement, operate, populate, analyze and maintain GIS applications and databases. Work includes the translation of various software datasets, manipulation of intricate data and execution of complex queries, as well as, maintenance and updates of GIS databases, application of standard spatial analysis functionality, training and documentation activities;
  5. Provide applications development and programming services, spatial database administration and development, computing systems administration and analytical support;
  6. Design and develop efficient program logic for the enhancement of existing systems, including appropriate system documentation; preparing test cases and carrying out unit integrations to ensure that modified systems perform correctly;
  7. Analyze systems documentation, program logic and manuals, including on-site review of user procedures to achieve a thorough understanding of the various systems functions;
  8. Coordinate projects with peers, supervisors and management to ensure that project and departmental objectives are met.

GIS Developer

  1. Support the needs of clients;
  2. Provide expertise on GIS development technologies;
  3. Participate in application design and programming teams;
  4. Create software specifications and estimates;
  5. Write and document GIS application code;
  6. Maintain and update existing applications used by clients;
  7. Assist GIS technical staff with general programming support;
  8. Troubleshoot application problems;
  9. Assist with client implementation, installation and support of GIS applications.

GIS Analyst, Senior

  1. Provide geographic information services utilizing GIS systems to various departments;
  2. Analyze, define, model, implement, and maintain databases;
  3. Lead and/or participate as team member in large projects;
  4. Lead and/or participate in geospatial data conversion projects;
  5. Collect and update geospatial data documentations, including metadata.

GIS Analyst

  1. Participate in all aspects of GIS analysis and application development, including design, analysis, programming, testing, documentation, training, and user support;
  2. Provide GIS software and programming expertise;
  3. Apply sophisticated geospatial analysis techniques;
  4. GIS database design, development and maintenance;
  5. Write technical and user documentation;
  6. Troubleshoot problems associated with existing GIS applications and data;
  7. Collaborate closely with other developers and GIS professionals;
  8. Provide on-going support for GIS programs and functions requiring programming and analysis;
  9. Collect, create, edit, operate, maintain, analyze, distribute, and plot simple and complex GIS/GPS data;
  10. Prepare technical reports and proposals, and provide technical support to project managers.

GIS Technician

  1. Perform mapping and data analysis tasks including producing graphic and tabular data;
  2. Create and keep GIS coverages, digitize geographic data and input non-geographic data;
  3. Collect, create, edit, operate, maintain, analyze, distribute, and plot simple GIS/GPS data.

These jobs can be broken down and analyzed according to educational background, salary grade, specific skills, etc. Existing job titles and proposed new position titles along with the existing duties and responsibilities of the positions are presented in matrix form.

In a low-income LGU, however, GlS development will evolve from the Planning and Development Office which at the outset will shoulder both a corporate and a departmental/sectoral responsibility. A Corporate GIS assists all government departments and requires extensive planning since all of the control and operation functions are needed. The Department GIS supports one critical area of an organization and is managed within the department that it supports. If the CLUP GIS is the first initiative of the municipality in terms of using GIS, the MPDC will most probably play the role of GIS Coordinator, in addition to his other duties. Likewise, the Planning Assistant /Cartographer will have to take supplementary courses to become a GIS Technician. A major municipality/city is likely to be able to introduce a GIS Unit with several positions that is described above.


4.03 GIS CLUP Start Package


4.03.01 The Components of the Recommended Start Package

The Start Package consists of the following:

Component Provided by Unit Price (Peso) as
Hardware    
1 Desktop computer system with , 17” Color Monitor,
pre-installed Microsoft Windows XP professional and anti-virus software
  PC Clone:
PC Brand:

Laptop:
A4 size Scanner  
A3 size Capable Color Printer  
Extra Hard Disk for Back-ups  
GPS Hand Held Device  
Digital Camera, min 3 Megapixel resolution.  
(A UPS might be needed if sustained electricity supply is not provided)  
GIS Software    
ArcView 9.x Geodata (inquire for price)
MS Office  
Data    
CLUP Base Map Preparation   20,000 and above
Data from different sources/custodians to facilitate the CLUP preparation  
Secondary source data requested from custodians See Data Custodian…  
Primary data field surveys such as Integrated Barangay Field Surveys

(3-5 days per barangay for a Survey Team required)
   
Human Resource Development    
1 week Basic/Beginners’ Training for two LGU Staff HLURB CO
1 week Applied CLUP GIS Training for two LGU Staff HLURB CO
On-the-job assistance HLURB RO/CO ?
Methodology    
The CLUP GIS Guidelines including Toolbox HLURB  
  Total Cost:  

4.04 External Technical Assistance in the CLUP Preparation


4.04.01 Basic Activities for CLUP GIS Build-up

In the common situation a ToR is attached to a MoA between the LGU and HLURB or the Contract between the LGU and the private consultant.

The ToR stipulates conditions for the following:

  1. The steps of the planning work and how they should be laid out in time
    and manpower resources (what and when shall it be done?);
  2. The result of the work (what will we have in the end?);
  3. The data (and other ‘logistics’) that needs to be prepared for
    the planning, decisions and presentations (‘What do we need?);
  4. The distribution of roles and responsibilities between the LGU and the
    HLURB/external technical expert (who is doing what?)

Regarding 1 and 2 above, the agreement will rely on HLURB‘s general guidelines. The GIS Cookbook will assist in formulating the requirements for point 3 above if the LGU has decided that GIS should be used in the preparation. If no GIS is applied, the Mapping guidelines with be applied.

If GIS is applied in the work, special considerations are needed regarding point 4. Besides from the requirement that the consultant needs certain skill and competence in the field, data standards have to be followed in the preparation and final outcome. Furthermore, the agreement should ensure that the planning process is seen as a transfer of knowledge process as regard to GIS. The objective would be that the LGU staff in the end of the assignment would have full ‘ownership’ of the GIS practiced in the CLUP and to be able to use GIS as a tool in future revisions, analysis and presentations.

Below is an example of a work program for CLUP GIS building and data capturing:

Organization of Project Team/Activities
A team composing of selected technical experts and the municipality will be organized at the start of the project. Concurrently, a series of meetings will be held to discuss in detail the responsibilities and activities to be undertaken by the involved staff from the technical expert and the municipality.

Data Needs and Capability Assessment
`The technical expert will hold a series of meetings with the technical staff of the municipality to discuss and determine data requirements. The data requirements, as well as the results of the capability assessment, will be used as inputs to the CLUP database and the GIS applications in general. A documentation of the data needs and capability assessment will be prepared by the technical expert for presentation to the municipality. After approval, the technical expert will be responsible for the design and development of the CLUP GIS database. The LGU will designate staff who will participate in the work to acquire hands–on GIS training.

Generation of Digital Graphic and Non-graphic Databases
Digital database will also be generated from other sources by data encoding, scanning and digitization. These data sources will include technical descriptions, boundary computations, existing land use, approved comprehensive land use plan and zoning map. The generation of digital database will be undertaken by the technical expert but with the assistance from the municipality. The base data derived from the existing municipal maps will be used in georeferencing other pieces of information and include the data needed to prepare base map such as roads, rivers, elevation and parcels. Relevant non-spatial data will be linked with mapped or spatial data using Arc View GIS software.

Database Design and Development
The municipality shall provide the technical expert with all secondary or primary source data, the required data for the design and development of the CLUP database. The technical expert shall present and provide to the municipality the design of the database system based on the GIS Cookbook. The technical expert with the assistance by the municipality in the implementation make use of the aforesaid design using specified Data Base Management System (DBMS) and GIS software packages. The system will be installed on the computers assigned by the municipality for the project.

Selected personnel shall be permanently assigned by the municipality to work on the developed database system to ensure the sustainability of its operation.

System Testing and Revisions
The developed GIS shall be tested to ensure that the information requirements of the municipality explained in the ToR are met. Revisions of the system will be performed if any loopholes and bottlenecks are detected during the testing.

System Maintenance and Evaluation
System evaluation will be conducted jointly by the municipality and the technical expert. Any problem identified will also be addressed jointly by the municipality and the technical expert. Maintenance of the system will only include activities specified within the ToR.

Documentation, Generation of Final Outputs and Turnover to the Client
Documentation on the development and operation of the system shall be prepared, presented and turned over to the municipal government towards the end of the project. Training activities as specified in the ToR.


4.04.02 Sample MoA for HLURB Assistance in Preparing a CLUP Using GIS

Click Attachment for the Sample Memorandum of Agreement


4.04.03 Sample ToR for Private Consultant’s / Contractor’s Assistance in Preparing a CLUP Using GIS

Click Attachment for the Sample Terms of Reference


4.04.04 Terms of Reference (ToR) for Digital Base Map Preparation

Click Attachment for the Sample Terms of Reference


4.05 Information Product Descriptions - Basic Information


4.05.01 CLUP Base Map Components & Preparation

A Base Map displays the fundamental data set (e.g. barangay boundaries, roads, schools, etc.) that is used to make sector data more meaningful. At a glance, a good Base Map should easily answer the question that we ask (“Where?”) when we look at a Base Map. A user should be able to relate the roads, landmarks and all other places and features found in the Base Map to the mental pictures he sees when a user looks at a map. Displaying or analyzing the base data with the sector data assists the user in making more effective and well-informed decisions.

The content of a Base Map depends on the user of the map and his intended use. The GIS Cookbook deals with the Base Map used for CLUP preparation and does not tackle the other base map as defined by other entities. The base map shall serve as a template for different mapping requirements where all other thematic maps may be overlaid for analysis. Thus, it shall aid the planners in coming up with the CLUP. It is important for the mapmaker and also the target custodians of these data to understand the procedural steps in the production of base maps, the hierarchy of the sources of data and some understanding about the data.

This Chapter will deal with the concepts and generic procedures in preparing the GIS base map needed for CLUP. The following are the three major items to be discussed:

  1. Components of an appropriate base map – This includes a list of the base map features needed to be captured, sources for these data, important components of the base map output and their description.
  2. Procedural steps in the GIS base map preparation – These are the general steps in converting your data into digital form. It shall guide us where to look for our data, what to do with this data, and what important things to consider when capturing data for the GIS base map.
  3. Steps in securing Help for the base map preparation – The LGU shall have to make a self-assessment on their capability to produce the first version of a GIS base map. Otherwise, help from the government or a private entity to prepare the base map may be secured using the following procedure below. In this case, the city/municipality shall acquire/provide the primary or secondary data for the administrative boundary as shown on Table 2 that further shows the hierarchy of secondary data to be captured.

CLUP Base Map Features and Components
A base map is characterized by the information reflected on it. The information needed for the CLUP Base map, are the features listed below. In building the CLUP GIS, there are two forms of Base Maps. The first one is in digital form composed of many different layers of digital files for each feature of the base map. This is the build-up form for the base map as a result of converting the different sources of features of the base map. Once all of the required features are converted into digital form, a printed version is created, and this is the second form of the base map.

The layout of the printed base map should have all the considerations and elements discussed in this chapter employed in its design. Both forms of the base map (digital and printed versions) should have the same features found, while the components will have a different form, and most will be found on both (North Arrow and tick Marks are usually not shown in the digital version). The components discussed in this chapter deals on how they should be in the printed form.

Base Map Features
The following features are recommended to be included in the base map (the objects in brackets are useful but might be difficult to capture in the first version of the Base Map): For consistency, it should be observed that the base map features are named in singular.

Table 1: Base Map Features

Base Map Features Source in priority order:
Administrative  
Provincial Boundary Land Registration Authority (LRA) Provincial Index Map (PIMS), National
Mapping and Resource Administration (NAMRIA) Administrative Map
Municipal Boundary Refer to Table 2: Hierarchy of Secondary Data and Source , Items 1-8
Barangay Boundary Refer to Table 2: Hierarchy of Secondary Data and Source ,, Items 3,4
and 8
(Municipal Water Boundary) RA 8550 (The Philippine Fisheries Act of 1998), NAMRIA Coast and Geodetic
Surveys, Land Management Bureau (LMB)
Natural  
Shoreline, River, Stream, Creek LGU, Topomap (NAMRIA)
Dam, Pond, Lake, Sea LGU, Topomap (NAMRIA)
Natural Landmark LGU, Topomap (NAMRIA)
(Other natural imposed barrier that obstructs access, like steep slope,
etc.)
LGU, Topomap (NAMRIA)
Man Made  
Road: National; City/Municipal; Barangay, (Trail) LGU, Topomap (NAMRIA)/
Railway LGU, Topomap (NAMRIA)
Airport LGU, Topomap (NAMRIA)
Seaport/Harbor LGU, Topomaps (NAMRIA)
Built-Up area in a generalized manner Satellite Imagery, Aerial Photograph, City-Proper definition by LGU
City/Municipal Hall LGU
Barangay Hall LGU
Other landmark such as a church, or other building which is well known
to citizens
LGU
Names  
Name of Surrounding Provinces (if applicable) LGU, NSO, Administrative Map (NAMRIA)
Name of Surrounding Municipality LGU, Administrative Map (NAMRIA)
Name of Barangay Barangay Boundary Index Map (BBIM) LMB, Tax Map (LGU)
Name of Major River, Lake, Dam and Bay LGU, Topomap (NAMRIA)
Name of Major Road LGU, Topomap (NAMRIA)
Optional  
(Contour Lines) Topomap (NAMRIA)
(Cadastral Maps) Cadastral Maps (LMB)
Output CLUP Base Map Components
An important output of the CLUP GIS is the output maps in printed form. This printed Base Map will be the form used and circulated more often than the digital format. It is important that the printed maps have a uniform format and appropriate contents to make them more useful for the user.

Keys to Creating the CLUP Base Map
This component shows the important considerations in printing the base map for the CLUP document.

First is to analyze the size and shape of the LGU in relation to the presentation format:

In most cases the CLUP maps will end up in a report, in which case it is important to take note of the following:

  1. A printed map smaller than A3 is not recommended. An A3 printer is recommended in the hardware set-up, which is an excellent peripheral for graphics reproduction. An A3 format will in most cases be sufficient to present thematic maps and it may easily be folded in an A4 report.
  2. Fonts and symbols should be readable from A3 to A0.
  3. If symbols cannot be distinguished properly in A3, a simplified version may be needed. Use recognized scales, e. g. 1: 100,000 instead of 1: 97,361. Use increments of 10,000.
  4. Color is used widely in the GIS environment. However for reproduction purposes a black and white version of the color codes will be included in the toolbox. To simplify and unify the preparation of the Integrated Development Plan (IDP), mapping templates have been prepared and are found in the Toolbox: Chapter 6. There is one template for LGUs that are conveniently framed by a landscape format (most common) and another for a portrait layout.

Elements of the Output Base Map
An understanding of the elements of the CLUP base map is essential. These elements shall not only be used for the base map but shall also apply to all maps that will be printed from the GIS.

The layout of the Base Map consists of the following elements (the numbers shown in red):

1 Legend
The order of symbols should be as shown in the Base Map features Table. In most cases the Base Map will form the background to thematic/sector information and the Base Map legend should be placed under the thematic legend. It should also be noted that political boundary disputes should be reflected.

2 Reservations
In many cases there will be reservations to the completeness, accuracy, source of map, date of compilation, etc. to inform the reader about. Consequently, there should be a frame where this type of metadata can be inserted.

3 Producer
Name and contact information of the custodian who is responsible for the map should be found in case the reader requires more information about the map.

4 Date of Printing
The date of preparation shall be found for the user to be able to evaluate the timely accuracy.

5 Map Window
The map window shall occupy the largest area of the map.

6 Graticules and Tick Marks
Corresponding Tick Marks and Graticules with coordinates (geographic or plane) shall be applied on the map window frame for reference.

7 Index Map Window
Sometimes there is a need for an Index Map. Normally there is always an ‘empty corner’ in the Map Window, where the small Index Map can be framed. The Index Map should contain the Provincial Map marking the area of the City/Municipality for the Municipal Base Map or the City/Municipal Map marking the area of the Barangay, as the case may be.

8 North Arrow, Scale, Datum and Projection
The scale of the map will be presented in two ways: numeric such as 1: 50,000 and a scale bar in metric unit (e.g. meter). Projection and datum are usually placed below the scale bar.

Note
After reviewing a number of maps in existing CLUPs, it has been observed that special attention must be paid in checking whether the scale bar and numeric scale is in accordance with the map scale. The GIS software sometimes fails to automatically adjust the scale information when enlargement or reduction is made. The producer of the map should ensure that the numeric scale and scale bar of the layout is adjusted when enlargement or reduction is made.

It has been observed that in most LGUs that have a working GIS, very few maps have been displayed. Besides being included in the document, there has been very limited distribution among stakeholders, as manifested by the absence of these maps in their offices. Though the data and large size printers are available, no maps are shown on walls of the municipal offices. This reveals the lack of appreciation and the will to disseminate these maps. In order to popularize the use of spatial information in planning, copies should be printed and displayed prominently on the walls. If the producer is concerned about the accuracy of the map or plan, the word ‘draft’ can always be applied.

Steps in Preparing a GIS Base Map for CLUP
The following steps show the generic procedure in the preparation of a GIS Base map showing the various data sets which the LGU should acquire. Data may be in two forms, the technical description and the paper map.
The capture of data from the technical description involves a more direct step of encoding the numerical data into the computer that is then converted to points or shapes. The capture of data from paper maps involves three steps described below:


For data captured using GPS, scanning and georefencing will not be necessary, and will be processed digitally.

It is also recommended to use the Projection and Datum of the source during Georeferencing. Re-projection should be done on the digitized layer or output vector file.

When combining different layers from these different sources, it will be noted that there will be discrepancies in dataset even if it pertains to the same features. Roads digitized from Cadastral Maps will not coincide with the same road taken from a NAMRIA Topomap, even if these layers were set to have the same projection and datum. If corrections or adjustments will be done either by the LGU or a consultant, documentation for the adjustments should be made and attached to the metadata. Any errors or discrepancies found on the source maps should be reported and consulted to concerned agency.

The implementation of PRS 92 should also be considered when preparing the base map. LMB and NAMRIA, which are listed as the sources for administrative boundaries, are now implementing and converting their dataset into PRS 92. If the dataset for an LGU is already in PRS 92, they should ask assistance from Geodetic Engineers or concerned agencies like NAMRIA so that their other datasets can also be adjusted accordingly.

Administrative Boundaries
Data for administrative boundaries may come in two forms, technical descriptions and paper maps. The hierarchy of secondary data is described in the table below. This is to give the user a better understanding of the data that they have in relation with other data. The hierarchy considers first the legal implication of the administrative boundary source and then the accuracy. It means that the Proclamation or Legislation, whether considered erroneous or not, should have more weight as a boundary source unless updated by legal proceedings or procedures. Other sources available for the LGU, like NAMRIA topomaps, should have less weight, compared to the Proclamation. The output base map is not intended for Internal Revenue Allocation (IRA) purposes. Boundary conflicts should be captured and saved in a separate layer and should be consulted or settled with concerned agencies.

Table 2: Hierarchy of Secondary Data type & Source

Secondary Data Type
Source
  1. Legislation or Proclamation creating the City/Municipality with approved
    survey and technical description
Land Management Bureau (LMB), National Archives or Malacañang Library
  1. Legislation or Proclamation creating the City/Municipality without
    approved survey but with technical description
LMB, National Archives or Malacañang Library
  1. Approved Political Boundary Survey (PBS)
LMB, Department of Environment and Natural Resources - Regional Office
Land Management Sector (DENR-LMS)
  1. Municipal Boundary Index Maps/Barangay Boundary Index Maps (MBIM/BBIM),
    Cadastral Maps
LMB, DENR-LMS
  1. Land Registration Authority (LRA) Municipal Index Maps/Provincial
    Index Maps (MIMS/PIMS)
Land Registration Authority (LRA)
  1. Land Classification (LC) Maps
National Mapping and Resource Information Agency (NAMRIA)
  1. NAMRIA 1:50,000 Topographic Maps. Use larger scale (1:5,000 1:10,000,
    1:25,000) planimetric or topographic map if available.
NAMRIA
  1. NSO Data, Tax map, Data that the LGU provide for IRA
National Statistics Office (NSO), Local Government Unit (LGU)
Capture Data from Technical Description/Coordinates
Technical Descriptions of boundaries may be in the form of Line Bearing or Coordinate (Geographic or Grid). Data in this form may come from items 1, 2, or 3 of The Hierarchy of Secondary Data Type and Sources. These may be actual survey data for the boundaries or the ground coordinates for the boundary monuments. Positional values or coordinates of ground control points used in the map must be acquired from the LMB or DENR Regional office, if the data is in line-bearing form or local coordinate system. Any values in local coordinate system should be converted into grid coordinates. Request the boundary computations with points already given in plane coordinates.

For Line Bearing/Coordinate
For Line Bearing data, CAD software is popularly used but there are some GIS software that have utilities for capturing this type of data. Use the plotted version of the map if line bearing technical description is only accurate up to the nearest minute. Most line bearing TDs are rounded to the nearest minute and will not normally close. If only line bearing is available, do boundary computation and distribute the error of closure. If this is not possible seek assistance from the source agency to convert these into grid coordinates, or from a Geodetic Engineer to ensure that the correct procedure has been applied to the adjustments.

Methods differ from software to software. Refer to toolbox…, for the example using GIS tools. For coordinate dataset, the following procedures should be followed:

  1. Encode into GIS software the Technical Description. Depending on the software used, the following steps may be performed.
    1. Create a table (e.g. spreadsheet, text editor, database) having fields for Point Name, Latitude and Longitude for Geographic Coordinates or Northing and Easting;
    2. Encode the values into the table;
    3. Save as Text (Tab delimited) file;
    4. Import the text file into the GIS software and plot the data.
  2. Create the corresponding line and/or polygon feature from the encoded data depending on the software used
  3. In case there are gaps, overlaps or disfigured polygons perform the following steps:
    1. Re-check the values used with the original data. Re-encode and perform appropriate procedures in steps a and b if errors in encoding are found.
    2. If no errors are found or the same discrepancies are still found on the output map, perform steps d and e with the original data.
    3. Copy the data and rename it to create a new file. Perform appropriate corrections in this dataset but include in the metadata and all reservations where these data are used that these are adjusted outputs and indicating the source and basis of adjustments in the metadata.
    4. Inform the appropriate agencies for these errors for possible inquiries and corrections.
  4. Label or encode the feature name as they are being digitized. Save into different files following the recommended naming convention.
  5. Create metadata for each feature type created.

Capture of Data from Paper Maps
This procedure refers to paper maps with plotted administrative boundaries from sources listed as items 4,5,6 and 8 of Table 2. They are the plotted paper maps of the boundaries from surveys. These datasets usually come in monotone color (black ink in white paper or blueprint). If the map also includes technical description/coordinates, refer to section 1 ‘Capture data from Technical Description’.

  1. Inspect the map. Make sure that it contains tick marks with coordinates. There should be at least 4 tick marks with coordinates, but more should be identified if possible. Make sure that the tick marks selected are visible.
  2. Get familiarized with the projection and datum of the maps. For example, cadastral maps are in PTM (or PRS 92 if fully established) and in Luzon Datum with zone depending on the Province. See for example Chapter 5.10.02 for technical data on these items.
  3. Prepare the maps for scanning. Smoothen all folds and crumpling. Fix and align torn out portions if any.
  4. Scan the map. Refer to Chapter 4.21.04 for sample procedure and recommended settings.
  5. Check for image distortions and clarity of map features and make sure that the tick marks or reference points to be used are clearly visible on the scanned image. Rescan if necessary.
  6. Save the scanned image in JPEG format with at least 30% compression in grayscale.
  7. Georeference the image. A minimum of four tick marks is required but use all possible tick marks as map control points. See to it that the points are evenly distributed. See Chapters 4.21.05 (about georeferencing) and 7.03.01 (tutorial).
  8. Crop the image. Remove areas outside the neat lines of the map with the software if possible. Resample the image. Save the georeferenced images using a different name and file format readable to the digitizing software to be used.
  9. Load the georeferenced image into the GIS software to be used for digitizing and perform heads-up digitizing.
  10. Create the municipal boundaries layer first as a polygon. Digitize the boundaries from the georeferenced image. Save the file following recommended naming convention. In case of boundary conflict/disputes, create a different layer for this area, label and save it accordingly
  11. Create the barangay boundaries from the same source being used for the municipal boundaries. Use tools to split or append polygon if available with the software.
  12. Label or encode the feature name as it is being digitized. Barangay names should be labeled as attributes. Make sure to save the barangay layer created as a different file and not overwrite the municipal boundary file used as base. Follow recommended naming convention.
  13. Create metadata for each feature type created.

Use of NAMRIA Topographic Paper Maps
This procedure refers to NAMRIA Topographic Maps, but use larger scale planimetric or topographic maps if they are already available. The administrative boundaries indicated in their topographic maps were derived from the LMB/LMS or are indicative. If these boundaries mentioned are not found in the map, the maps can be used to aid the LGU in identifying its boundaries. When using the 1: 50,000 Topographic Maps, refer to the DAO – 2006-12 before digitizing. It is recommended that these procedures be followed during scanning and digitizing from these sources to ensure compatibility with the Seamless Database. The LGU may seek technical help in using these procedures since this is a highly technical document. However, if the LGU is not able to do so, refer to the much simpler procedures below.


  1. Be familiar with the projection and datum of the maps. These topographic maps are in UTM zone 51 and in Luzon Datum.
  2. Prepare the maps for scanning. Smoothen all folds and crumpling. Fix and align torn out portions.
  3. Scan the map. Colored scanning is recommended.
  4. Check for image distortions and clarity of map features and make sure that the tick marks or reference points to be used are clearly visible on the scanned image. Rescan if necessary.
  5. Save the scanned image in JPEG format or the file format used by the georeferencing software. If JPEG is the desired format, compression ratio can be adjusted if necessary as long as the required features can still be identified and distinguished.
  6. Georeference the image. A minimum of four tick marks is required but use all possible tick marks as map control points. See to it that the points are distributed evenly.
  7. Crop the image. Remove areas outside the neat lines of the map with the software if possible. Resample the image. Save the georeferenced images as a different file following recommended naming convention and file format read by the digitizing software.
  8. Load the georeferenced image into the software for digitizing and perform heads-up digitizing. RMS value should be at most 0.2 of the map scale.
  9. To delineate the indicative administrative boundaries, refer to ‘5.2.1.2 of Capture of data from Paper Maps’ procedures j, k and l. If no administrative boundaries can be identified on the map, use visible features on the georeferenced image as guide for digitizing.
  10. For each of the features needed, create a different layer with the appropriate feature type. Follow the data type required in Chapter 6. Label or encode the feature name it is being digitized. Save into different files following the recommended naming convention.
  11. Create metadata for each feature type created.

Natural and Man-Made Features of the Base Map
When using the 1: 50,000 Topographic Maps, refer to the DAO – 2006-12 before conducting digitization. It is recommended that these procedures be followed during scanning and digitizing from these sources to ensure compatibility with the Seamless Database. The LGU may seek technical help in using these procedures since this is a highly technical document. However, if the LGU is not able to do so, refer to the much simpler procedures below.

  1. Refer to the paragraphs above for scanning and georeferencing.
  2. Refer to ‘Standards for Base Map objects (IATFGI Standards)’ to identify for the necessary feature type to use for each required feature.
  3. For each of the features needed, create a different layer with the appropriate feature type. Follow the data type required in Chapter .
  4. For roads, streams, creeks and rivers, create polyline layers. If the feature is thick in some parts, digitize at the center of the feature. Create a separate polygon layer for some roads and rivers represented as areas in the 1:50,000 topographic maps.
  5. For features like schools, barangay halls, landmarks, etc., which can be identified on the map, create a point layer. If not identifiable and handheld GPS survey is not possible, use the scanned map in locating the position of the feature if possible with the resolution of the scanned image used. However it is advised to do primary survey for these features for validation and accuracy using GPS.
  6. Label or encode the feature name as it is being digitized. Save into different files following the recommended naming convention.
  7. Create metadata for each feature type created.

Data Collection using GPS

  1. Read Chapter 4.19.03 ‘How to Use GPS in CLUP Data Preparation’ for procedures for GPS Survey.
  2. Apply the necessary adjustments and settings to the GPS device. Consult the GPS user manual for recommended settings. Set datum to WGS 84 and Latitude/Longitude readings to Degrees-Minutes-Seconds (ddd-mm-sss). This will be useful when transforming the data into PRS 92 when it is fully implemented but would still allow for the conversion into the old Luzon Datum where majority of the data is referred.
  3. See the Chapter 4.19.03 on how to encode/download GPS readings into the GIS. Two options are presented: 1) download GPS reading using a cable; 2) Encode manually in the absence of cable in a GIS software.
  4. For each of the features needed, create a different layer with the appropriate feature type. Follow the data type required in Chapter 7. Label or encode the feature name while it is digitized. Save into different files following the recommended naming convention.
  5. Create metadata for each feature type created.

Capture of Names
In some cases, it is necessary to create a separate name or label set for the base map. When there are a lot of layers, the labels tend to clutter when the auto-label function is used thus creating a cluttered map which is harder to read.

Other Features
Contour Lines from NAMRIA Topographic Maps
Refer to NAMRIA procedures for Standard Seamless Digital Topographic Database. (DAO 2006-12)

Cadastral Maps
Cadastral Maps are good datasets to have for the LGU. Though the process of converting these maps is tedious and probably costly to the LGUs that do not have manpower and equipment, it is useful not only for CLUP preparation use, but also for the use of other offices in the LGU such as the Assessor’s Office.

Recommended Layout for the Output CLUP Base Map
Dimension and font sizes for the layout are found in Chapter 4.21.03 of the Toolbox.

Steps in Securing Help for Preparing a GIS Base Map
The base map is a fundamental dataset for LGUs thus must be done in a correct way. In case the LGU does not have the capability to do this, it will need help to prepare a first version of the Base Map. The LGU may opt to request the services of a GIS expert whether in the government or private sector. The LGU should first try to consult with NAMRIA whether they can make their base map for them. If NAMRIA is unable to help, the LGU may then find a private entity to do the job for them.

The following major steps are recommended in acquiring help:

  1. The LGU procures the service of a GIS expert / consultant, using the ‘ToR for Digital Base Map Preparation’, A template is found in the Chapter 4.04.03.
  2. The GIS expert / consultant will submit a proposal to confirm the ‘assignment’ and include the cost for doing the job;
  3. A contract is signed based on the ToR;
  4. The GIS expert / consultant prepares a draft based on existing available in-house data, which is sent to the LGU. The Base Map data will be generated from various sources by data encoding, scanning and digitization. These data sources will include technical descriptions, boundary computations, etc;
  5. If the LGU is capable, it conducts a survey to capture complementary data using a handheld GPS;
  6. If the LGU is not yet capable to undertake the data capturing field survey, it is recommended that the expert / consultant hired do the job is assisted by the municipal staff as agreed in the ToR.
  7. Depending on the GIS skills available inhouse, the LGU will either complete the data capturing, input the data into the GIS and send it to the expert / consultant for finalization or let the GIS expert / consultant do the job;
  8. The GIS expert / consultant prepares a final draft, which among other things specifies the ‘reservations’ and ensuring that the base map is in the geographic reference system that is to be used in the Philippines. The output map shall be checked to ensure that the information requirements of the municipality are met. Revisions of the outputs will be performed if any defects are detected during the checking.
  9. The final draft is turned over to the LGU that approves the final version.

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4.05.02 Basic Information: Demography / Population

Note: This Information Product is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information needed for the CLUP. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. In addition, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates. For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB: telephone +632 927 2698

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The most important set of information for planning pertains to demography/ population. Population is the basis for determining the level of public services like schools, health centers, housing, welfare services, recreational facilities, power, and water supply. Population creates local demand for goods and services and thus affects the level of economic activities that can sustain their viable existence in the area. The size of the present and projected population is also an important input to assessing housing adequacy and calculating future housing demand. It likewise serves as a guide for allocating land for various uses.

Various public facilities and services cater to specific segments of the population. Therefore, the objective of the GIS analysis is to process and present population data that must regard population in its totality as well as break it down into meaningful units like age, sex, occupation, etc. Certain patterns of population clustering and differentiation hold the key to understanding observed differences in consumption tastes and preferences, political beliefs, and social behavior. For comparison, it is therefore important that the population can be described with the distribution among barangays.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  These are examples of useful indicators:

Population Size If estimates about the population in a particular year other than a census year are desired, projection is resorted to. For this purpose, the NSO has prepared population projections by municipality/city and by province over 20-30 years, using low, medium and high assumptions.

To draw a sharper picture of the population size of the city/municipality, it has to be compared with that of larger areas like the district or the province. The proportion of the municipalities/cities’ population to that of the larger area is expressed as a proportion or percentage. Similarly, the population size and relative share of each barangay to the total municipal population should be presented. Also, whenever available, urban (barangay) and rural (barangay) population shares to total municipal population should be shown.

Age-Sex Distribution
This is a very important set of information especially in the planning of specific social services and facilities. Specific age groups represent a demand for certain services. For example, dependent age (0-14, 65 and above) would require specialized health services and facilities; school age groups (3-6, pre-school; 7-12, elementary; 13-16, secondary) with school facilities; labor force (15-64) will have to be provided with jobs; or, females of reproductive age (10-45) may be the target of family planning programs. The age-sex distribution is usually presented in a bar graph that is as symmetrical as a pyramid. Any observed “deformation” of the symmetry could be explained in terms of the economic and/or social structure of the municipality/city. An example of this deformation is when there is a middle “bulge” on the side of the females. This indicates that there is an incidence of large female migrant labor, which may be explained by the existence of garment factories in the locality. The population pyramid provides, among others, a quick description of the relative size of the male and female population by age groups.

The pyramid shows whether a population is predominantly young or old. At a glance the analyst is able to say whether the population of a particular municipality/city is expansive (where large numbers are in the younger ages), constructive (where a smaller number are in the younger age), or stationary (where roughly equal numbers of people are found in all age groups with slight tapering off in the older ages). The shape of the pyramid also indicates the fertility character of the population. In general, the broader the base of the pyramid, the higher is the fertility; conversely, a narrower base indicates a declining fertility.

Household and Family
The smallest social unit is the family or the household. The NSO defines a household as consisting of a person living alone or a group of persons who sleep in the same housing unit and have a common arrangement for the preparation and consumption of food. A family, on the other hand, is a group of persons living in the same household related by blood, marriage or adoption. For comparison purposes it is recommended to use household in the CLUP data.

Housing Unit
A housing unit is a structurally separate and independent place of abode which, by the way it has been constructed, converted or arranged is intended for habitation by one household. Structures or parts of structures which are not intended for habitation such as commercial, industrial, and cultural buildings or natural and man-made shelters such as caves, boats, abandoned trucks, culverts, and others, but which are used as living quarters by households.

Population Distribution and Urbanization
One characteristic of the population that has great implications on planning is the pattern of its distribution over the municipal territory. An indicator of population distribution is gross population density by barangay, which is expressed as the number of persons per unit of land area usually in hectares or square kilometers. However, there are portions of the municipal territory which are not habitable. Therefore some refinements are introduced like net population density which is the ratio of the population to total area of arable lands. An arable land, for convenience, is the total area of lands classified as “alienable and disposable.”

Another indicator of population distribution is the extent of urbanization. This is consistent with the morphology (internal structure) of most Philippine municipalities/cities characterized by a compact urban area (poblacion) and scattered villages (barrios).

Many villages have grown over the years and it is common nowadays to find rural barangays/barrios which have larger populations than urban barangays/ poblacions and are as urbanized. NSO defines urban areas as:

  1. a barangay that has a population size of 5,000 or more, or
  2. a barangay has at least one establishment with a minimum of 100 employees, or
  3. a barangay has 5 or more establishments with a minimum of 10 employees, and 5 or more facilities within the two-kilometer radius from the barangay hall. (Source: NSCB Resolution No. 9, Series of 2003)

Population Growth and Population Projections
This is expressed as the change in the population size between two points in time. By determining the growth rates for each of the census periods (1903, 1918, 1939, 1948, 1960, 1970, 1975, 1980, 1990, 1995 and 2000) and plotting these on a graph, a growth trend can be shown. This trend is then compared with similar observations in other municipalities/cities of the province or the province itself for a better appreciation of the behavior of the population of a particular locality.

Projecting the size of the future population is not an exact science, despite the use of mathematical formulas and operations. Be that as it may, an estimate of the size of the future population, whether in total or by component parts, is essential information in any planning exercise. It indicates, among other things, the amount of goods and services that must be provided as well as of resources that will have to be utilized to maintain or reach a certain level of acceptable human well-being.

 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. Those in bold are used in the examples.

BI02 Historical Growth of Population
BI03 Population Composition by School-Going, Working and Dependent Age-Group, Year YYYY
BI04 Population, Household, Density by Barangay, Year YYYY
BI05 Population by Age-Group and Gender, Year YYYY
BI06 Employment Status by Population 15 Years and Over by Gender, Year YYYY
BI07 Oversea Workers for the Past 5 Years from Year YYYY
BI08 Tempo and Level of Urbanization for the Past 20 Years
BI09 Population Density by Barangay, Year YYYY
BI10 Population by Mother Tongue, Year YYYY
BI11 Population by Religious Affiliation, Year YYYY
BI12 Population Projection by Barangay ,Year YYYY
BI13 Population and Household Projections

 
  The Custodian of sector data is the MPDO/CPDO. The data provider is the NSO.  
  The following steps need to be taken to get access the data:  
  Letter of Request to ….
or
Primary Survey: Visit somebody
 
  Time to get the data is estimated to about ….. weeks.  
  Spatial  
  The common denominator will be the barangay  
  The feature type will be polygon.  
  Time to prepare the data is about … (Hard to define?)  
  Step 4: Analyze the Data SYMBOL
  The population data is important and will be used in a number of cross-analyses within each Planning Sector.  
  The demography will also be used to show the population profile of the municipality/city as described in Step Two.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The demographic analysis layers will be put on top of the Base Map. The example below shows that two rural barangays have much higher density than average and should qualify as urban barangays according to NSO’s classification.  
   
  The map below shows how the 4 major age groups are distributed by Barangay.  
   

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4.05.03 Basic Information: Barangay Administration

Note: This Information Product is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information needed for the CLUP. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates. For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB: telephone +632 927 2698

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Public participation in planning needs political representation at grass roots level. Given the proper instruments, the Barangay Captain will duly play an important role in representing the barangay constituents in planning. The introduction of GIS in CLUP preparation enhances the option to make comparisons of the distribution/provision of goods and services among the different barangays in the municipality. The Barangay serves as a good common denominator for comparisons as population statistics are available.

Likewise, at a barangay level, it makes it easy for the general public to understand existing planning issues where they have a direct stake.

The objective is to show in a map the location and physical condition of the Barangay Halls.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  A requirement is that the Barangay Hall is furnished with an office and a space for public meetings and hearings. Likewise, there should be an adequate provision of equipment and furniture so that community gatherings can be conducted. The Planning Office will provide the office with tailored Information Products such as a Barangay Map/Plan, and information about CLUP projects so that the community can easily follow progress.  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  The following attribute table may be used for this sector (and is used in this example).

BI01 Barangay Office/Hall

 
  Spatial  
  The feature type will be a point on a small scale map or a polygon on a large scale map showing the lot. The location will be traced by a GPS. Use if possible one and same place for all the GPS readings of the Barangay Hall, for example the entrance.  
  Photo showing the spot for GPS reading (if needed)  
  City/Municipal Hall (is also captured as it can house a Barangay Office as well)
  Barangay Hall/Office
   
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  The following Analyses layers can be prepared based on the Baseline Information:  
  Barangay without an Office/Hall or still under construction/renovation and still unusable
  A Barangay Office with critical physical condition - unusable old building with no facilities or equipment to conduct the daily work.
  A Barangay Office with poor physical condition - inadequate facilities and equipment, daily work is difficult.
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The location of the Barangay Halls was overlaid with the Population Density map to show information on population distribution with respect to its location.  
   

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4.06 Information Product Descriptions - Socio-economic


4.06.01 Socio-Economic: Housing

Note: This Information Product is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information needed for the CLUP. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB: telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  In most cities and more urbanizing municipalities/cities, the presence of informal settlers is ever increasing due to migration factors triggered by unemployment or the absence of livelihood opportunities in their places of origin and the need to find better sources of income to support their families. The presence of hazards in their areas of origin has also contributed to the increasing migration to urban areas.

As shown in the examples below, different types of information can be produced using the datasets specified in the CLUP attribute database collection.

Recognizing the presence of informal settlers in the municipality/city is an important first step to enable planners to plan for their relocation or needs in terms of housing, utilities and services. A map showing the location of informal settlers needs to be produced.

For those situated in danger zones, it may be necessary to find a relocation site. Therefore potential land for housing should be studied as well. Further studies may be carried out by the LGU in coordination with other agencies or real estate developers in determining potential land for housing.

In the following examples, the output product will show the map of informal settlers and approved housing projects. A map for potential lands for housing may be generated but will require further studies by the LGU, developers etc.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Define Planning Standards for accessibility, service provision/consumer ratio, consumer/housed service, physical condition of features, etc.  
  The presence of Informal Settlers, Housing Backlog, Doubled up household population projection.  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attribute  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. Those in bold are used for the examples here.

SE01 Housing: Occupied Housing Units by Tenure and Type, Year YYYY SE02 Housing: Occupied Housing by Household and Population Density, Year YYYY
SE03 Occupied Housing Units by Construction and Condition, Year YYYY
SE04 Occupied Housing by Water Provision, Sanitation, Garbage Collection and Power, Year YYYY
SE05 Informal Settlement, Year YYYY
SE06 Resettlement Area, Year YYYY
SE07 Residential Subdivisions, Year YYYY
SE08 Current and Projected Housing Needs by Barangay
SE09 Potential Lands for Housing by Classification, Actual Land-use and Zoning, Year YYYY
SE10 Potential Lands for Housing by Basic Services, Year YYYY
SE11 Situation for the Last Three Censal Years, Year YYYY
SE12 Backlog, Year YYYY

 
  The Custodians of sector data are the NSO, HLURB, HUDCC and the LGU.  
  Spatial  
  The spatial feature will be a polygon. If available, it is recommended that the aerial photo will be used as backdrop to facilitate the digitizing of the polygons. Three layers are prepared:  
  1. Informal settlement areas.
  2. Housing projects
  3. Potential Lands for Housing by Classification, Actual Land-use and Zoning
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  Refer to Housing Sector of Volume II – Social Sector of the HLURB Guidelines

Analysis can be prepared based on the tables mentioned above to determine the adequacy services/utilities provided to the areas, housing needs/requirements etc.

 
  Cross sector analysis can also be done to assess and determine needs and requirements.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
   
  Map of Subdivision Areas  
   
  Map of Informal Settlements showing the Open Spaces (yellow line) that may be Potential areas for Housing  

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4.06.02 Socio-Economic: Health

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates. .For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Health is a major concern for many communities today, particularly the delivery of health services to areas which are not only inaccessible, but are as well the locations of the more needy constituents of the community, who cannot afford to pay for health services on their own. It is the primary concern of the LGU that these health services should reach these areas and establish facilities like barangay health centers to cater to a fundamental need of the people.

The objective is to show the adequacy of the provision of Health Services accessible to the whole municipality/city.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Define Planning Standards for accessibility, service provision/consumer ratio, consumer/housed service, physical condition of buildings and plot, etc.

Standard Rural Health Units (RHU) Personnel Population

1 Municipal Health Officer (MHO) per 20,000
1 Public Health Nurse (PHN) per 20,000
1 Rural Sanitary Inspector (RSI) per 20,000
1 Rural Heath Mid-wife (RHM) per 5,000

Source : RA 7305 (Magna Carta for Health Workers)
Annex V of Volume V – Land Use of HLURB Guidelines

 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. Those in bold are used for the examples here.

SE13 Facility by Type and Ownership, Year YYYY 
SE14 Facility by Capacity and Condition, Year, YYYY 
SE15 Facility by Requirements by Barangay, Year, YYYY 
SE16 General Health Situation for the Last Five Years, Year YYYY 
SE17 Ten Leading Causes of Mortality for the Last Three Years, Year YYYY 
SE18 Malnourished Children for the Last Three Years, Year YYYY

 
  Spatial  
  Data can be obtained during the GPS survey. A print out of SE 14 can be filled-up by the hospital administrator during the conduct of GPS readings.  
  Hospitals
  City/Municipal Health Office
  Barangay Health Center
  The locations of these facilities are overlaid with the base map  
   
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  The following Analyses layers can be prepared based on the Baseline Information:  
  Barangays without any health facilities
   
  The data can also be overlaid with the population density map to see how much of the population is being served by the health center and also how much is not served (those without health facility).  
   
  In order to reach more people, some LGUs assign Medical Health Officers to the barangays to serve and hold clinics. Getting the total population from all the barangays being served by a Medical Health Officer will show whether it is within the standard.  
  Barangays served way below the “ Medical Health Officer to Population Standard”
  Barangays served 50% below “Medical Health Officer to Population Standard”
  Barangays served slightly below “Medical Health Officer to Population Standard”
  Barangays served within or above “Medical Health Officer to Population Standard”
   
  If there is only one Medical Health Officer or there are more than one but are not holding clinics in barangays outside the Municipal/City Health Office, their catchment area should be the actual barangays they serve in the Municipal/City Health Office. Those Barangays which are too far away from and inaccessible to the Municipal/City Health Office and are not regularly visited by the Municipal Health Officers should be considered not served.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  Show the areas of those barangays that require a health service facility (diagonal line fill). Show also those barangays with 50% below the Municipal Health Officer to Population Standard (shaded orange) with those Way Below the Municipal Health Officer to Population Standards (shaded orange), to show more options for solutions. The solution to this problem will not only involve hiring additional MHOs but giving them additional service areas.  
   

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4.06.03 Socio-Economic: Education

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, revisions may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Education improves the quality of life and promotes citizen empowerment; hence, it is a basic need of every citizen.
The objective is to use GIS to display the pertinent data of educational facilities and the constraints that exist today. This information will be used in Step 4 (see Volume 1). The users of this data are: LGU staff, officials and the general public. The education information products can be used by the District Office of the Department of Education. The final products of this activity will be digital maps for analysis as well as for display. In this example, the output will be a map showing the status of school conditions and the areas served. The inadequacy of classroom-teacher needs will also be analyzed.
 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Regarding information about the planning methods that can be used, please refer to Volume 2. Indicators will be needed to measure fulfillment of planning standards for accessibility, student/teacher ratio, student/classroom ratio, student/school area/site ratio, student/schoolbook ratio; physical condition of building and plot.
Examples on current standards for Primary and Secondary Schools are as follows:
  1. The shool site should be accessible to the population it serves. The maximum distance for a pupil or student to walk from residence to school site is three (3) kilometers, while the maximum time from residence to school aboard public conveyance is thirty (30) minutes.
  2. It should be located beyond 200 meters of places of ill-repute, recreational establishments of questionable character, manufacturing and industrial plants or military barracks
  3. The ground area occupied by the school buildings and other structures should not exceed 40% of the school site in order to provide adequate open spaces for assembly and co-curricular activities, as well as to conform with the national and local regulations and standards pertaining to setbacks and distances between buildings.
 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Creating the database is a three-step process. The steps are designing the database, gathering data for the database, and managing the database.  
  Attributes  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. Those in bold are used for the examples.
SE19 School by Level, Type and Ownership, Year YYYY 
SE20 Capacity and Condition of School, Year YYYY 
SE21 Literacy Rate of Population 5 Years and Over by Gender 
SE22 Historical Enrollment for the Last Three School Years by Level 
SE23 Classroom and Teacher Needs per Barangay 
SE24 Tertiary and Vocational/Technical Schools by Enrollees and Courses Offered, Year YYYY 
SE25 Highest Educational Attainment of Population 5 Years and Over, Year YYYY
 
  The Custodian of sector data are the District/Division offices of the Department of Education (DepEd)  
  This is an example which describes how to get the attribute data for the Education CLUP Attribute Tables:  
1 The DepEd District Supervisor is invited to the Briefing in CLUP Step 2.  
2 The Local Chief Executive or the Municipal Mayor issues a letter to the DepEd District Supervisor, encloses the forms of tables (in hard or soft copies depending on the computer proficiency level at the Education District Office) with a request to fill the forms accordingly.  
3 The District Supervisor invites the Principals/Head Teachers/ Teachers in Charge (School Heads) to a meeting to inform them about the request and ask them to submit the data.  
4 The Principals/Head Teachers/ Teachers In Charge (School Heads) go back to the schools and capture the data  
  Spatial  
  Designing the database includes identifying in the spatial data, what will be needed based on the requirements of the analysis; record the locations of the required feature objects, setting the study area boundary (the municipal area or a part of it). (Below is an example how to arrange the spatial data for the Education Sector):  
  The object will be different types of schools: preparatory; elementary; secondary; tertiary for which a specific symbol is needed. A public school will have blue and a private school will have red color coding.  
  The feature type will be a point. The location will be traced by a GPS. Use if possible one and same place for all schools, for example the flag pole or the main entrance to the school compound for the GPS reading. SYMBOL for the school
   
  Pre-school
  A primary school or an elementary (which also can include a pre-school)
  A secondary school/high school (which also can include an elementary school)
  (Tertiary)
  Creating the database is a critical and time-consuming part of the activity. The completeness and accuracy of the data for use in analysis determines the accuracy of the results.  
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  Based on the defined indicators, different types of analysis can be performed. Analyzing data in a GIS ranges from simple mapping to creating complex spatial models. A model is a representation of reality used to simulate a process, predict an outcome, or analyze a problem.  
  School Catchment Radius. The Planning Standard is:  
  ?? Km for a Preparatory School (Please refer to Volume 2)
  2 Km for a Primary School (Please refer to Volume 2)
  Existing or Projected School-going age group population in the Catchment Area Table BI12: Demography: Population Projection by Barangay, Year YYYY, is needed for that exercise. For the analysis below there are two alternatives to visualize: If the municipal policy is that each barangay should have one primary school, the barangay becomes the common denominator presented. SYMBOL for the barangay
  School with a non-acceptable student-teacher ratio. The Planning Standard is  
  1:?? for a Preparatory School (Please refer to Volume 2)
  1:?? for a Primary School (Please refer to Volume 2)
  School with a non-acceptable student-classroom ratio. The Planning Standard is:  
  1:?? for a Preparatory School (Please refer to Volume 2)
  1:?? for a Primary School (Please refer to Volume 2)
  Physical Condition of School  
  Critical. The condition is dangerous for the children; toilet and washroom facilities are not functioning and may cause the spread of diseases; lack of potable water;
  Poor: The general condition is problematic and causes disturbances for classes especially during the rainy season; the toilet and washrooms facilities are unsanitary
  Fair: Classes can be conducted without serious problems
  If the standard is not properly defined or the above is not valid (for example the barangay is so large so it results in unacceptable walking distances for the pupils), a circle buffer will be indicated, seet example below.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The final step is to present the results of the analysis. The final products should be effectively communicating the findings to the audience. In most cases, the results of the GIS analysis can best be shown on a map.
Charts and reports of selected data are two other ways of presenting the results. Charts and reports can be printed separately, be embedded in the CLUP narrative text or be placed on a map.
 
  Example below shows the Education Analysis layers put on top of the Base Map:  
  The education analysis layers will be put on top of the Base Map. As recommended in Volume 2, it is overlaid with the population density map to show distribution of schools with respect to the number of people residing within an area:  
   
  Next is to display the problems faced by these school and overlay them on the base map to make it more easy to read and focus on the problem of each schools:  
   
  Once the school conditions are analyzed with respect to location, this should be overlaid with the population density map to relate it with the population distribution.

The illustration below not only shows what and where the problematic schools are but will also be useful in determining classroom-teacher needs.

 
 

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4.06.04 Socio-Economic: Protection

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, revisions may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Major policies and programs against crimes and violence include official policy against domestic violence, crime and weapon control prevention policy and victims of violence assistance programs. The objective is to use GIS to display the crime situation in the municipality/city and the constraints to combat crime that exist today. This information will be used in Step 4 (see Volume 1….) The users of this data are: LGU staff, officials and the general public. The protection information products can be used by the local Philippine National Police.

The final product of this activity will be digital maps showing the location, type and frequency of crimes in relation to the distance, condition and manpower of the police precincts and barangay outposts.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Existence of areas considered as inaccessible to the police or considered by the public to be dangerous or unsafe.

Below are examples of indicators that can be used in analyzing the provisions of protective services:

Ideal Police-to-Population ratio 1 : 500
Minimum Standard Police-to-Population ratio 1 : 1000
And higher for urban areas

(Sec 27 of RA 6975 DILG Act)

For Jail Protection, a jailhouse should be established. (Chapter V, Sec 62-63 of RA 6975)

Source: Volume II : Social Sector (HLURB Guidelines)

Additional Standards from Guidelines

  1. At the city/municipal level, there shall be a PNP station, each headed by a chief of police.
  2. There shall be established and maintained in every district, city and municipality a secured, clean, adequately equipped and sanitary jail for the custody and safekeeping of city and municipal prisoners.
  3. The jail bureau shall be composed of city and municipal jail, each headed by a city or municipal jail warden; Provided that, in the case of large cities and municipalities, a district jail with subordinate jails headed by a district jail warden maybe established as necessary.

Source: Annex V (Sectoral Standards) of Volume V : Land Use (HLURB Guidelines)

 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attribute  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. Those in bold are used for the examples

SE26 Police Station Manpower and Condition, Year YYYY 
SE27 Barangay Tanod by Type, Capacity and Condition; Year YYYY 
SE28 Jail Capability and Condition, Year YYYY 
SE30 Crime Incidence for the Past Five Years by Type of Crime and Gender of the Offender, Year YYYY

 
  The Custodian of sector data is the Local Philippine National Police (PNP) station  
  Spatial  
  Location of crime (point) symbol
  Location of precincts (point) symbol
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  Manpower and location of precincts would be a security concern for most LGUs especially the 4th – 6th class LGUs. For these towns/cities, the police station will most likely to be situated in the urban areas where the possibility of insurgents hiding within the inaccessible territories is high.  
  The following Analyses layers can be prepared based on the Baseline Information:  
  Risks  
  Area/place with a high frequency of crime ( polygon) symbol
  Physical Condition of police station  
  Critical. The condition of buildings, equipment, vehicles is insufficient and/or so poor so that the police cannot service the catchment area sufficiently.
  Poor: The condition of buildings, equipment, vehicles is fast deteriorating so it is likely that the police cannot service the catchment area sufficiently within the planning period.
  Fair: Police services can be conducted without any serious constraints.
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  No standardized symbology for criminal offenses is found so far in the Philippines. The photo below shows a map and a legend from a local police station. The given GIS example shows how violent offenses can be symbolized according to the crime committed:  
   
   

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4.06.05 Socio-economic: Religion

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates. For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The Philippines can claim its uniqueness as the only Christian country in Asia because over 90% of the population is Christian. From the figure of over 90%, 83% of these are Roman Catholics, 9% are Protestants, 5% are Muslims while the remaining 3% are Buddhists or belong to other religion groups.

Places of worship also serve as a sanctuary to people. Whenever calamities or trouble occur, these places will be one of the first places that people will converge to, especially in highly rural barangays. In highly urbanized areas, these places would probably be areas of traffic congestion especially for large gatherings like masses on Sundays.

 
  The Objective of this analysis is to present the data of Places of Worship. Location of Memorial Parks may also be presented if the LGU feels the need for this particular data.  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  There are no indicators for this IP.  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. Those in bold are used for the examples here.
SE32 Places of Worship, Year YYYY 
SE33 Cemeteries and Memorial Parks, Year YYYY
 
  The Custodians of sector data are the NSO, HLURB and LGU for cemeteries and memorial parks. Occupancy of these sites should be gathered directly from the memorial parks administrative offices.  
  The following steps need to be taken to get access the data:  
1 NSO has data on Household Population by Religious Affiliation in their published household and demography data.  
  Spatial  
  The feature type for the religious institutions will be points and the location will be traced by a GPS/primary survey/secondary source. Use if possible one and same place for all (service), for example the entrance of the sacred edifice for the GPS reading. SYMBOL for the (service)
  Photo showing an example of the spot for GPS reading (if needed)  
  Religious institutions will have a point feature and the burial grounds should preferably be presented as a polygon with the same symbol that is used for the institution. Use ESRI US MVTCD3 palette  
  Church
  Mosque
  Hindu temple
  Buddhist temple (Pagoda)  
  Synagogue
  Other  
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  There is no analysis required.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The Religion analysis layers will be put on top of the Base Map as shown below.  
   

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4.06.06 Socio-Economic: Recreation

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, revisions may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Areas for recreation follow a hierarchy of functions. At the city/ municipal level, the town square or plaza is at the top of the hierarchy. The town plaza should be a factor in establishing the image of the town. Central urban functions may be located around the town plaza. Lower order parks should be planned in conjunction with neighborhood and community centers. Lower-end open spaces include barangay parks, neighborhood parks, vest-pocket parks, and tot lots (children’s play areas).

A system of functional open spaces is an important element of the CLUP. Functional open spaces are areas that are deliberately kept in their open character for their contribution toward maintaining the amenity value of the environment. If sufficiently vegetated, open spaces perform ecological services as carbon sink and contribute to rainwater infiltration and aquifer recharge. They also offer opportunities for free recreation for the local residents. At the same time they can serve as protection buffers around hazardous areas and installations.

The objective of the GIS analysis is to find out which barangays require recreation areas or additional recreation areas.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Define Planning Standards for accessibility, service provision/consumer ratio, consumer/housed service, physical condition of features, etc. (refer to volume 2)  
  Set of standards is found in Annex 2 (Page 14 of the Sports and Recreation) of Volume II – Social Sector of HLURB Guidelines
Sector Standards

Minimum of 500 square merters per 1000 population per city and municipal park
Minimum of 0.5 hectare per 1000 population for playfield/athletic field

Source : Annex V of Volume V – Land Use of HLURB Guidelines

 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. The bold table is used for the example:

SE34 Sports and Recreation Facilities by Type and Ownership and Condition 
SE35 Potential Recreation Facility

 
  The Custodian of sector data is the LGU.  
  Spatial  
  The feature type will be a point. The location will be determined through primary survey using a GPS. Use if possible one and same place for all the areas (service). SYMBOL for the Recreation
  Photo showing the spot for GPS reading (if needed)  
  Basketball Courts
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  Refer to Volume 2 for further analysis.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
   

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4.06.07 Socio-Economic: Social Welfare

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, revisions may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698

  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The objective of the GIS analysis is to assess the needs of the barangays in terms of day care centers.  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Define Planning Standards for accessibility, service provision/consumer ratio, consumer/housed service, physical condition of buildings and plot, etc –(refer to Volume 2)  
  Day Care (RA 6972 “An Act Establishing Day Care Center in Every Barangay):
  1. one day care for every 500 Families, or
  2. one day care center per barangay per RA 6972 (Sec.2)
  3. 2 sq. m. per 3 child indoor
  4. 1 sq. m. per child outdoor

Senior Citizen (RA 7876 “An Act Establishing A Senior Citizen Center in All Cities and Municipalities of the Philippines and Appropriate Funds):

  1. Minimum area of 500 sq m for Senior Citizen Care Center

Source: Social Welfare of Volume II – Social Sector of HLURB Guidelines
Annex V of Volume V – Land Use of HLURB Guidelines

 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. Those in bold are used for the examples

SE36 Facility by Type and Services and Condition 
SE37 Disadvantaged Persons by Barangay

 
  Day Care Centers
  Step 4: Analyze the DataBarangay with no Day Care Centers
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  Show the Day Care Centers overlaid with the Base Map.  
   
  Show the Barangays without any Day Care Centers which are not complying with RA 6972  
   

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4.06.08 Socio-Economic: Commerce

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates. For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The types of commercial areas, major types of business or trade and other commercial support facilities established in municipalities/cities depend largely on the locality’s level of development and the presence of opportunities and incentives for the establishment of businesses that are largely private sector led.

Chapter 4.18.02 shows an example of how a licensing system can be integrated with GIS so that it will be both useful for the planning and business licensing office.

 
  The objective is to create a database of all establishments given a business permit in the municipality. The output will be spatial database showing the location of those granted permits together with the corresponding attributes  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Trends of Commercial Activity  
  Classify commercial industries according to Philippine Standard Industrial Classification (PSIC)
Major Divisions:
 
 
MAJOR PSIC CLASSIFICATION* PSIC MAJOR DIVISIONS ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
Tertiary
(Service)
Division G. Wholesale and Retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods
Division H. Hotels and Restaurants
Division I. Transport, Storage and Communication
Division J. Financial Intermediation
Division K. Real Estate, Renting and Business Activities
Division L. Public Administration and Defense; Compulsory Social Security
Division M. Education
Division N. Health and Social Work
Division O. Other Community, Social and Personal Service activities
Division P. Private Household with Employed Persons
Division Q. Extra-Territorial Organizations and Bodies
* Philippine Standard Industrial Classification from NSCB
 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. Those in bold are used for the examples here.

SE38 Business Permit per Year 
SE49 Summary of Tertiary Economic Activities by Employment, Volume of Products 
SE50 Business Permits Granted for the Past Five Years 
SE51 Local Revenue Derived from Economic Activities for the Past Five Years

 
  Spatial  
  Location of Tertiary Economic Activities can be plotted on the map through GPS Survey. Likewise, it will be more informative if overlaid with an aerial photograph.  
  Financial Intermediation
  Health and Social Work
  Hotels and Restaurants
  Other Community, Social and Personal Service Activity
  Real Estate, Renting and Business Activities
  Wholesale and Retail Trade, Repair of Motor Vehicles, Motorcycle and Personal and Household Goods
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  Analysis is shown below  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The map below shows location of businesses issued permits.  
   
  Next map shows the dominant Business Type  
   

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4.06.09 Socio-Economic: Industry

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates. For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  An industrial area is a site where people go to work and goods are produced. Thus, it contributes to the revenue of the municipality where it is situated. However, it is also a site that often has negative influence on the environment. Some industries pollute air and water; some disturb because of noise; others demand a lot of space, or, their presence aesthetically deteriorates the neighborhood. A prerequisite for dealing with and/or analyzing these factors are: a map showing the location of industries, together with good attribute data.

The objective of this information product is to present an inventory of industries. The inventory will also be a starting point when looking into new locations or expansion areas for existing and/or new industries in the future.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to be Used  
  The industries can be classified in different ways. For an inventory within the CLUP an easy classification based on the hazard and pollution potential should be used. Hazardous industries constitute fire and health hazards, i.e. their wastes have large amounts of combustible and toxic materials. Pollutive industries discharge large amounts of air, water and solid pollutants. The classification categories are:
  1. Light Industry: non-pollutive and non-hazardous or hazardous
  2. Medium Industry: pollutive and non-hazardous or hazardous
  3. Heavy Industry: highly pollutive or highly hazardous
 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector (the one in bold font is used in the example).
SE39 Industry 
SE48 Summary of Secondary Economic Activities by Employment, Volume of Products
 
  Spatial  
  The feature type will be points.  
  The industrial types can have the following symbols:  
  Light Industry
  Medium Industry
  Heavy Industry
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  There is no analysis presented in this Information Product. As stated in step 1, this IP is an inventory and can be a first step in an analysis of new locations of industries. The industry layer could also be advantageous to use in other planning aspects, e.g. buffer zones around heavy industries can act as a buffer for communities and to prevent encroachment of residential areas in the vicinity.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  This map presents an inventory of the industries within the municipality. The different types are shown with different symbols.  
   

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4.06.10 Socio-Economic: Tourism

Note: This Information Product is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information needed for the CLUP. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates. For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB: telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Tourism enhances the municipality’s economic development. It is therefore important for municipalities/cities with tourism potentials to properly plan and manage these areas. They should be planned in terms of accessibility and provision of facilities/amenities so that tourists can be attracted to go and enjoy these places of interest. It is also necessary that municipal planners consider the carrying capacity of these tourism areas in order to ensure sustainability. The objective of this baseline is to display existing and planned tourist amenities so that conflicts with other land uses can be determined and the appropriate interventions can be planned at the later stage of the planning process.  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Indicators and planning standards can be found in Volume 2 of the CLUP Guidelines, such as:
  1. There should be a minimum of 10-meter buffer zone, along the entire perimeter of each of the clusters or tourism zones, and around the proposed golf course sites;
  2. A mandatory beachfront easement along all coastal areas shall be defined at 30 meters from the edge of the beach zone inland perpendicular to the coastline.
 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attribute  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. Those in bold are used for the examples
SE40 Tourism Attraction 
SE41 Tourism Accommodation
 
  The Custodian of the sector data is the LGU.  
  Spatial  
  The objects below will be a point or polygon features and GPS will be used to map the location.  
  The object will be tourism areas, in most cases a polygon
  The object will be tourism accommodations, a point feature
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  The location of proposed tourism areas will be overlaid with the Land Use to determine if there are conflicting uses or compatible ones. For example, tourism areas should be located away from causes of disturbance and pollution like industrial areas).  
   
  The location of other facilities with respect to the locations of Proposed Tourist area will be analyzed  
  Restaurants
  Fastfood
  Transport Terminal
  Mall
  Parks
   
  The locations of required utilities with respect to the locations of Proposed Tourism area can also be analyzed  
  Groundwater Source
   
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The location of the accommodations and tourist attractions is overlaid with the base map.  
   

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4.06.11 Socio-Economic: Agriculture

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates. For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The agriculture sector should support the municipality/city in providing food. The more effective the agriculture program, the more self-supportive is the municipality/city. Long distance transportation of produce is also avoided when food is locally produced, and this is an environmental benefit. On the other hand, reforms in the agricultural sector tend to lead to a diminishing number of workers needed and the use of more advanced biocides and fertilizers. The former tendency will encourage urbanization while the latter will negatively affect the environment.

The objective of the GIS analysis should be to present an inventory of the different land uses within the agricultural sector. The inventory also serves as background data to determine if there is enough agricultural land sustainable for food production, to determine the types of crops, livestock, poultry and fisheries and other farm support facilities, and, to determine the location of the irrigated agricultural lands. Based on the suggested data tables, this presentation will also assist the planner to present and monitor agricultural land under different restrictions/programs.

Refer to the information product ‘4.09.04 SAFDZ’ that presents prime agricultural areas.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators of Agriculture Production  
  Indicators of the municipality’s capacity to support itself in agricultural production are shown in the food requirement table below. (Table from HLURB Guidelines Volume III – Economic Sector.)

Per Capita Dietary/Food Requirement

 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  There are four tables of socio-economic information to prepare for Step 4. There is also a project management table for projects within the agricultural sector and an infrastructure table for irrigation systems, which add value to the agricultural analysis.

SE42 Crop Production, Year 
SE43 Livestock and Poultry Production, Year 
SE44 Fishing Grounds and Aquaculture Production, Year 
SE45 Support Facilities and Services, Year 
PM04 Projects Approved or Funded for Implementation within the Agriculture Sector 
IS15 Irrigation Systems

 
  Spatial  
  The feature types of the above mentioned datasets are polygons, points (SE45, PM04) and polylines (IS15). If available, it is recommended that an aerial photo is used as backdrop to facilitate the digitizing of the polygons.  
  The following layers are prepared:  
  Agricultural areas for crop production
  Agricultural areas for livestock and poultry production
  Fishing grounds and aquaculture production
  Support facilities and services:
Milling
Cold storage
Multipurpose drying
Pavement
Reefer vans
Market center
Warehouse
Other
Symbol
  Projects approved or funded within the agricultural sector  
  Irrigation system
-private
-public

- - - - - - -
- - - - - - -
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  Within this information product, no further analysis will be done except the resulting map. However, starting from this IP, several analyses can be performed. For example, if the data collected on volume and value of crop and livestock production is consistent and of fair quality, a land revenue analysis can be undertaken. The value of the crop/production revenue is divided by the size of the actual area. A new ‘revenue’ layer will present the result using a color scale.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  Map presenting agricultural land uses (crop and livestock production), irrigation systems, fishing grounds, support facilities, irrigation systems and agricultural projects that are approved or funded for implementation.  
   

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4.06.12 Socio-Economic: Forestry

Note: This Information Product is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information needed for the CLUP. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB: telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Forestlands are those lands of the public domain that have been classified as such and declared as needed for forestry purposes. Forestlands are areas which inherently produce more benefits and give better service than when converted to agricultural lands or other uses, such that, those lands are not be titled. Forestlands include Production and Protection Forestlands. After land classification has been done, they are then subdivided into these two categories. The delineation is done by FMB and NAMRIA. Once this is done, those classified as Production Forests can be given management rights to qualified groups.

Production forests are forestlands managed primarily for the production of timber and other tree products. Permits are issued for the use of these areas. A number of tenurial permits are available for the use of these production forests. These are as follows:

TLA - Timber License Agreement
IFMA - Integrated Forest Management Agreement
CBFMA - Community-based Forest Management Agreement
FLGMA - Forest Land Grazing Management Agreement
SLUP - Special Land Uses Permit
PLTP - Private Land Timber Permit
CADC - Certificate of Ancestral Domain
WPP - Wood Processing Plant Contract
RCC - Rattan-Cutting Contract
OMP - Ordinary Minor Forest Products Permit

The DENR’s Forest Management Bureau grants these permits for production forests.

Key to this concept of production and protection is sustainable development.
The objective is to show the areas for production and protection for Forest Land.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Permits issued are indicators of Forest production.  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  The custodian of the sector data are the Forest Management Bureau, NAMRIA and PAWB.  
  The following attribute table was used for this sector.
SE46 Forestry Production
 
  Spatial  
  As of the moment, there are very few data available for areas identified for forest production. Though there are a number of permits issued, delineation and identification of forest for production and protection is still being carried out by FMB and NAMRIA. It may also be not possible to acquire exact areas for production forests which are already granted permits, for security against illegal logging.  
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  There is no analysis to be done.  
  Step 5: Present the DataAn example of forest land is taken from a Land Classification Map. It is within this forest land that protection and production forest will be determined.  
   

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4.07 Information Product Descriptions - Infrastructure


4.07.01 Infrastructure: Transport

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The objective is to identify current issues and constraints so that the existing road network and linkages can be improved and expanded.  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Define Planning Standards for accessibility, service provision/consumer ratio, consumer/housed service, physical condition of buildings and plot, etc.
From Volume 2, the following GIS indicators are applicable:
  1. For national roads in rural areas, the minimum width of road right-of-way shall be 60 meters, however if the areas are populated the right-of-way shall be less than 30 meters. Lane varies for each type of surfacing
  2. For provincial roads, the minimum right-of-way is 10 meters, which may be widened to 20 meters
  3. All municipal/city roads shall have a right-of-way of 10 meters and the width traveled way is 4.0 meters
  4. Barangay roads shall have a minimum right-of-way of 10 meters and the width traveled way is 4.0 meters.
 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. Those in bold are used for the examples:

IS01 Road Network by Type, Pavement and Condition 
IS02 Bridges by Type, Capacity and Condition 
IS03 Ancillary Road Facilities 
IS04 Passenger Terminals 
IS05 Cargo Terminals 
IS06 Railway 
IS07 Railway Facilities and Services 
IS08 Road Accidents over the Past Five Years 
IS09 Public Land Transportation Vehicles by Type and Service Routes

 
  The Custodians of sector data are DPWH, LTFRB, PNR and LGU.  
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  IS01 is used to define the road segments that are in a critical or poor condition or have an inadequate width compared to road classification standards shown in Step 2 above. The road has been digitized in segments where the nodes are defined at barangay crossings (so that the analysis can be used for comparisons between the barangays) and intersections with other roads (so network analyses can be made).  
  Width  
  Inadequate
  Road Condition  
  Critical
  Poor
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The example below shows an analysis made based on IS01 to identify the bottlenecks of a road leading from the transport corridor at the municipal boundary where a major new settlement is located at the poblacion near the lake:  
   
  Similar analysis can be made for the bridges in IS02. However, point features showing the location of the bridges will be used instead of polylines used to show the road network.  
  A tutorial how to digitize and display data from IS01 is found in Chapter 7.06 - Infrastructure Sector Tutorial  

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4.07.02 Infrastructure: Water

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Water is one of the great necessities of human life, which is often taken for granted. A supply of clean water is absolutely necessary for life and health, yet many people lack access to adequate water supply or can only obtain it at high prices. In many municipalities/cities, households in informal settlements are rarely connected to the network and can only rely on water from vendors at a high cost compared the tap water price. Improving access to safe water implies less burden on people, mostly women, to collect water from available sources. It also means reducing the burden of water related diseases.

This analysis monitors access to improved water sources based on the assumption that improved sources are likely to provide safe water.

 
  The Objective is to efficiently distribute potable water to the various barangays within the city/municipality (taken from Volume IV of the old guidelines).  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Define Planning Standards for accessibility, service provision/consumer ratio, consumer/housed service, physical condition of buildings and plot, etc. (refer to volume 2).
  1. Proportion of the urban barangay population with sustainable access to an improved water source. This is the percentage of the urban population who use any of the following types of water supply for drinking: piped water, public tap, borehole or pump, protected well, protected spring or rainwater.
  2. The water should be affordable and at a sufficient quantity that is available without excessive physical effort and time.
  3. Improved water sources do not include vendor-provided waters, bottled water, tanker trucks or unprotected wells and springs.
  4. This indicator requires planning standards as follows:
  5. Affordable: water should not take an undue proportion of the household income, i.e. less than 10 (?)%;
  6. Sufficient quantity: water should be available at a quantity of at least 20 (?) liters per person per day.
  7. Without excessive efforts and time, obtaining water for the households should not take an undue proportion of the household’s time (less than one hour a day for the minimum sufficient quantity of at least 20 (?) liters per person per day).

PD 856 (Code of Sanitation)
Sec. 13 Provision for the protection of Drinking Water
b. No artesian, deep or shallow well shall be constructed within 25 m. from any source of pollution

 
  Water Supply Typical Model System

Level Features Population Served Remarks Distance From Water Outlet To Farthest House
I Point Source system
-Shallow Well
- Deep Well
  For areas where houses are few and scattered 250 m
II Communal Faucet
development point source
electrically driven pumps
storage tanks
piped distribution network with public faucets
200 households per system with 5.7 households per faucet For rural areas where houses are closely clustered 25 m
III Individual house connection
development point source
electrically driven pump
storage tank
piped distribution network with house faucets
1000 households and more Densely populated urban areas Within houses

Source: LWUA

Source: Water Supply of Volume IV – Infrastructure and Utilities of HLURB Guidelines

  Water Standard Requirements

Residential Level I
60 lcpd
Level II
100-110 lcpd (individual connection)
30 lcpd (public faucet)
Commercial/Industrial Communal Faucet individual connection
Institutional 1.0 – 2.0 cumd/ connection
3.0 cumd/ connection
individual connection

Source: Annex V of Volume V – Land Use of HLURB Guidelines

  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  There are 6 tables of Infrastructure Information to prepare for Step 4. Those in bold are used in the example below:

IS10 Water Sources 
IS11 Water Distribution Line by Diameter and Material Used 
IS12 Pumps 
IS13 Communal Faucet 
IS14 Current and Projected Needs by Barangay Population. 
IS15 (Operating) Irrigation System

 
  The Custodians of sector data are the LGU and the Local Water Districts.  
  Spatial  
  The object will be different types of (sector): ………… for which a specific symbol is needed. A public (sector) will have a red and a private (Sector) will have a blue color coding.  
  The feature type will be a point/polylines/polygon. The location will be traced by a GPS/primary survey/secondary source. SYMBOL for the (service)
  Photo showing the spot for GPS reading (if needed)  
  Water source (point)
  Water pipe line (polylines)  
  Barangay served (polygon)  
  Water Level  
  Level I
  Level II
  Level III
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  The following Analyses layers can be prepared based on the Baseline Information:  
  Barangay with sufficient provision of water  
  Barangay with insufficient provision of water.
Maybe also ‘critical insufficient provision of water’ is needed as an indicator
 
  Barangay where the projected population year ???? will not have sufficient provision with water  
  Critical. The water source/pump/pipe line is not functional  
  Poor: poorly maintained/very old and has temporary breakdowns and there is a great risk for a total breakdown within the planning period  
  Fair: The water source/pump/pipe line is in (good) working condition.  
  Relate the Water Source with the population  
  Highly populated barangay
  Level I water Source
  Critical. Highly Populated Barangays with poor water source (Level I)
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The water analysis layers will be put on top of the Base Map as the example below shows the water level for each barangay:  
   
  Show the location of water sources  
   
  Show the Highly Populated Barangays with poor water source (Level I).  

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4.07.03 Infrastructure: Power Supply

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, revisions may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Power means progress. It boosts development of a community. It enables the use of more advanced machines for better production. The objective is to use GIS to display the provision of power supply utilities and the constraints that exist today and also the status of electrification by barangay. This information will be used in Step 4, (see Volume 1). The users of this data are: LGU staff, officials and the general public. The education information products can be used by the power supply provider(s). The final products of this activity will be digital maps for analysis as well as for display.  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  The indicator will be how well the municipality is being provided with electricity and what areas are not properly supplied with power  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. Those in bold are used for the examples here.

IS17 Transmission/Distribution Line, Year 
IS18 Consumption by Type of Consumers, Year 
IS19 Power Substation, Year 
IS20 Power Plant, Year 
IS21 Fuel and Chemical Depot, Year 
IS22 Households Served and Unserved with Electricity by Barangay, Year

 
  The Custodian of Power Supply Data is the National Transmission Corporation (Transco) for transmission Lines and substations.

The Custodian of sector data is the Department of Energy (DOE).

There are two sets of data for this sector, one for transmission which includes the sub stations.

There are the power plants which will require significant land area allocation. For transmission, TRANSCO is the source for secondary data. It is currently mapping the transmission lines for a certain project areas. The DOE has the location plans for these power plants. Aside from the DOE, private power providers such as PNOC, NAPOCOR, Philippine Geothermal, etc. have their own source data. As experienced in the Ormoc GIS, it is difficult to acquire maps for the geothermal power plant in the area. They submitted their request to PNOC which controls the geothermal area but were not able to get the information.

 
  The following steps are taken to get the data:  
1 The first option is to check with the custodian to find out if they have attribute and spatial data about the Transmission Lines by sending them a letter requesting information.  
  Spatial  
  The object will be the different types of power lines. The feature type will be a polyline where the line width will determine the Voltage/capacity. The color will be black.  
2 If there is no response to the letter, or if they don’t like to give the information, a GPS can be used to track the alignment. Do a point reading for each of the power-line pylons and join them into a polylines. If there are limited resources to track lines in the entire municipality/city, the Transmission Lines in the urban Barangays should be prioritized. Time needed will depend on natural conditions and road accessibility.  
    SYMBOLOGY
  Transmission Line with 500 KV Voltage
  Transmission Line with 230 KV Voltage
   
  Transmission Line with 69 KV Voltage  
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  The following Analysis layers can be prepared based on the Baseline Information:  
  Right-of-way buffer for an existing Line Indicated by a red point hatch for 500 KV = 65 m, 230 KV = 40 m, 69 KV = 15 m
  Are there plans to set out new Transmission Lines? If so, it should be displayed as a separate layer with the Right-of-way buffer standards as shown above. Dashed line and a lighter red buffer than above.
  Transco’s TILs are composed of major lines cooperatives (NEA or the electric cooperative in each municipality) are the ones that have this data.  
  In terms of Energized and Unenergized barangay:  
  Energized
  Unenergized
  Step 5: Present the Data  
   
  The example below shows barangays being supplied with electricity.  
   

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4.07.04 Infrastructure: Communication

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS AnalysisIn recent years, Information Communication Technology (ICT) has slowly bridged the gap for communication in many if not all areas in the country. The increasing trend and demand to communicate is the use of the cellular phone so that even areas which may be considered inaccessible can now be reached by coverage of cellular network. The challenge for now, however, is to cope up with the changing demands of communication such as the internet. Many people are now aware of the great advantage of the internet especially those families of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW) who wish to communicate with their loved ones in a more interactive but inexpensive way than landline phone calls. The demand for broadband and internet cafes offering chat and video streaming is ever increasing. As long as more people leave the country to look for work, the demand and way of communicating will increase and change.

Before, the demand is to have infrastructure to communicate (e.g, phone lines, local post office, telegram). But now the demand is better infrastructure (cable TV, phone lines, broadband internet).

The example will attempt to use the datasets (attribute and spatial) to show the different types of telecommunications in a municipality and the extent of its coverage/catchment.

The result of this output will assist the Planner to find out if the facility is enough to meet the needs and demands of the municipality. If not, proposals can be done based on indicators if available.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Define Planning Standards for accessibility, service provision/consumer ratio, consumer/housed service, physical condition of features, etc.  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attribute  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. Those in bold are used for the examples.

IS23 Communication Services Facilities 
IS24 Cell Sites Network

 
  The Custodian of sector data are the National Telecommunication Center, PhilPost and the Local Telecom Carriers.  
  Spatial  
  The feature type will be a point. The location will be traced using a GPS.  
  Large Tower (Approx 10 km)
Note: Coverage area of each tower should be taken from the carriers operating these towers.
  Post office
  Base map and Density map will be useful to achieve the best results. (see below)  
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  The following Analyses layers can be prepared based on the Baseline Information:
  1. Availability of telecom & Broadcast service in the area
  2. Underserved, and unserved areas, or determine status communication service distribution per area.
 
  For telecom, the area served by cellular network can be estimated. Though there are other factors that should be considered other than strength of the transmitter in determining coverage (height of tower, elevation of tower, terrain, presence of obstructions), it can give a fair picture of the current situation.  
  Make a Buffer of Facilities depending on the distance of coverage of the network. Check with the Network Provider on the coverage of their facilities in the municipality/city. A Buffer is defined as the radius based on a specified distance from the center of the facility. This will be either the catchments or coverage area.  
  Coverage Area
  Catchments Area
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The Location of the Post Office overlaid on population density shows the area served with respect to population distribution.  
   
  The buffer area would give us an approximate on how many of the population is being served  
  The approximate coverage area of cell site is overlaid with the base map. In many cases, it would be beneficial to include cell sites located in adjacent municipalities since their area of coverage will overlap.  
   

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4.07.05 Infrastructure: Sanitation

Note: This Information Product is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information needed for the CLUP. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB: telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Lack of sanitation is a major public health problem that causes disease, sickness and death. Highly infectious, excreta-related diseases such as cholera still affect whole communities in the Philippines. Diarrhea, which is spread easily in an environment of poor hygiene and inadequate sanitation, kills several people each year, most of them children under five years old. Inadequate sanitation, through its impact on health and environment, has also considerable implications for economic development. People miss days at work due to sickness resulting from such diseases. Moreover, lack of sanitation and waste management poses a fundamental threat to water resources.

Good sanitation is important for urban and rural populations, but the risks are greater in slum areas where it is more difficult to avoid contact with waste.

Waste disposal is a big concern for the LGUs. The Local Government Code tasks the LGUs to dispose of their own garbage. The most common way of waste disposal is at the dumpsite and a good location for this area must also be addressed. GIS can help in analyzing whether a proposed dumpsite or landfill area is acceptable with the law and standards. The location of dumpsites poses environmental and health risks which should also be addressed in planning.

The objective is to show the location of existing dumpsites within the LGU.

Site selection for dumpsites is not covered in this IP as of the moment. If there is a need for the LGU to locate new dumpsites, this analysis requires some more sophistication, data and consultation which requires a special project which is not tacked in this IP.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Solid Waste Disposal
  1. Page 30 of the Health - Volume II – Social Sector of HLURB Guidelines shows the computation for area requirements for solid waste disposal. Location consideration can be found in PD 856
  2. 50 m away from waterways or any surface water resources, aquifer, and ground water reservoir, and not located within a watershed area.
  3. 25 m away from any dwelling house or unit, commercial establishment, any recreational area or institution

Source: Heath Section of Volume II – Social Sector of HLURB Guidelines

Proportion of the Barangay population with access to improved sanitation or percentage of the Barangay population with access to facilities that hygienically separate human excreta from human, animal and insect contact.

Facilities such as sewers or septic tanks, poor-flush latrines and ventilated improved pit latrines are assumed to be improved, provided that they are not public. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained, and not shared by more than two households.

This indicator requires definitions for several elements:

  1. Shared: the facilities should be shared by a maximum of two households;
  2. Sufficient capacity: the septic system should have a sufficient capacity in order not to be clogged.
 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  The following attribute table was used for this sector.

IS16 Toilets Per Barangay

 
  The Custodian of sector data is the National Statistics Office. Data available at the NSO only provides statistics on a per LGU sample size. It is desirable that this dataset is captured on a barangay level, and primary survey should be done if possible.  
  Spatial  
  Existing Dumpsite
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  Location of dumpsite/solid waste disposal will be analyzed in terms of location consideration:  
 
  1. 50 m away from waterways or any surface water resources, aquifer, and ground water reservoir, and not located within a watershed area.
  2. 25 m away from any dwelling house or unit, commercial establishment, any recreational area or institution
 
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  Map below shows the location of an existing dumpsite in an LGU.  
   

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4.08 Information Product Descriptions - Environmental

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4.08.01 Environmental Management: Climate

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates. For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The climate in the Philippines can be divided into two seasons; the rainy season, from June to November, and the dry season from December to May. Typhoons greatly influence the climate and weather in the country. Climate is also uniform at a municipal level. Mapping out climate at an LGU level will only show one climate for the whole area but it is important to include in the LGU’s profile.
Global warming is a serious problem facing the world today. Though climate change is a natural phenomenon, global warming is seriously speeding up the rate that contributes to these changes. A serious consideration is the rise in sea level for which the Philippines is greatly affected.

Climate change is hard to predict, it requires a high level of analysis, sophistication and powerful computers. However, patterns can still be observed and possible effects can be predicted, and these can be considered during the CLUP process. There have been estimates that the effects of climate change to water level rise can be felt within a period of 10 years, which is the planning period of the CLUP. Due to the lengthy coastlines of the country, the effects of sea level rise is a matter that warrants investigation.

The objective is to make the LGUs aware of the possible effects of climate change and global warming to its territory.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Climate Effect  
  The effect on the coastline due to sea level rise will be evaluated.  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attribute  
  There is no database to be filled out.  
  The custodian of climate description is PAGASA.  
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  It is possible to do a simple sea level scenario using a facility found in a website: http://flood.firetree.net/. Shown is an indicative map, presenting the possible scenarios which gives the user an idea if sea level rise is a serious threat to the coastal areas.  
  More in depth analysis is required, including consultations with experts, so that the LGU can determine the possible effects of climate change and sea level rise in their municipality/city.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  This is just an example of the possible scenarios that can happen. The dotted region in the middle part of the maps indicates the areas that might be affected if there is a 1 m sea level rise.  
   

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4.08.02 Environmental Management: Soil

Disclaimer: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volume 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing of land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives
of the GIS Analysis
 
  Type of soil is one factor in identifying suitable areas for expansion.
Soil is also an important factor in determining agricultural areas which
is already integrated when an LGU produces their SAFDZ and also a consideration
when Land Management Unit (LMU) map of the BSWM. The objective is to identify
the type of soil which is a criterion in determining soil suitable areas
for urban expansion.
 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Suitability  
  The four (4) classes of soil suitability are as follows:  
  Class I (Good) - Areas which have properties favorable for the rated use
with none to slight limitations which can be easily overcome. Class II (Fair)
- Areas with moderate limitations mainly due to soil erosion, moderate drainage
problems caused by run-off and slow permeability. Class III (Poor) - Areas
with soil having one or more properties unfavorable to the rated use. The
limitations are difficult and costly to modify/overcome, requiring major
soil reclamation, special design or intensive maintenance. Class IV (Very
Poor) - Soil under this classification have very severe limitations for
urban requirements which are very difficult and costly to overcome. Complete
replacement or modifications or existing soil conditions may be needed.
 
  Soil Suitability Classification for Urban Use

Classes Slope Erosion Soil Profile Characteristics Flooding Stoniness/ Rocks
Good

0-10% - level to gently sloping; none to moderately eroded Deep to moderately deep with clay solum; well to moderately well
drained
No flooding; drainage good with low water table No rockiness & shrinking or swelling problems
Fair 10-15% - gently sloping to rolling relief moderately to severely
eroded
Moderately to deep profile erosion may result in shallow profile
depth to bedrock
Moderate drainage problem due to run-off and slow permeability rate Slight to moderate shrinking and swelling rockiness and stoniness
problem
Poor 15-25% - steep or hilly topography moderately to severely eroded Deep with clay loam to clayely texture and sandy solum texture Soil drainage good or fair but excessive external due to their steep
slopes
 
Very Poor over 25% - very steep to mountainous very severe erosion level to
nearly level
  Extreme submerged problem  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attribute  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector.
EM01 Soil Type
 
  The custodian of the sector data is the Bureau of Soils and Water Management
(BSWM).
 
  Spatial  
  Soil type will be delineated from the soil map taken from BSWM.  
  There will be many type of soil indicated on the map. Our only concern
is clay type which is part of the criteria to identify good soil for urban
expansion.
 
  Clay  
   
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  LMU and soil series data are basic data inputs to the determination of
crop suitability and soil management. Overlaying the soil map on other land
factor maps such as erosion, slope among others would help determine land
limitations and physical limitations of the area.
 
  In order to produce soil suitability for urban expansion, we will also
need the dataset from slope and flooding which can be derived from secondary
source. Include Stoniness/Rockiness if dataset is available. If not, the
product of the 3 criteria may be use for preliminary selection and the final
selection be criteria be determined when the options are already being assessed.
 
  Slope  
  Good for Urban Expansion (0-10% Slope)
  Fair for Urban Expansion (10-15% Slope)
  Flooding  
  Good for Urban Expansion (No Apparent Flooding)
  Fair for Urban Expansion (Slight Flooding)
   
   
  Step 5: Present the Data  
   

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4.08.03 Environmental Management: Slope

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, revisions may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The slope of the land is only one of the several conditions considered in determining the suitability of land for future urban development as well as for crops cultivation and production. Low levels of terrain to moderately sloping areas with good soil characteristics are favorable for agricultural cultivation and urban development. Steeply sloping to mountainous conditions makes the land highly prone to soil erosion and is mostly suitable for forest.  
  The objective of the analysis is to show the slope conditions in the municipality/city and to identify the areas that are below 18% slope. The result will only be one of the inputs when analyzing the land suitable for future urban development.  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  There are many examples of how slopes are indicated today: from sophisticated division of more than 10 classes to a more simplistic approach. However, the key threshold indicator is ‘more than 18% slope’ which are not suitable for urban development in the Risk and Suitability Analysis made in Step 5 of the CLUP process and consolidates it to be ‘forestland’.  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attribute  
  The attribute table below was used for this example.
EM02 Slope
 
  Spatial  
  The spatial feature will be a polygon.  
  Not Suitable
  There are slope maps available at the BSWM for some areas to start from (see below). If no slope map is available from BSWM, contour maps and spot elevation can be found in NAMRIA topographic maps. For the municipal planner with or with little experience in GIS technology it will still be cumbersome to produce a slope map in a digital format. In case there is no available digital slope map at the BSWM it is recommended that the CLUP slope map is prepared by a professional expert (in tandem with the CLUP Base Map preparation).  
   
  The following describes the steps to be taken:

The image below is an extract from a digitized contour map with 20 M interval (0,5 dpi grey lines): The map shows the contour lines indicating the steepness or flatness of the land. Contour lines which are close to each other mean slope is steep while those farther apart indicates gentler slope of land. It is, therefore, used to interpret the slope % classes. There is however no need to acquire a contour map if a slope map is available.

 
   
   
  The slope map, above in this context, shows seven classes of slopes. For simplification, the slope classes have been assigned a color coding where shades of ‘green’ indicates land that are level to moderately sloping while the shades of red indicates land which are strongly sloping to very steep(above 18%).  
   
  The contour map overlaid with the slope map. (slope map is 50% transparent )  
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  The next step will be to generalize the slope classes into two : areas not suitable for urban development and areas to be considered as one of the conditions of suitable areas. Below is a simplified raster layer showing not suitable areas for urban development.  
   
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The data together with other Baseline maps (fault, flooding, etc) will be used in the Risk and Suitability Analysis.  

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4.08.04 Environmental Management: Flood

Note: This Information Product is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information needed for the CLUP. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB: telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The safety of the community is a prime consideration in determining the location of future settlements in a locality. It is important therefore, that the susceptibility of an area to flooding be taken in consideration not only in determining future urban areas but also finding solutions to the problem of flooding. Moreover, as planners of municipalities/cities where hazards are inevitable, disaster risk management should be considered in all planning endeavors.  
  The main consideration in this example is to determine the location of areas susceptible to flooding which will be given consideration in the GIS analysis to determine suitable sites for urban use, in order to avoid flooding disasters.  
  Step 2: Identify the Areas to Determine Location of Flooded Areas  
  Indicators are: Flooded and non- flooded areas as seen on the map provided by the MGB geohazard map. PAGASA prepares flooding maps based on meteorology or rainfall. In the future, Hazard maps will be harmonized as there is an ongoing harmonization project for these agencies together with the Phivolcs and NDCC.  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attribute  
  The following attribute table was used for this example.
EM03 Flood
 
  Spatial  
  The object flood prone areas will be a polygon.
  The image below is a Geohazard map from the MGB. The scanned map will serve as the background when digitizing the flooded areas. Ultimately, residents in the community should also be consulted as they are the most likely persons to know where and when flooding occurs.  
  Geohazard image  
   
  Below is a digitized map of flooded areas using MGB geohazard map and other map sources.  
   
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  The digitized flooding map will be useful when alternative spatial strategies are drawn out in coming up with the proposed Land Use Plan as it will be an input when identifying suitable areas for urban expansion.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
   
  Likewise, this information will in the future be most useful especially when preparing an “Awareness and Preparedness Plan” or the Rehabilitation Plan for areas struck by disasters as well as for flood control purposes. Ultimately, the flooding map data is important for planning for the locations of residential areas.  

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4.08.05 Environmental Management: Erosion

Disclaimer: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volume 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing of land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The objective is to show areas prone to erosion as input to the risk and suitability analysis.  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Severe erosion would be one of the indicators in determining the unsuitability of an area for future urban expansion.  
  Attribute  
  The following attribute table was used for this sector.

EM04 Erosion

 
  The Custodian of sector data is the Bureau of Soils and Water Management.  
  Spatial  
  Severe Erosion
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  There is no analysis for this IP  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
   

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4.08.06 Environmental Management: Fault Lines/Earthquakes

Note: This Information Product is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information needed for the CLUP. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB: telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Hazards are great concerns for an LGU. Unlike flooding which can more or less be controlled, through flood control structures, the hazards illustrated here present permanent danger which is beyond the control of men.

A fault is a fracture in the Earth's crust along which two blocks of the crust have slipped with respect to each other. A fault may be active or inactive. An active fault is a fracture caused by an earthquake that has occurred within the last 100 years while an inactive fault is vice versa.

An earthquake is a sudden rapid shaking of the earth caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath the earth's surface. Earthquakes can cause buildings and bridges to collapse, disrupt gas, electric and phone lines, and often cause landslides, flash floods, fires, avalanches, and tsunamis. Larger earthquakes usually begin with slight tremors but rapidly take the form of one or more violent shocks, and end in vibrations of gradually diminishing force called aftershocks. The underground point of origin of an earthquake is called its focus; the point on the surface directly above the focus is the epicenter. The magnitude and intensity of an earthquake is determined by the use of scales like the Richter scale and the Mercalli scale.

Hazards that are associated with faults and earthquakes are liquefaction, earthquake induced landslides and tsunami.

Active volcanoes are also risk areas if there is one in the municipality/city or in the vicinity. There is great danger to both property and lives whenever an eruption occurs. The permanent danger zone should be free from any structure and inhabitants to prevent loss of property and lives.

Similarly, identified landslide prone areas should also be clear of inhabitants and permanent structures. It is also important that these be included in a dataset if there are any such areas in the municipality/city.

Subsidence areas are areas where grounds are likely to fall which can endanger lives and properties.

These are just some of the hazards that an area may have. Some agencies might have other datasets (fault lines (inactive), liquefaction, etc.) These areas should be likewise be investigated and their effects be discussed with experts (PHIVOLCS, NAMRIA, individual geologists, etc.) on how they can help the LGU planners include these in their plans.

The information to be derived is not intended to scare aware investors but to provide information to LGUs and enforce necessary mitigating measures to manage disaster (for example through zoning, controlled development on affected areas, height requirements on buildings, additional safety features on structures, etc).

The objective of this GIS analysis is to present the fault line areas/Earthquake prone areas, volcanic hazard, landslide prone and subsidence areas on the map as input to the Risk and Suitability Map.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Risk and Suitability  
  People living on steep slopes, or mountainous areas which may be in close proximity of an active fault.  
  People living in close proximity of an active volcano.  
  People who live or work in unreinforced masonry buildings built on filled land or unstable soil are more at risk  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attribute  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. Those in bold are used for the examples here.

EM05 Fault line 
EM06 Volcanic Hazard 
EM07 Tsunami 
EM08 Landslide 
EM09 Subsidence

 
  The custodians for the data are the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), MGB and NDCC  
  Spatial  
  fault line
  volcano
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  The following Analyses layers can be prepared based on the Baseline Information:  
  There should be a buffer area of 5 m on both sides of a fault line where no development will be made. There is a possibility that fault areas are within urban areas, this will help identify these areas and plan what to do with them.  
  Existing built up areas prone to earthquakes (raster)  
  Not recommended areas for urban expansion due to earthquake hazards (raster)
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The example below shows Active Fault lines passing through Agricultural and Forest lands. Direct effects of the fault line would be minimal since these areas are not so populated. However, surrounding areas will still experience the effects depending on the distance and magnitude of the earthquake. But scenarios should be made (with the aid of concerned agencies) to determine the impacts of these active faults in case an earthquake occurs, and the need for evacuation of residents.  
   
  The next example shows faultlines directly affecting urban areas. A buffer of (250m) for the Fault lines was used for this example.  
   
  Faultlines buffer overlaid with an aerial photo showing a densely populated urban area. This will give an idea on the possible impact when an earthquake occurs.  
   
  Example below shows the 4 km Danger zone within active volcanoes. This area should be clear of inhabitants since they present permanent danger whenever the volcano is active.  
   

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4.08.07 Environmental Management: Air and Water Quality

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates. For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Pollution is a serious problem caused by urbanization. Aside from the ecological aspect of the problem, it is also a planning issue. Air and water pollution have serious effects on the health and lives of people, therefore the sources of pollution (like industries) should be as far away from residential areas. However, there are other sources of pollution such as motor vehicles (mobile sources), which are very common and become part of the urban scenario, and these should also be addressed in planning. Any type of pollution should not go unabated.

Pollution should be controlled and there are already a number of laws that should be applied for pollution control, such as the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Toxic Substances and Nuclear Waste Control Act, Solid Waste Management Act and other laws.

The objective is to show the polluted water sources, and areas with poor air quality as a consideration in determining suitable urban areas.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Suitability.  
  If no data is available, physical observation can help determine polluted water bodies and/or areas with poor air quality.  
  Source : DAO 2000-81 IRR for RA 8749 (Clean Air Act) Part II, Rule VII, Sec.  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  There are three tables of Environmental Management Information to prepare. Those in bold are used in the example below.

EM10 Water Quality Monitoring 
EM11 Air Quality Monitoring 
EM12 Noise Pollution Source

 
  The Custodian of sector data is the Environmental Management Bureau. Some data for air quality could probably be obtained from the Manila Observatory.  
  There is very minimal Air and Water Quality Data available for the LGU. There are also very minimal maps to show polluted areas. But even though there is no data, these pollution phenomena can be seen and observed. The LGU would probably know which areas are polluted or have poor air or water quality. The next example shows areas where high density of vehicles ply their routes, and which are also traffic congested. These areas are usually highly polluted due to vehicle exhaust. However, it will be hard to measure the exact affected area of the pollution so only approximations may be used.  
  Poor Air Quality
  Poor Water Quality
   
  The same can be done with water quality as shown below. It will be trickier to assess water quality due to lack of facilities to actually monitor water quality. But whenever possible, this has to be somehow monitored by the LGUs in coordination with concerned agencies.  
   
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  The data above is overlaid with the land use map. These layers will be inputs to the Risk and Suitability Map.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  See maps above  

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4.08.08 Environmental Management: Environmentally Critical Areas/Project

   
  Step 1: Prepare Background and Identify the Objectives  
  Environmentally Critical Areas (ECA) are those areas ranging from national parks to areas frequently exposed to hazards or areas that are historically interesting. These areas are identified in Presidential Proclamation 2146. The wide range in the classification might at first seem overwhelming, however, most data to this dataset will already be found in datasets that have probably been prepared already.

Environmentally Critical Projects (ECP) are projects or industries that have critical environmental impacts and therefore need to undergo environmental impact assessments and need to acquire Environmental Compliance Certificates (ECC) prior to implementation. Even though the LGU may not play a significant role in the environmental impact assessment system it is important to monitor these projects in order to plan for the appropriate location of these projects vis-à-vis residential and other land uses.

The CLUP must reflect these areas and projects. Some ECA may need to be surrounded by buffer zones so that the adjacent land will be free from intensive land use and thus protecting the ECAs. In the same way, buffer zones around ECPs can be used to prevent residential or agricultural land use in the vicinities of these projects.

The objective of this IP is to present an inventory as complete as possible regardless of what has already been analyzed in other IPs.

 
  Step 2: Identify the ECA Classes, Their Corresponding Datasets and the ECP Categories  
  The table below indicates from which CLUP table(s) the data can be reflected, copied or acquired.
ECA Classification (source)

ECA Class CLUP Table(s)
A – Area declared by law as a national park, watershed, reserve, wildlife preserves or sanctuary LM05 Nipas
B – area set aside as aesthetic, potential tourist spot  
C – area which constitutes the habitat for any endangered or threatened species of indigenous Philippine wildlife (flora and fauna) LM05 Nipas,
LM06 Non-Nipas
D – area of unique historic, archeological, geological or scientific interest LM09 Cultural Heritage
E – area which is traditionally occupied by cultural community or tribe LM08 Ancestral domain,
LM09 Cultural Heritage
F – area frequently visited and/or hard-hit by natural calamities (geologic hazards, floods, typhoons, volcanic activity, etc.) EM03 Flood, EM04 Erosion, EM05 Faultline,
EM06 Volcanic Hazard, EM07 Tsunami,
EM08 Landslide,
EM09 Subsidence
G – area with critical slope EM02 Slope
H – area classified as prime agricultural land LM08 SAFDZ
I – recharged area of aquifers  
J – waterbody From basemap
K – mangrove area LM05 Nipas,
LM06 Non-Nipas
LM07 SAFDZ
L – coral reef  

To identify the different Environmental Critical Projects, refer to the projects that have been given an ECC. These can be categorized in the following classes:

  1. heavy industry;
  2. extractive resource;
  3. infrastructure project;
  4. golf course
 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes and Spatial  
  There is one table to prepare for this presentation (and it is used in this example):

EM14 Environmentally Critical Projects

The custodians of this data are the EMB and LLDA. Simply capture the data into the CLUP table and digitize the locations from a secondary source map, or undertake a GPS survey where these locations are measured and then transferred into the CLUP GIS. The feature types here will be points or polygons.

The steps below will guide the presentation of the ECAs based on selections from other CLUP tables. However, if the EMB can provide the map of ECAs, this should enable the creation of a dataset from this source and use this as a comparison to the features that are selected within step 4.

 
  The procedure is to select features from the layers as mentioned below (here presented by their corresponding CLUP table index and short name) and save all selections into a new layer, named ‘ECA’. Another option is to assign the symbol for ECA (red border line) to all the types within a layer that also constitutes ECA.

LM05 NIPAS
Basically, every type of NIPAS should constitute an ECA. This is valid for both type 1 (existing NIPAS) and type 2 (new NIPAS). It should be noted that the ECAs are categorized differently from NIPAS.

LM06 Non-NIPAS
Select all features that are classified as mangrove.

LM08 Ancestral Domain
Select all features.

LM09 Cultural Heritage
Select all features.

For the following layers, please refer to guidelines.

EM03 Flood
Select the flood prone areas

EM04 Erosion
Select the erosion prone areas

LM07 SAFDZ
Select all features that are strategic types or categorized as NPAAAD.
The other SAFDZ types may qualify to be an ECA, and there will be a need to verify the remaining areas by hand.

 
  ECA
  ECP (when polygon)
  ECP (when point object)
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  There is no analysis for this IP.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The result is a map presenting the selected ECA features (red polygons) and ECP layers (here one layer with blue points and one layer with blue polygons). Roads, rivers and barangay boundaries are added to the map. The map constitutes an inventory of ECA and ECP in the municipality:  
   

4.09 Information Product Descriptions - Land Management


4.09.01 Land Management: Land Classification

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

  Step 1: Prepare the Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The Land Classification chart shows that under classified land are forest lands and alienable and disposable lands. The first step in the identifying land classification in the municipality/city is for the MPDC to verify with NAMRIA’s Land Classification Division.

In order to visualize land use conflicts in a given municipality/city, this IP is included in the CLUP process to organize the data regarding classified areas in the respective municipality.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Land Classification  
  Land Classification is found in maps, produced and provided by NAMRIA. If there are unclassified areas within the municipality, the planner should contact NAMRIA to get the status of these areas. In principle, only A & D Lands are suitable for future urban use.  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  There is one CLUP table that is needed for this dataset:

LM04 Land Classification

 
  The Land Classification Department at NAMRIA should be consulted regarding current information. The land classification maps are in analogue format, and there are no available digital datasets.

Another source of information concerning alienable and disposable lands is the Land Management Bureau (LMB).

 
  Spatial  
  The feature types are here polygons.  
  The following symbology is used in this example.The following symbology is used in this example.Forest land
  Alienable and disposable land.
  Land with other classification Blank
  Unclassified land:
   
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  In planning for future urban development, the land classification layer should be used as one constraint for location of designated areas. Select the alienable and disposable areas and save these as a new layer. This layer will then be used within the risk and suitability analysis.  
  This new layer will be symbolized by a hatching pattern:
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The map below shows the areas that are unavailable for urban land use. Roads, rivers and barangay boundaries are added to the map for orientation purposes.  
   

4.09.02 Land Management: Existing Land Use

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Remote Sensing is the act of obtaining information about an object from a distance. Although that distance can be near or far, remote sensing usually means gathering data from some distance above the Earth's surface (e.g. aerial photography and satellite remote sensing).

Satellite Image- A picture of the earth taken from an earth-orbital satellite. Satellite images may be produced photographically or by on-board scanners (e.g. MSS).

Aerial Photo- High altitude pictures taken from an aircraft or satellite.

The objective is to prepare an existing land use map of the municipality/city to see the actual development in a municipality/city. Satellite images and aerial photos will greatly aid the planner in delineating the boundaries of the different land uses. This is the best and quickest way to prepare an existing land use map.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Validation on the ground or ground truthing is necessary to determine the correctness of the initial land use interpretation.

Built-up Area – a contiguous grouping of ten (10) or more structures
Agricultural – an area within a city/municipality intended for cultivation/fishing and pastoral activities, e.g. fish farming, cultivation of crops, goat/cattle raising, etc.
Forest - an area within a city/municipality intended primarily for forest purposes
Residential - an area within a city/municipality principally for dwelling/housing purposes
Commercial - an area within a city/municipality for trading/services/business purposes
Industrial – Includes manufacturing, refining, fabricating, assembly, storage, parking and other incidental uses; including food processing, cottage industries, sawmills, rice mills, steel mills, chemical processing, etc.
Institutional - an area within a city/municipality principally for general types of institutional establishments e.g. government offices, schools, hospitals/clinics, academic/research, convention center.

 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  The following attribute table may be used for this sector. It is used for the examples here.

LM01 Existing General Land and Water Use

 
  The Custodians of sector data are NAMRIA (For Land Classification), LMB (For A&D Lands) and the LGU.  
  Spatial  
  The following Analyses layers can be prepared from the Baseline Information:  
  The use of aerial photos or satellite imagery is recommended in the preparation of an Existing land Use map of a municipality/city.

The resolution of the Satellite Image and the size of the municipality/city are of major consideration. High-resolution satellite images (2.5 m or higher) are ideal and will be useful for both urban and rural areas but these are more expensive. Low resolution Satellite images (10 m or lower) are inexpensive and can cover a larger area but are only of good use for rural areas (forest, agricultural) and in identifying built up/urban areas. For low-income municipalities, it is advisable to have high resolution satellite Images.

For a large rural municipality/city, a combination of Low Resolution Satellite Images and either Aerial Photography or High Resolution Satellite image may be very useful in preparing the existing land use map for LGU. Aerial Photography or High Resolution Satellite images will best be used for the urban areas (usually the Poblacion). Archive images of not more than 5 years for rural areas and 3 years for urban areas may be used. If the available archive image is older, or no Aerial Photographs are available, it is advisable for the LGUs to acquire these photos if funds allow.

Aerial Photos or satellite images will not be enough to create the existing land use map. At first, they can be used to view the municipality/city ‘from the top’. An initial interpretation of the images can already be made to determine the actual land use, however, ground survey is necessary to determine unidentifiable features and to verify if initial interpretation is correct.

It is also preferable that the base map coincide with the aerial photos or satellite images. Documentation on how and what adjustments were made to whatever dataset was adjusted should be created and attached as metadata on the adjusted layer.

 
  The figure below shows a satellite image overlaid with the base map of the municipality/city. Low-resolution satellite images distinguish between built-up and vegetation which maybe agricultural or forest use. Higher resolution will be required for built-up areas. Further processing of the image using Remote Sensing software may further distinguish agricultural and forest use.  
   
  An aerial photo also shows land that is used for agricultural purposes. Areas marked in red are built-up areas where more detailed inspection should be done.  
   
  Further inspection of the built-up areas will show possible uses in these areas.  
   
  Determining land use for a certain area can be based on stored knowledge. Municipal planners usually know the locations of schools and big industries and once they see them in the photos, these are easily interpreted/identified.  
  The following figures constitute a basic photo interpretation tutorial:

Residential areas are usually clusters of small buildings, organized in blocks and streets.

 
   
  Agricultural lands can easily be identified as big areas of green or open areas while brown patches are rice paddies that have not yet been planted.  
   
  The presence of these irregularly shaped structures that look like storage facilities indicates a possible industrial activity.  
   
  There will however be features that will be difficult to identify. The photo below left is a possible construction site or just an open area, while the one on the right may be an industrial building or factory, a school facility or a site for mass housing (BLISS or condominium type). In this case, and for other similar cases, ground truthing or field validation is necessary.  
   
  Urban Areas will require more detailed inspection, since the uses of the areas in the aerial photos will only be approximated. A field survey will give the exact details of the actual uses.  
   
  Google earth will also be very useful if a High Resolution image is available for the LGU. Though the images in Google Earth cannot be downloaded or read directly form a GIS software, it can still aid in the delineation of land uses. With a base map, it can be used as a guide to determine land use as shown in the example below.  
   
  The outcome will be a draft existing land use map that will be verified by field survey. It’s handy to have this printed and overlaid with the aerial photo and brought along when the field survey is conducted.  
   
  *Definition of terms for coastal and marine areas are provided in Annex 4-4.  
   
  For field validation, refer to Chapter 4.19.02 (Case Study – How to Prepare a Barangay Survey). Once ground verification is complete, the changes or corrections should be made with the aid of the aerial photos.  
   
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  The existing land use map will show whether any of the land uses are in conflict with other data that have legal restrictions like NIPAS, Protected Areas and Forestlands. This can be done by highlighting the uses that will be conflicting with the usual restricted activities like commercial, industrial or recreational activities like golf courses. It is more informative when overlaid with the base map.  
   
  In this example figure, the identified land use is analyzed for conflicting uses. In the scenario below, red color is used for areas with restricted use (mangrove area). The area at the lower left in yellow color, and the large area in yellow, represent the built up areas, which as shown below have areas of overlap with the red color. The colors selected make it possible to make the overlaps more visible. By making the yellow layer semi-transparent, any overlaps will be reflected as orange area, which represent in this case those areas of conflicting use.  
   
  Step 5: Present the Data  
   
  The details of the urban land use are shown below.  
   
  The land area should be quantified in a matrix as shown below.  
   

4.09.03 Land Management: NIPAS/Non-NIPAS

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates. For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  ‘National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS)’ is the classification and the administration of all designated protected areas to maintain essential ecological processes and life-support systems, to preserve genetic diversity, to protect the resources found therein, and to maintain their natural conditions to the greatest extent possible.

Aside from NIPAS areas, there are also protected areas which are “Non-NIPAS.” The current issue pervading in protected areas is the actual protection and preservation of these areas from illegal activities.

The objective of the GIS Analysis is to map out the protected areas as part of the input maps in determining suitable areas for future urban development. The final output map will show the areas which should be protected and therefore are not available for urban development.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Areas within NIPAS as Input to the Risk and Suitability Map  
  The NIPAS Buffer zones are not of standard area and dimension, the list of NIPAS areas has no specified buffer zones areas.

(RA 7586 NIPAS Act)
Section 8 Buffer Zones
For each protected area, there shall be established peripheral buffer zones when necessary, in the same manner as Congress establishes the protected area, to protect the same from activities that will directly and indirectly harm it. Such buffer zones shall be included in the individual protected area management plan that shall be prepared for each protected area. The DENR shall exercise its authority over protected areas as provided in this Act on such area designated as buffer zones.

 
  Classification of NIPAS

Strict Nature Reserve is an area possessing some outstanding ecosystem, features and/or species of flora and fauna of national scientific importance maintained to protect nature and maintain processes in an undisturbed state in order to have ecologically representative examples of the natural environment available for scientific study, environmental monitoring, education, and for the maintenance of genetic resources in a dynamic and evolutionary state;

Natural Park is a relatively large area not materially altered by human activity where extractive resource uses are not allowed and maintained to protect outstanding natural and scenic areas of national or international significance for scientific, educational and recreational use;

Natural Monument is a relatively small area focused on protection of small features to protect or preserve nationally significant natural features on account of their special interest or unique characteristics;

Wildlife Sanctuary comprises an area which assures the natural conditions necessary to protect nationally significant species, groups of species, biotic communities or physical features of the environment where these may require specific human manipulation for the perpetuation;

Protected Landscapes and Seascapes are areas of national significance which are characterized by the harmonious interaction of man and land while providing opportunities for public enjoyment through recreation and tourism within the normal lifestyle and economic activity of these areas;

Resource Reserve is an extensive and relatively isolated and uninhabited area normally with difficult access designated as such to protect natural resource of the area for future use and prevent or contain development activities that could affect the resource pending the establishment of objectives which are based upon appropriate knowledge and planning;

Natural Biotic Area is an area set aside to allow the way of life of societies living in harmony with the environment to adapt to modern technology at their pace;

Other Categories established by law, conventions or international agreements which the Philippine Government is a signatory.

 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attribute  
  The following attribute tables may be used for this sector. The one in bold is used for the examples here.

LM05 NIPAS 
LM06 Non-NIPAS

 
  The Custodian of sector data is the PAWB of DENR.  
  Spatial  
  The feature type will be a polygon. The location will be traced by a secondary source. SYMBOL for the (service)
  NIPAS/Protected Areas
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  The following Analyses layers can be prepared based on the Baseline Information:  
  The NIPAS Layer will be included in the Risk and Suitability Analysis. It is a restriction for urban land use expansion but is an asset for tourism and recreation uses and activities. The NIPAS layer will also be included in the Land Use Map.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  Location of the NIPAS is overlaid with the Base Map.  

4.09.04 Land Management: SAFDZ (Strategic Agriculture and Fisheries Development Zones)

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Objectives of the SAFDZ (RA 8435):
  1. To modernize the agriculture and fisheries sectors by transforming these sectors from a resource-based to a technology-based industry;
  2. to enhance profits and incomes in the agriculture and fisheries sectors, particularly the small farmers and fisherfolk, by ensuring equitable access to assets, resources and services, and promoting higher-value crops, value-added processing, agribusiness activities, and agro-industrialization.

The SAFDZ analysis should result in two maps. The first one will display all SAFDZ areas. This SAFDZ layer can be acquired from BSWM (see below, step 3) and will include all land in the municipality. The second map will present a layer of the SAFDZ areas of importance, where the Network of Protected Areas for Agricultural and Agro-industrial Development (NPAAAD) are the areas that are classified as prime agriculture land. This layer will be used later in the risk and suitability analysis, where any area declared as NPAAAD will be a constraint, and should not be considered or planned for urban use.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Determine Coverage of NPAAAD  
  The NPAAAD covers:
  1. All irrigated areas including all irrigable lands already covered by irrigation projects with firm funding commitments;
  2. All alluvial plain land highly suitable for agriculture whether irrigated or not;
  3. Agro-industrial crop lands or lands presently planted to industrial crops that support the viability of existing agricultural infrastructure and agro-based enterprises;
  4. Highlands which are areas located at an elevation of five hundred (500) meters or above and have the potential for growing semi temperate and high-value crops;
  5. All agricultural lands that are ecologically fragile, the conversion of which will result in serious environmental degradation;
  6. Mangrove areas;
  7. Fish sanctuaries.
 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attribute  
  There is one table of Land Management Information to prepare for Step 4.
LM07 SAFDZ
 
  The Custodian of sector data is the Bureau of Soil and Water Management through its Agricultural Land Management and Evaluation Division (ALMDED), Integrated Soil Resources Information Services (ISRIS) for tabular data/digitized maps of selected municipalities/cities/provinces and Cartographic Operations Division (Carto) for analogue maps.  
  Section 10 of RA 8435 requires LGUs to integrate SAFDZ into their CLUP. To facilitate such undertaking, the BSWM provides technical assistance for SAFDZ integration into the preparation of CLUP. To avail of this service, LGUs may send a formal request. A Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) will be executed between the concerned municipality/city, other related agencies and the BSWM.  
  Spatial  
  The feature type will be a polygon. The location and demarcation of the areas will primary be given by BSWM. Note that the symbology here is only used in this dataset. SYMBOL
  1- Strategic Crop Sub-development Zone
  2- Strategic Livestock Sub-development Zone
  3 - Strategic Fishery Sub-development Zone
  4 - Strategic Integrated Crop/Livestock Sub-development Zone
  5 - Strategic Integrated Crop/Fishery Sub-development Zone
  6 - Strategic Integrated Crop/Livestock/Fishery Sub-development Zone
  7 - Strategic Integrated Fishery and Livestock Sub-development Zone
  8 - Remaining NPAAAD
  9 - Agro-Forestry Zone
  10 -Watershed/Forestry Zone
  11 - Built-up Areas
  R/L - River wash
  EZ – Economic Zone
  MR – Military Reservation
  SD – Sand dunes/beach area
  NIPAS
  Proposed Tourism
  Proposed Recreation
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  The data does not need any thorough analyses. The strategic zones come with hard restrictions when it comes to converting them into urban land use. These issues must be paid attention to in the planning process. The SAFDZ layer can always be used in other analyses. At least, the NPAAAD category should be selected and added to a new layer that will be used in risk and suitability analyses for new urban land uses. For more advanced analyses, suitability weights (equivalent to less suitable) can be added to the strategic zones within the SAFDZ layer.  
  The layer will show areas with restrictions for urban expansion. Compose a new layer by selecting the NPAAAD features and define the new layer as ‘NPAAAD-restricted from urban expansion’. As it is an administrative/manmade restriction, a dashed outline will define the area. This layer will then be a part of the Risk and Suitability Analysis Map
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The SAFDZ map (featuring all of its categories) is overlaid with basic features (roads, rivers, barangay boundaries) to make it more informative:  
   
  The second map shows the NPAAAD, drawn with a hatching pattern to indicate that urban land use is not allowed in the area.  
   

4.09.05 Land Management: Ancestral Domain

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698

   
  Step 1: Prepare Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) implemented several mechanisms to delineate ancestral lands and domains resulting to the issuance of evidences of claims called “Certificates of Ancestral Land Claims (CALC)” and “Certificates of Ancestral Domain Claims (CADC)”. About two million hectares constituting almost 7 % of the total land area within the Philippines were covered by these claims by 1997.

It was only in 1997 that the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA, Rep. Act No. 8371) passed into law. The law recognizes ownership held by indigenous peoples in the form of ancestral lands and domains. It authorizes the delineation of indigenous peoples’ areas and the issuances of evidences of titles called Certificates of Ancestral Land Title (CALT) or Certificates of Ancestral Domain Title (CADT). Claims that had been issued through former DENR programs were to be converted to titles. It also recognized a limited form of self determination for communities within ancestral domain allowing the State to recognize customary laws for the settlement of conflicts.

Ongoing claims on ancestral land that are not yet given titles are handled by the Ancestral Domain Office (ADO) under the National Commission for Indigenous People (NCIP).

The objective of the GIS analysis is to show the areas bounded by ancestral domains/lands. Since these areas often are situated in forest lands, they will be outside the real scope of the CLUP. Nevertheless, their location and delineation should be a part of the CLUP GIS.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Ancestral Domains and Lands  
  The NCIP should provide the LGU with data on the delineated and titled areas. The LGU should ask for the status of claimed land without issued titles.  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  The following attribute table may be used for this sector:

LM08 Ancestral Domain

 
  The Custodian of sector data is the National Commission for Indigenous People.  
  Spatial  
  The feature types will be polygons.  
  Ancestral domain with CADT
  Ancestral land area with CALT
  Other areas claimed to be ancestral domains by indigenous people
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  The ancestral land domains and areas are protected and cannot be the location for future urban development. The layer can be used in a risk and suitability analysis, where the ancestral areas in overlays constitute constraints to any urban development.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The ancestral domain and land layer(s) will be put on top of the Base Map as shown below.  
   

4.09.06 Land Management: Cultural Heritage

Note: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Prepare Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Apart from the World Heritage Sites (as declared by UNESCO) there are no laws or regulations on cultural heritage sites in the Philippines. Thus, the preservation of cultural heritage sites or objects depends in much on the nature of the LGU’s policies.

There are two national bodies - National Commission for Culture and Art (NCCA) and the National Historical Institute (NHI) – that are given the role to preserve Filipino cultural heritage (NCCA) and promote and administer national shrines, monuments and landmarks (NHI). These agencies can provide support in different issues concerning cultural heritage. But the LGU should also by itself preserve and protect such objects that the officials consider to be of cultural heritage. Within the means of comprehensive land use planning and the zoning ordinances the LGU can set up rules for preservation of such sites.

Compared to more pressing issues such as infrastructure development, poverty alleviation or job creation, the preservation of cultural heritage may seem less of a priority. But effective conservation of heritage resources not only helps in revitalizing the local economy (through tourism) of municipalities/cities, it also brings about a sense of city identity and belonging to its residents.

The objective of the GIS analysis is to conserve urban heritage - historical buildings, festivals, art forms, dance, music and sculptures. A resulting map showing an inventory of cultural heritage objects and sites serves as a first step to analyze where such objects are situated and what specific measures can be taken in order to protect and preserve them.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Cultural Heritage Sites  
  The UNESCO world heritage sites are well documented. As of today, there are eight of them within the Philippines, of which two constitute national parks and thus are outside of LGU control. The others are the Baroque Churches of the Philippines, including:

1. Immaculate Conception: District of Intramuros, City of Manila
2. Nuestra Senora: Municipality of Santa Maria, Province of Ilocos Sur
3. San Agustin: Municipality of Paoay, Province of Ilocos Norte
4. Santo Tomas: Municipality of Miag-ao, Province of Iloilo

The two other sites are:

5. Rice Terraces of the Philippines Cordilleras, Ifugao Province
6. Historic Town of Vigan, Province of Ilocos Sur

Other sites may be determined in coordination with the NCCA and the NHI, and through the LGU’s own inventories.

 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attributes  
  There is one table of Land Management Information to prepare for Step 4.

LM09 Cultural Heritage

 
  The Custodians of sector data are the NCCA and NHI.  
  Data can be obtained during the GPS survey. A form to be filled-up by the building or site manager can be used while another person records the GPS readings.  
  Spatial  
  The feature type will most probably be a point but eventually also a polygon can be used on small-scale maps or if the cultural heritage area is large. The location will be traced by a GPS or derived from a secondary source from the custodians mentioned above. For the GPS reading use if possible one and same place for all objects, for example the street façade of a building or the front side of a monument. Symbol
  Cultural Heritage Object declared by UNESCO (World Heritage Site)
  Cultural Heritage Object declared by National Historical Institute
  Cultural Heritage Object declared by National Commission for Culture and Arts
  Cultural Heritage Object declared by National Museum
  Cultural Heritage Object declared by LGU
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  This IP will not result in an analysis. The heritage objects will only be presented in the GIS. However, the LGU could introduce some ‘conservancy area’ to protect an environment with cultural heritage objects. For example, a new layer can contain areas of great importance for cultural heritage where designs of new buildings, conversion and renovation have to respect the ‘building code’ of the environment.

The aspects of such areas should conform to and be protected by the zoning ordinance of the municipality/city.

 
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The cultural heritage layers will be put on top of some features from the base map and the land use layer. Photos indicating the cultural heritage objects could be added to the map or placed beside it.  
   

4.10 Case Study: Needs Assessment

Disclaimer: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, revisions may be required due to new or changing land use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698

   
  Step 1: Background and Objective of the GIS Analysis  
  The Needs Assessment Analysis in this example will focus on equity promotion provided by the LGU to facilitate a participative decision-making in the CLUP preparation process. It is hoped to promote active participation by the CLUP stakeholders: citizens, politicians, civil society, other interest groups, businessmen, etc. and exert profound impacts on community empowerment, innovation and social change.  
  The objective is to prepare a CLUP so it shows the basic needs and demands of the current municipal/city population vis-à-vis the existing public services, facilities and utilities, with the participation of the stakeholders.  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  There is a number of systems for local monitoring and diagnosis of basic needs fulfillment.

In September 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Millennium Declaration renewing the global commitment to peace and human rights and setting specific goals and targets towards reducing poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), set within 2015, affirm and reinforce the agreements on the goals and targets toward eliminating extreme poverty worldwide. Its eight objectives have measurable outcomes, timelines for achievements, and clear indicators for monitoring progress. As the goals are holistic and interrelated, the process of working together in partnership at the national, regional and local levels is very important. Meeting the requirements for MDGs will entail collaborative efforts of major, stakeholders – the national and local government units as well as the private sector for interventions geared toward mainstreaming the MDGs in the local development agenda.

The Community Based Monitoring System (CBMS) intends to address data requirements for development planning and monitoring at all geopolitical levels including municipalities. CBMS is also intended to play a crucial role in poverty monitoring. CBMS is currently being implemented in the Philippines as well as in many other Asian countries. It promotes the use of Core Local Poverty Indicators (CLPIs) which include a set of indicators that capture the multi-dimensional aspects of poverty.

GIS integrates common database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the unique visualization and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps, which makes it most useful in the CLUP Needs Assessment activity. As 80% of the goods and services the municipality provides has a positional reference, for example locations of schools and roads, GIS helps to maximize all available resources in providing the right policy framework and the right environment for helping the general public gain access to the best quality of life possible.

This IP gives examples on how a CLUP Needs Assessment is outlined using GIS, based on the indicators provided by the Systems mentioned above. The primary common denominator is the barangay for services and utilities within the socio-economic and the infrastructure planning sectors. Demographic data is available at barangay level, and this simplifies analysis of the current situation analysis and the projection of needs. As mentioned in the IP description for the respective Planning Objects, these indicators show the degree of fulfillment of an agreed planning standard or a specific objective/target/goal set by the Municipality. In most cases, for each indicator there is a given standard. For example, if the indicator found in the legend says ‘Barangay with insufficient (or not acceptable) provision of potable water’ there is an underlying planning standard saying that ‘xx % of the households not having access to potable water within the housing unit’ is classified as ‘insufficient/not acceptable.’ For further details, see Vol. 2.

 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  The Needs Analysis Information Product can be seen as a comprehensive summary of the planning objects found in the Socio-economic and Infrastructure Baseline IPs, where only the ‘problems’ are portrayed and the results of the Analysis are presented by four components with the following common denominators:
It should be observed that the analysis is not aimed to show any negative picture about the municipality’s inability to provide services and utilities. The objective is to show the current issues that need to be tackled in the plan in order to improve the situation (see Step 4 in Volume 1).
 
  There are five tables to be used for the Needs Analysis:

NA01 Needs Analysis: Social Services by Barangay; 
NA02 Needs Analysis: Economic Services by Barangay; 
NA03 Needs Analysis: Infrastructure provision by Barangay; 
NA04 Needs Analysis: Social Condition by Facility; 
NA05 Needs Analysis: Infrastructure Condition by Utility

 
  Below are examples on indicators that will be found in the GIS. First the social indicators related to the barangay as per NA01:  
   
  Second is the Economic Services by Barangay based on table NA02:  
   
  Third is the Infrastructure provision by Barangay based on table NA03:  
   
  Fourth is the Social Condition by Facility based on table NA04:  
   
  Fifth is the Infrastructure Condition by Utility based on table NA05:  
   
  Note that some of the indicators are coordinated with the CLPIs above in order to harmonize information and avoid duplication of efforts.  
  The Custodian of Needs Analysis data is the MPDO.  
  The feature types will be polygons (barangays), polylines (infrastructure objects) and points (socio-economic and infrastructure objects).  
  The following steps need to be taken.  
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  Overlay analysis is the process of putting two or more layers on top of each other in the GIS to determine areas of convergence of certain features that give a comprehensive picture for a particular purpose, and thus enable the elimination or screening out of those features that are not suitable for that purpose.

The needs assessment layers, if properly constructed, are most useful in the diagnosis of development issues or the process of problem-finding. The problem-finding analysis involves a three-step process. The first step consists of making meaningful observations or making sense out of the data displayed in Needs Analysis. The second step is probing into the causes or explanations behind the observed conditions. This aspect of the inquiry is important in that it probes into the causes of observed conditions and thus provides the clue to finding more fundamental solutions by attacking the causes rather than the symptoms of the problems. The third step further explores the implications of the observed condition if no significant intervention is exerted by anyone anywhere to change the situation. Implications may be negative or positive according to the perceptions of various groups and sectors of society. It is when negative implications predominate will the observed condition be regarded as a problem.

The analysis can be extended further into determining appropriate policy interventions. This part of the analysis can simply be called the solution-finding phase and is found in Step 6 of the CLUP preparation process and in the building of Scenarios. Policy interventions need not be limited to targeting the negative implications of observed conditions. Positive implications need to be maintained and strengthened through policies that seek to sustain the beneficial effects. Nonetheless, policies intended to remedy the negative implications by eliminating the causative factors deserve priority attention.

 
  Step 5: Present the DataThe Needs Analysis layers can be put on top of a simplified Base Map. The examples below are just examples and do not reflect the actual situation in the LGU.  
  Given the number of overlays, the Need Assessment aspects should be shown on more than one map as per the table NA01-05.  
  The figure below shows how a printed version of the Socio Services by Barangay can look like based on the Layout View. The more combinations of fillings, raster, hatching, outlining, etc. are found on a specific barangay area the more ‘problems’ need to be solved:  
   

4.11 Case Study: Risk and Suitability Analysis

Disclaimer: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, revisions may be required due to new or changing land use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

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  Step 1: Background and Objective of the GIS Analysis  
  Natural hazards are recognized as one of the many challenges to development. In the past consecutive years, natural hazards such as floods, landslides, volcanic and seismic activity, tropical storms, storm surges, etc. have caused major loss of human lives and livelihood, the destruction of economic and social infrastructure, as well as environmental damage.

Natural disasters are typical results experienced by people living in conflict with the environment. These are consequences due to the failure to take into account hazards and risks on land use, zoning, development decisions and spatial planning policies.

By planning for and managing land use to enhance sustainability, vulnerability to disasters, can be reduced. Land Use Plans enable local governments to gather and analyze information about sustainability of land for development so that limitations of hazard-prone areas are understood by policy-makers, potential investors and community residents.

In the planning process, it is crucial that hazard prone areas are delineated to determine its impact in relation to people, to employ appropriate mitigating measures to reduce the risk, and to eventually make the LGUs well prepared when a disaster occurs.

Although it is important to determine areas suitable for future development, it is also just as important to conserve and safeguard certain areas, such as protected areas, from development for posterity and to protect the environment.

It is essential to develop a more effective way of incorporating the mitigation of the effects of natural disasters into spatial planning, and to incorporate knowledge, technology and key players (data providers, information providers, data/information management and end users) in the field of risk assessment and land use planning.

If there are certain areas designated by law or by the national agencies through their guidelines, that are meant to protect and conserve such areas for sustainability, then these areas should be appropriately reflected in the CLUP, and not used for other purposes such as urban development, in order to avoid conflicts and overlaps in decision-making.

In this example, the Risk and Suitability Analysis will bring out two components/layers that can be superimposed on the existing land use situation:

An analysis of the natural environment from the Land Use and Environment Studies of the CLUP database with risk implications;

An analysis of legally-imposed restrictions on land uses mandated by current laws, ordinances, codes, policies and guidelines, such as NIPAS, taken from the land management sector of the CLUP database, that affect and limit future land use and zoning in the municipality/city.

 
  The Objective is to use GIS to define development limits to the negative impact or does not put more stress on the environment and to delineate regulated areas.  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Suitable Areas for Future Development  
  A spatial view of natural and man-made hazards needs to consider all kinds of hazards through a multi-hazard or multi-risk approach. The use of hazard related controls through the planning process may not be well supported by some stakeholders. Developers and landowners may regard such controls as costly and unnecessary interference and as the cause of loss in land value. These parties may seek to degrade or remove controls through local pressure or through legal appeals.

A strategic approach to risk reduction or avoidance includes the following measures:

  1. Promulgation of guidelines (standards) to guide regulated uses/zones;
  2. Maintenance of natural processes to ensure that natural systems contribute to the protection, resilience and rehabilitation of areas affected by hazards;
  3. Location of elements at risk, such as new human settlements, economic activities and infrastructure, away from areas exposed to natural hazards to decrease their vulnerability;
  4. Development that responds to the site conditions and in particular the nature of risk, so as to significantly reduce the vulnerability of that development. Proactive measures, for example Environmental Impact Assessments, should be initiated and strict enforcement should be adhered to;
  5. Re-zoning of existing areas with urban land use with risks and/or and in conflict with non-urban land use that should prevail in combination with strict enforcement of development control;
  6. Streamlining and harmonization of licenses, permits, etc issued, based on opposing land use interests and conflicting laws and policies.
 
  Step 3: Create the Database Attribute  
  The nine first attribute tables in the environmental section may be used. Refer to Chapter 5.05, tables EM01 Soil Type - EM09 Subsidence.  
  The Custodian of Risk and Suitability Analysis data is the MPDO. In most cases the municipality has to rely on secondary sources.  
  The feature types will be polygon, polylines and eventually points as well.  
  When determining suitable areas for expansion, first thing to consider are the physical restrictions imposed by nature and current laws and policies.  
  Geohazard is another important risk indicator to consider. MGB provides a national coverage of ‘Geohazard maps’ which are in paper format, (available as scanned imagery in .jpg file format) at scale 1:250,000, and displayed by regions. For specific parts of the country, there are digital maps at scale of 1:50,000 with a different symbology with regard to hazards. For municipal planning uses, the accuracy of the 1:250,000 data is not sufficient, and should only be considered as indicative. There is however, an ongoing harmonization project among MGB, PHIVOLCS and PAGASA, and because of recent tragedies, these maps are being updated, and will be produced in larger scales. It will thus be easier to get more precise secondary data in the future, for CLUP preparation.

Included in the Geohazard composite maps are the following:

  1. Floods- are caused by the extreme increase of water level due to heavy rainfall and the geological characteristics such as the soil type that may not be able to absorb the water causing flooding.
  2. Earthquakes/Fault Lines- are caused by slippage of crystal rock along a fault or area of strain and rebound to new alignment.
  3. Landslides- are caused by downslope transport of soil and rock resulting from naturally occurring vibrations, changes in direct water content, removal of lateral support, loading with weight and weathering, or human manipulation of water courses and slope composition.
  4. Volcanic activities- are caused by magma pushed upward through volcanic vent by pressure and effervescence of dissolved gases.
  5. Tsunamis - are caused by fault movement on sea floor, accompanied by an earthquake. A landslide occurring underwater or above the sea, and then plunging into the water. Volcanic activity either underwater or near the shore.

Possible secondary effects of natural hazards resulting to groundwater pollution, ground water over extraction, ground rupture, etc.

In addition, climate change impacts and meteorological extremes can be analyzed.

Below are examples on some of the Geohazard components superimposed on a simple Base Map consisting of Built-up and Road layers.

Other types of hazards specific to an agencies mandate can also be used by the LGU. PHIVOLCS which monitors active fault lines and volcanoes can also be used. They might also have liquefaction (ground subsidence caused by an earthquake) maps which can also be used for risk management. PAG-ASA has storm surge maps for certain coastal areas.

 
  Present the hazards which are within the municipality together with the Base Map. This will give the LGU a broad view of where these hazards are.  
   
  Hazards become a risk if these are in populated areas. Presence of hazards within populated areas can be checked by using the Population Density Map overlaid with the Hazards. The example below shows that a highly populated barangay (shown in red) partly affected by severe flooding, and there is a fault line passing through it.  
   
  Hazards also an economic risk when they are within areas with infrastructure, crops, industries and / or livestock. Overlaying the Hazard areas with the Existing Land Use, will show what areas are affected by such risks. The map below shows the agricultural areas in light green which are prone to the risk of severe erosion.  
   
  Once the overall image is shown, it will be easier to focus on specific areas of concern, and analyze each hazard individually, thus avoiding cluttered visuals, and have a clearer picture for each type of hazard.  
  Slope is another risk indicator, which can be taken from the Base Line about IP Slope (Chapter 4.08.03).  
   
  Erosion/Landslides:  
   
  Earthquakes/Fault Lines;  
   
  It will be much better to have aerial photos available.  
 
  Floods (note that this map can be a combination of the MGB Geohazard map and municipal records on actual flooding)  
   
  Regarding man-made restrictions on land areas of the municipality, only lands classified as Alienable and Disposable (A & D) should be considered for urban expansion. For those areas which are still unclassified, the criteria used for Land Classification should be considered.  
 
  The SAFDZ information product will be another component that puts restrictions on areas for future urban development:  
   
  The NIPAS information product displays protected areas to be considered in the CLUP, which is also a restriction to future urban expansion;  
   
  Cases of severe air pollution and pollution of water bodies should be shown as a risk for the living environment. Here it is shown that there is air pollution along a road between two crossings where congested traffic causes continuous smog in the air. Also shown is water pollution from the effluents draining into a water body from a factory.  
   
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  By using relevant Base Map layers, such as Built-up; Roads, Rivers, etc., analyses can be made by superimposing two or more risk layers described in the Step 3.  
  Overlay analysis is the process of putting two or more layers on top of each other in the GIS to determine areas of convergence of certain features that give a comprehensive picture for a particular purpose, and thus enable the elimination or screening out of those features that are not suitable for that purpose.

The needs assessment layers, if properly constructed, are most useful in the diagnosis of development issues or the process of problem-finding. The problem-finding analysis involves a three-step process. The first step consists of making meaningful observations or making sense out of the data displayed in Needs Analysis. The second step is probing into the causes or explanations behind the observed conditions. This aspect of the inquiry is important in that it probes into the causes of observed conditions and thus provides the clue to finding more fundamental solutions by attacking the causes rather than the symptoms of the problems. The third step further explores the implications of the observed condition if no significant intervention is exerted by anyone anywhere to change the situation. Implications may be negative or positive according to the perceptions of various groups and sectors of society. It is when negative implications predominate will the observed condition be regarded as a problem.

The analysis can be extended further into determining appropriate policy interventions. This part of the analysis can simply be called the solution-finding phase and is found in Step 6 of the CLUP preparation process and in the building of Scenarios. Policy interventions need not be limited to targeting the negative implications of observed conditions. Positive implications need to be maintained and strengthened through policies that seek to sustain the beneficial effects. Nonetheless, policies intended to remedy the negative implications by eliminating the causative factors deserve priority attention.

There will probably be overlapping and / or contradictory land uses as reflected in the overlays, and this could be attributed to unsynchronized policies, programs and projects, and even interests, of the different sectors, agencies, and institutions both government and private, obtaining in the municipality/city. And for as long as enforcement is weak, these overlapping and contradictory land uses will show on the maps. However, by using GIS, conflicting regulations will become transparent and should signal to the LGU the need to resolve these conflicts.

In determining the areas for urban expansion, the result might show that not all ecosystems can be preserved, not all natural hazards can be avoided and not all regulations can be considered. There may be compromises that have to be made. In the next step, (Development Scenarios), these compromises will have to be evaluated to determine feasibility of adoption. ‘What if’’ and ‘Making the best out of it’ will present pragmatic conclusive alternatives.

A simplified end product of the Risk and Suitability Analysis will be categorized into three land use options based on the following cross-sector indicators:

 
  *Air and Water Quality –This will be based on observation of an LGU. If data is not available please refer to EMB.  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The Risk and Suitability Analysis layers will be put on top of the Base Map. The example below summarizes all the indicators. The blank/white areas are lands that are suitable for urban expansion:  
   
   
  The information produced through risk evaluation and analysis provides valuable input into identifying:
  1. future settlement directions;
  2. type of land use and regulatory instruments needed to manage development to reduce risk; and
  3. areas of existing settlements vulnerable to disasters that may need mitigation measures.

This information will be useful when the Scenarios are being prepared in the next step in the CLUP preparation, matching the outcome of the Needs assessment and the Vision for the development of the municipality. (See Chapter 4.12 Development Form.)

 

4.12 Spatial Development Forms

Disclaimer: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, revisions may be required due to new or changing of land use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Background and Objective of the GIS Analysis  
  The planning process should involve the identification of needs and goals, the formulation and evaluation of alternative courses of action and monitoring of adopted projects. The municipality’s issues and problems, needs and goals, as identified in the previous steps of the CLUP preparation need to be resolved together in an integrated approach. Doing so, several development alternatives must be tried, combined, improved and tested theoretically and virtually, and further disseminated to the public. The preparation of development scenarios is a policy-oriented planning tool that can be used to determine what would happen if certain policy choices are made, and if the assumptions concerning the future are correct. Scenario preparation involves three steps: (1) formulating land suitability maps using spatial data sets, (2) predicting future land use requirement based upon projected population, and (3) forecasting patterns of change using land use controls and growth pattern value.  
  The Objective is to use GIS to visualize three different Spatial Development Forms after having chosen the preferred Development Strategy.  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  To get hold of the indicators, the main planning concept behind each development form should be defined. Examples of common development forms found in existing CLUPs are:  
  A. Concentric Development: To promote concentric expansion of the City Proper to encourage development ‘close to’ public services and transportation nodes. In this scenario, public services can be found in the Base line studies; however, ‘close to’ has to be defined as a measurable indicator.  
  B. Linear Development: To encourage development particularly ‘in proximity to’ the main road based on continued growth strategy. In this scenario, ‘in proximity to’ has to be defined as a measurable indicator.  
  C. Satellite Development: To develop ‘satellite’ urbanized areas to stimulate development in the entire municipality.  
  Evaluation of the development scenarios involves making decisions about the suitable development direction that should be taken, given the various socio-economic and environmental impacts and risks. The evaluation process is done through quantitative assessment that involves multi-criteria analysis where weighted summation method and interval standardization for ranking of alternatives were carried out.  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  The Custodian of the Spatial Development Formis the MPDO.  
  The feature types will be polygons, polylines and points as well. Graphs may be used for comparison.  
  Regarding areas for urban expansion, the Needs Assessment has specified the land area required for urban development over the projected time set by the CLUP objectives. Likewise, the Risk and Suitability Analysis has defined the potential areas for urban development:  
   
  The map above is too complicated to be understood by a layman stakeholder and needs to be edited to focus on the alternative Scenarios. A simplified legend is used:  
   
  Consequently, the first scenario (A) alternative can be shown as follows:  
   
  The second scenario (B) alternative can be shown as:  
   
  And the third scenario (C) alternative will look like this:  
   
  Regarding existing urban areas where interventions are needed to minimize risks, a map should also be prepared for the stakeholders. In this example notations are made for certain existing built-up areas based on findings from the Risk and Suitability Analysis.  
   
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  Overlay analysis is the process of putting two or more layers on top of each other in the GIS to determine areas of convergence of certain features that give a comprehensive picture for a particular purpose, and thus enable the elimination or screening out of those features that are not suitable for that purpose.  
  In determining the areas for urban expansion, the result might show that not all ecosystems can be preserved, not all natural hazards can be avoided and not all regulations can be considered. There may be compromises that have to be made. In the next step, (Spatial Development Forms), these compromises will have to be evaluated to determine feasibility of adoption. ‘What if’’ and ‘Making the best out of it’ will present pragmatic conclusive alternatives.  
  The indicators will reflect a quantitative impact on the existing land-use, for example: ‘Loss of agricultural land (in hectares),’ or may reflect a qualitative impact such as: ‘Development occurs in a geohazard area.’ The example below shows that Form B is encroaching on a SAFDZ zone reserved for Crop Development:  
   
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The Spatial Development Form maps prepared in GIS will be used in the CLUP Draft and also displayed during public consultations and hearings, which is the next step of the CLUP preparation process. If aerial photos are available, they should be used as backdrop to facilitate the viewer recognition of the development alternatives and the constraints to the built-up areas.  

4.13 Public Hearing Display

Disclaimer: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, revisions may be required due to new or changing land use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Background and Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  Land use planning requires the balancing of many, often competing interests: private sector needs, public policy requirements, equity, long-term economic development, environmental conservation, amenity, and community safety and well-being.

Implementation of land use policies at the local level is most effective when there is cooperation and collaboration among all levels and sectors of government, an integrated approach to decision making and a transparent partnership among government, community and private sector. ‘The whole is greater than the sum of the parts’ – by integrating community wants and needs, and by working together to balance interests, the stakeholders can achieve the goal of sustainable economic and environmental development and create safer, sustainable communities.

 
  The objective is to use GIS is to enable the general public/stakeholders to have a handle on the Draft CLUP/ZO so that they can submit constructive comments.

In conjunction with oral presentation(s) of the CLUP draft, there should be a display that shows the major content of the CLUP. The hearing will be a be a two-step process. First, the general public is given the opportunity to articulate their opinions on the scenario they think is best, and second they are given the chance to express their opinion on the draft CLUP. In both cases, the display should be accessible by the general public (in the municipal hall?) for a period of 3 (?) weeks.

Aside from displaying the draft CLUP, there should be a drop box wherein the stakeholders can submit their written comments regarding the scenarios and the draft CLUP. For the sake of comparison, the outdated/previous CLUP should also be included in the display area.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Before the putting up the Display, a small test group of people should be recruited from the general public who will be asked to evaluate the readability of the Display, so that improvements may be made.  
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  The Custodian and the data provider of the display is the MDPO.  
  The following steps need to be taken to access the data:  
1 Prepare a (paper based) sketch  
2 Extract maps from ArcView by export picture files (like .jpg) or make screen dumps  
3 Arrange the contents in PowerPoint slides  
4 Allow the test group to assess the readability and make the necessary improvements.  
5 Print the slides on a plotter in large format (for example A1 format).  
   
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  Not applicable  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  There are many ways to prepare a display to be used for the public participation process of the CLUP. A simple method which utilizes the GIS work is found in a tutorial. A template that can be used in conjunction with the tutorial is found in Chapter 6.08.The method makes use of the PowerPoint application of the MS Office software, and the result can be presented using a computer projector, or manually prepared transparencies using an overhead projector. Using a plotter, the same Powerpoint presentation can be magnified to A1 or A0 sized paper displays that can be placed on the wall.  
   

4.14 CLUP

Disclaimer: This Information Product is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information needed for the CLUP. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land-use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB: telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The objective is to prepare the draft Land Use Plan using GIS. This plan is the result of the previous analyses for Needs Assessment, Risk and Suitability Analysis and Scenarios.  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  This step in the CLUP preparation process involves the compilation/’summary’ of analysis made in previous steps. The Needs Assessment /Analysis using the Socio Economic IPs; the Risk and Suitability analysis using the maps from the Environment and land Management sectors; as well as other cross-sectoral analyses, provided the inputs to the preparation of three Scenarios, which led to the final choice of the best Strategy for the municipality.

The analysis here will involve the comprehensive findings of the planners as a result of the consultative discussions held over the Scenarios. Based on these discussions, the resulting draft plan may not be the adoption of a single scenario, but could be a synthesis or a composite mix of more than one Scenario, which meets the municipality’s vision for a sustainable land-use proposal for the future. Consequently the result will be a map with a uniform legend derived from standardized symbology.

 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  One attribute table will be used:

LM02 Proposed General Land and Water Use

The custodian will be the MPDC/CPDC.

 
  The symbology will follow the specification found in Volume 1 page 56 (Annex 4-3).  
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  See step 2 above. The methods of analysis are suggested below:
  1. By comparing the previous plan with the current or existing land use, the planner will be able to see how well the previous plan was implemented or if there were deviations to the previous plan. If deviations are too apparent indicating a new trend of development, the planner can use this information for updating the land use plan.
  2. By comparing the previous land-use plan found in the previous CLUP with the new draft plan. This will show the stakeholders what the proposed changes are from the previous CLUP.
  3. Land Use Plan can be used further to check if a project is within the required land use/zone by overlaying the approved permits/projects on top of the CLUP.
 
  Step 5: Present the Data  
   
   

4.15 Zoning Ordinance

Disclaimer: This is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information product needed for the CLUP and is intended to be used hand-in-hand with Volumes 1 and 2. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, revisions may be required due to new or changing land use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB, telephone +632 927 2698.

  Step 1: Background and Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The Land Use Plan is a technical document containing the vision, goals, objectives, policy statements, strategies, programs and projects for the development of the municipality/city in the given planning period and beyond. One mechanism of implementing the plan is the Zoning Ordinance which is the legal document that enforces specific and detailed rules and regulations regarding land uses, and the systems, procedures and incentives and/or sanctions for its implementation.

Zoning is the division of a community into zones or districts (e.g. commercial, residential, industrial, institutional, etc.) according to present potential uses of land to optimize, regulate and direct their use and development in accordance with the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP). It is in the form of a locally enacted ordinance that embodies among others, regulations affecting uses allowed or disallowed in each zone or district, conditions for allowing them, and deviations legally allowed, from the requirements of the ordinance.

Zoning is concerned primarily with the use of land and through imposition of building heights, bulk, open space and density in a given area.

 
  The objective of using GIS is to facilitate the preparation of the Zoning Map and make it easy to revise when necessary.  
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  Zoning consist of two major elements: the Zoning Ordinance and the Zoning Map:

The Zoning Ordinance is a legally binding set of rules and regulations affirming to the usage of land in a City/Municipality. This document contains a set of allowed uses and regulations that applies to each designated zone.

The Zoning Map is a duly authenticated map defining the divisions of different planned land uses and regulations of land in to zones in a City/Municipality. It is the spatial translation of the regulations to efficiently carry out the provisions of the Zoning Ordinance.

The benefits attributed to zoning are as follows:

  1. Maximum/optimum use of land based on suitability/capability, e.g. use of prime agricultural land for agricultural purposes.
  2. Promotion of public health and safety through compatible arrangement of various land use e.g. residential area should maintain considerable distance from industries.
  3. Preservation of desirable character and real estate values of the district or zone.
  4. Promotion of the rational and orderly growth of the community.

The purpose of the Zoning Map is to define the extent of each zone and make the Zoning Ordinance more comprehensible through graphic means.

 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
   
  The primary feature for the Zoning Map is the regulated land use. To make it easy to use and understand, the Zoning map should be based on an accurate and up to date Base Map. To facilitate for the public to know which regulations apply to their area of interest, the Zoning Map can be combined with the Tax or Cadastral Maps.  
  The Custodian of the ZO is the MPDO. The feature types will be polygon, polylines and eventually points as well.  
  The Land Use Plan in the CLUP is the main source of input to the Zoning Ordinance. The Land Use Plan shows the objective of the municipality/city with regard to development and use of land. The Land Use Plan contains the vision, goals, objectives, policy statements, strategies, programs and projects for the municipality/city.  
  The CLUP Base Map is used to locate the areas regulated in the Zoning Ordinance. The Base Map should be adopted for use in the zoning map for the entire municipality/city, for small and large scale printouts, and for detailed zoning maps of the urban and urbanizing areas.

The features of the CLUP Base Map are described in Chapter 4.05.01.

Other features used as input to the Zoning Ordinance are:

  1. Aerial photo or satellite image used for locating major structures in the zoned area such as industrial areas, residential areas, informal settlements, forest or agricultural areas etc., and also to show problem areas such as informal settlements, and the like.
  2. Business Permits to show density, type and changes over time for businesses as an input for zoning commercial zones.
  3. Building Permits and development projects to show density and types of development in the municipality/city;
  4. Tax and Cadastral Maps to encode property values;
  5. Hazard Maps such as Flooding and Fault zones as input to determine density and appropriate allowable uses etc.
 
  In general the Zoning Map has the same features or land use classification as the Land Use Plan, but it provides for more detailed information on actual regulations/controls in each zone, among others.

The Zoning Classification and zone separations based on density and types, are described in the “Model Zoning Ordinance” in the CLUP guidelines. This is a minimum model that can be adopted and expanded by the municipality/city for its specific needs. Density regulations for the zoning classes can differ among municipalities/cities For example, for a highly urbanized municipality/city, a low density residential area (R1) may allow buildings up to 4-storeys, while in other municipalities/cities an R1 area allows only 2 storeys.

For municipalities/cities with low development, diversifying the zones due to density and type etc. may not be needed. In this case, the zoning classification can be general, i.e. classified as General Residential Zone instead of specifying the density.

The following features are included in the dataset for the Zoning Map and should have a unique zone id and if applicable a name for each zone:

 
 
Zoning Class Description
Residential An urban area within a city or municipality principally for dwelling/housing purposes. Residential zones can be subdivided into areas of Low, Medium or High Density.
Socialized Housing An area used mainly for dwelling/ housing purposes for the underprivileged.
Commercial An urban area within a city or municipality for trading/services/ business purposes. Commercial zones can be subdivided into areas of Low, Medium and High Density.
Industrial An urban area within a city or municipality for industrial purposes. Industrial zones can be subdivided into areas of Light, Medium and Heavy.
Institutional An urban area within a city or municipality principally for institutional establishments. Institutional zones can be subdivided in to General and Special.
Agricultural An area within a city or municipality intended for cultivation/fishing and pastoral activities.
Agro-Industrial An area within a city or municipality intended primarily for integrated farm operations and related product processing activities.
Forest An area within a city or municipality primarily intended for forest purposes.
Park and other Recreation An area designed for diversion/amusements and for maintenance of ecological balance of the community.
Water Bodies of water within cities and municipalities which include rivers, streams, lakes and seas.
Tourism Sites within cities and municipalities endowed with natural or manmade physical attributes and resources that are conducive to recreation, leisure and other wholesome activities.
  Step 4: Analyze the Data  
  Not applicable  
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  The key output component of the Zoning Map is the printed version, which is included in the CLUP document and used in monitoring of development etc.  
  Another important output from the Zoning Map, is the zoning data that can be used in the issuance of development and building permits, monitoring etc.  
  The mandatory Zoning Map is the map for the entire municipality/city, which includes the urban and rural areas. Other maps are the detailed zoning maps for the urban and urbanizing areas which are larger scale maps.  
  Other special considerations in preparing the Zoning Map such as the placement of the index map, legend, north arrow, scale etc. are discussed in the Base Map Chapter (Chapter…).  
  Title The title of the Zoning Map should be the name of the LGU or area shown in the zoning map. For example, for the mandatory Zoning Map covering the LGU the title should be “Zoning Map for the Municipality/city of XX,” and for an urban or urbanizing area the title should be “Zoning Map for Barangay YY in the Municipality/city of XX.”  
  Legend
The order of the legend should follow that of Table 1 (above). The legend shall only contain the zones appearing in the Zoning Map, i.e., for a zoning map of an urban or urbanizing area, there might not be any forest area, thus it should not appear in the legend.

The Zoning legend should be placed on top of the Base Map legend.

 
  Format of Zoning Map
The Zoning Map for the entire municipality/city shall be printed in a recognized scale and in a format that makes it possible to clearly distinguish the symbols and features.

For the urban and urbanizing areas, the Zoning Maps shall be printed in a recognized scale between 1: 1,000 to 1: 10,000 in accordance with Volume 10 in the CLUP Guidelines, and printed in a AA format (A4-A0).

The A3 format is the recommended choice for the Zoning Map of an urbanized area.

 
  Keys for the Zoning Data
The data established in the GIS during the preparation of the Zoning Map, will be useful for other computerized systems handling Building and Business permits monitoring of development project etc. for the LGU and other National Government Agencies such as HLURB, etc.
 
   
  The Zoning map is therefore transformed into a generic feature model and table templates.

The data shall be built up in a database or file structure in the GIS according to the tables in the GIS Cookbook Metadata Model, or should be transformed accordingly.

 

4.16 Project Management

Disclaimer: This Information Product is a first attempt to provide guidance in preparing the information needed for the CLUP. As more knowledge is gathered, the IP will be updated. Likewise, updates may be required due to new or changing land use policies. Furthermore, data will continuously be prepared by the custodians, which may require updates.
For the latest update, please check HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph/ or contact HLURB: telephone +632 927 2698.

   
  Step 1: Provide a Background and Identify the Objectives of the GIS Analysis  
  The focus on Comprehensive Land-use Planning with objectives to combat the highly inequitable spatial distribution of resources within the fields of housing, infrastructure and social services as well as imbalances between supply and demand across sectors, stresses the need for relevant and updated municipal information which can be analyzed and presented in a local perspective.

The CLUP generates a number of development programs and projects. An obvious application for the GIS would be to support a simple management (GI) system to monitor these projects. Project databanks can be developed, containing geo-coded data that tracks each of these programs and describes the spatial distribution of various programs across the municipality. A spatial perspective on these activities can often show geographic bias, lack of coordination, and an imbalance between the location of development activities and actual needs.

The ability to locate various indicators collected by the municipality could create a "needs" oriented database for each subdivision of the municipal area (by barangay), graphically showing the various "needs" as they are distributed over the urban area. For example, various health issues may be shown to exist in areas removed from projects that could potentially affect these problems. A GIS-based project management database can assist in the targeting of activities based on need, rather than perceptions or political/administrative bias.

The objective is to establish a basic GIS application which tries to give the user (councilors and general public as well) the opportunity to have a quick access to an updated source of information about the status of the various projects that have been decided upon and currently are ongoing. The result will be a basic project monitoring GIS prepared in liaison with the responsible departments of municipality encompassing all the components of the GIS to secure a sustained system for the future.

 
  Step 2: Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Fulfillment  
  As a first phase a very simple GIS will be prepared showing primary indicators and performance of ongoing projects. The GIS will give an overview of the geographic distribution of the projects and also gives an opportunity to compare the allocation of the projects between barangays. It will also facilitate the monitoring of projects and present progress reports. The information is prepared and updated on a regular basis (quarterly?) according to the requirements of the Council.

When the users feel confident with the system, as a second step with more sophisticated queries can be developed if there is a need for that. For example, if Census data is available it is possible to add population statistics to the system and a few simple capacity/demand analyses will be provided to be used for easy analyses.

The IP is being developed by the Planning Unit in consultation with Finance, Engineering and other related departments. It is crucial to the success of the project that data-custodians for the information are identified. The data-custodians that will be identified should receive training on how to do the continuous update of information, such as quarterly (?) progress reporting of the work of the project.

 
  Step 3: Create the Database  
  Attribute tables will be prepared presenting the projects that have physical relations to the various barangays. The source of information is the list of projects included in annual budgets, Operating & Capital Budget Report, etc. and that has been approved by the Council. There is a need to establish an interface between these tables and the simple tables of attribute information (see below) that constitutes a part of the project management GIS. The respective sector departments implementing CLUP projects will be responsible for the updating of the attribute information of the project management GIS once the system it is up and functioning.

The following steps are identified as necessary to take in order to continue the development of the application and gathering of data:

Quality control of the geographic information by Planning Unit making print outs of certain types of projects and meeting with the representatives from the responsible department.

Planning Unit meets with representatives from the responsible department and collects the following information:

  1. Missing attribute information;
  2. Identify the each project in the approved capital budget;
  3. Update the attribute and geographic information;
  4. Develop the IP and ensure to distribute it to all users;
  5. Discuss the IP to be used for continuous update. Discuss and collect comments on this proposal with the data-custodians of this information, as they will do the update;
  6. Develop the IP for update to ensure quarterly (?) updates on the progress of the projects;
  7. Develop a manual for how to use the application and train users of it.

As the first initial collection of information is finalised a workshop for councillors, barangay captains, etc. should be held to inform about IP and show how it works.

 
  There are six tables of Project Management Information to prepare:

PM01 Project Overview; 
PM02 Donor Supported Technical Assistance; 
PM03 Project Approved or Funded for Implementation Within the Social Welfare Section; 
PM04 Project Approved or Funded for Implementation Within the Agriculture Section; 
PM05 Transport Related Projects, Approved/ funded for Implementation; 
PM06 Project Approved or Funded for Implementation Within the Transport Section.

 
  Designated data custodians need to be appointed within concerned municipal department who will be able to keep the attribute records presented in the project monitoring GIS updated.  
  Step 4: Analyze the Data SYMBOL
  The information shown in the application will be of both spatial/geographic and attribute character. The geographic information consists both of a base map with general spatial information and the location of a specific project. The purpose of the base map is to facilitate the user to locate her/himself.

Some projects will be implemented for the entire municipality and will not be presented on the map. However, the same attribute dataset can be used and graphs can be inserted on the map to show progress.

 
  It is of great importance that the symbology used to show the CLUP Projects is easy to understand and interpret, see below.  
   
  Step 5: Present the Data  
  (Example from case study)  
  Although the CLUP Projects maps will be prepared in a digital format in many cases the printed version will also be distributed. On demand printed maps could be distributed and be displayed at the Barangay offices on a regular basis to present the current progress of ongoing projects.

Reminders to follow in the preparation for the Display format is done:

  1. Printed map smaller than A3 is not recommended;
  2. Fonts and symbols should be readable from A0 to A3. If symbols cannot be distinguished properly in A3 a simplified version might be needed;
  3. Use recognized scales, e. g. 1: 100,000 instead of 1: 97,361;
  4. Color is used widely in the GIS. However, test a monochromatic/black&white print to see if the impression is still there. If not, maybe altering of the color coding might help or a special black&white version eventually is needed.
 

4.17 An Overview of Central Institutions with Data for CLUP Preparation


4.17.01 Custodians of CLUP Data

Note: The list of CLUP Data custodians found here is an initial effort, and new information will be added as they become available. For the latest version, please visit the HLURB Homepage: http://www.hlurb.gov.ph

The proper start of data capture once the objectives and indicators have been agreed on is an inventory of attribute and spatial data that are available or accessible. Information, such as attribute and spatial data needed in preparing the CLUP Information Products may be found in different agencies. Listed below are the key agencies and the types of maps available in their possession and are referred to in Chapter 5.01.01 (‘Quicklook.xls/index’). In Chapter 5, the CLUP Tables are found.
Most of data are kept in the agencies’ central offices in Manila and is in paper format (especially the spatial/map data). Others however are available in their respective regional offices. In some cases, the data have been obtained by the provincial government to be used in the preparation of its PCLUP. Unfortunately it is quite difficult at the moment to trace these datasets because very little metadata is provided by the agencies. As a result, the municipality does have sufficient reference material for preparing its own set of thematic maps. Some validation and reconciliation will have to be done and there is a recommendation for data capture strategy found in Chapter 3.04.02 Information Products use.
A letter of request should be prepared before going to these agencies or Regional Offices. The letter should specify the data being requested, in what form and area of coverage (see template in Chapter 6.05). It may be possible that the spatial data of an agency can be shared for free if a MOA is prepared between the LGU and the agency concerned.
The table below provides information on secondary sources of data for the CLUP:

Agency
Information
Office to Visit/Tel. #
Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS)
www.bas.gov.ph
Agricultural statistics for fisheries, crop and livestock production on
a provincial level.
Information can be accessed thru their website

A help desk is also available for queries and through phone.
Central:

Public Assistance Counter
Paper Maps:

No Maps Available
Digital Maps:

Digital attribute data available at the website

Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM)

www.bswm.da.gov.ph


Soil maps are available in two series, the soil series maps
and the Land Management Unit (LMU). Soil series describe the soil type (Taal
Volcano San, Tagaytay Sandy Loam, etc.), texture (weathered, tuff, sandy,
etc.), structure and consistency (cloudy, source, columnar, etc.) of the
soil. LMU describes the soil as combinations of other physical aspects (broad
alluvial plain, karts plateau with limestone hills, braided river beds,
etc).

Other data that can be used for the CLUP includes slope, soil, erosion,
flooding and SAFDZ maps.
Central:

Cartographic Operations Division (Carto) – Paper Maps for Provincial
Level

Agricultural Land Management and Evaluation Division (ALMED) – Regional
Maps of LMU and digitized maps of SAFDZ for selected Municipalities/ Provinces
Paper Maps:

1:250,000

1:100,000

1:50,000

SAFDZ (Printouts)

Varying
Digital Maps:

SAFDZ (selected Province and Municipalities)

Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR)

www.dar.gov.ph


It is the agency mandated to implement the Agrarian Reform
Law. They are also in charge of approving land conversion from agricultural
to other uses. They have Provincial/Municipal Agrarian Reform Officers (PARO/MARO).

Previous projects resulted in a major digitizing data effort. They have
digitized boundary maps taken from the administrative maps of NAMRIA. Soil,
erosion, slope and flooding maps from the maps of DA. They also have cadastral
maps digitized from the Lot Data Computations (LDC), parcel data from Tax
Maps and Land Titles for areas without cadastral survey. These data can
be found at the Provincial Office.

As of now, no inventory has been done to assess how much they have but since
the process of digitizing has been implemented at the Regional and Province
level, they would have a large archive of digital data.
DAR Regional Office

Provincial Agrarian Reform Office
Paper Maps:

Varying scale
Digital Data:

Autocad file, TAB
Department of Energy (DOE)
www.doe.gov.ph
The department holds data for power plant location, distribution facilities
for oil, natural gas and coal, energy resources, electrification (unelectrified
barangay and electricity consumption). They advise that specific data (like
plant area, electrification, consumption, etc.) can be gathered from the
concerned units of attached agencies (PNOC, NAPOCOR, etc.) or companies.
Central Office:

Information Technology Management Service – Information Service Division
(ITMS-ISD)

Field Offices;

Cebu and Davao only
Paper Maps:

No paper map available
Digital Maps:
Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH)
www.dpwh.gov.ph
They have data for roads classified as National Road in their GIS System.

They are currently working on a distribution arrangement and sales of their
data with NAMRIA
Planning Services
Paper Data:

No published or printed map for distribution
Digital Data:

Digital Data from their GIS has no format available for ordinary public
distribution
Department of Tourism (DOT)
www.dot.gov.ph
Holds statistics and provides consultancy support for LGUs for tourism.


No map data for these sites. Statistics in terms of tourist arrivals in
a certain tourist destination is captured and provided to them by the LGUs.
 
Environmental Management Bureau (EMB)
www.emb.gov.ph
Provides permits for Environmentally Critical Projects. A list (name,
location, description) of these projects is provided in the DENR.

No spatial data available.

Environmental Critical Areas Maps are made at the Regional Offices in paper
format but availability and updating of these maps vary per Regional Office.

Data for Water Quality and Ambient Air Quality can also be obtained in the
EMB.
Environmental Quality Division (EQD) or Pollution Control
Division (PCD) of the Regional Office,

Environmental Impact Assessment Division (EIAD)
Paper Maps:

No Paper maps available
Digital Maps:

No Digital Maps available

Forest Management Bureau (FMB)

www.forestry.denr.gov.ph

They have Forest Cover Maps for 2003

They are also the source for Forest Production Data for each permit issued
for a forest area classified for production. Delineation of forest areas
for production is still in process so no spatial data, except for some areas
in Mindanao, is available. Point sources will be made available, however,
shape and area will be withheld for security reasons.


An on-going Forestry Information System Project is an integrated attribute
and map-based information of all the forestry tenurial instruments issued
by the DENR-FMS

Central:

Forest Economics Division

Region:

Forest Management Service (FMS) of the DENR Regional Offices

Paper Map:

Forest Cover:

1:100,000
Digital Maps

Regional Forest Cover:

Jpeg format available at the website

Land Management Bureau (LMB)

www.lmb.denr.gov.ph


The agency that will be the source for Boundary Information such as Proclamations
creating the City/municipality, Municipal Boundary Index Maps, Barangay
Boundary Index Maps and Cadastral Maps
 
Paper Maps:

Cadastral Maps:

1:4,000

1:2,000

1:1,000

1:500

1:250

PBS/MBIM/BBIM:

Various scales
 
Digital Maps:

No digital data
 

Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB)

www.mgb.gov.ph

(insert image7 here)

Agency mandated to map out Geologic Maps and Geohazard Maps. Map Sales Office

Land Geologic Survey

MGB Regional Office (Geology Section)

Paper Maps:

Geologic Maps and Geohazard Maps

1 : 50 000

1 : 50 000

1 : 10 000

(Selected Areas)
Digital Data:

Geohazard/Multihazard Maps

Available in JPEG format in various scales
National Commission for Culture and Arts (NCCA)
www.ncca.gov.ph
NCCA is created for the preservation of Culture and Arts. Functions that
may have implication to planning is the preservation of old structure or
areas (whether historical or not) such as old houses which has designs or
uses identified as Filipino Culture. Coverage is broad since it includes
other cultural forms like dances, art, relics and the like.
 
Paper Maps:

No Paper Maps
 
Digital Maps:

No Digital Maps
 
National Commission for Indigenous People

(NCIP)
www.ncip.gov.ph
They are the agency responsible for the issuance of Certificate of Ancestral
Land/Domain Titles
 
Paper Maps:

Ancestral Land/Domain Survey Plan:

Varying Scales
 
Digital Maps:

No Digital Maps Available
 
National Historical Institute

(NHI)
www.nhi.gov.ph
NHI would be the source of Cultural Heritage related data specifically
Historical Sites. Though as the time of the research, only tabular listing
is available but said they are currently in the process of mapping out the
Historical Sites and be made available thru the web as an image capture
of the location maps. No schedule as to when they will be available online.
Mapping and GIS design is done by NAMRIA
 
Paper Maps:

None
 
Digital Maps:

Digital Maps currently being developed and is tentatively planned for web
application.
 
National Irrigation Administration (NIA)
www.nia.gov.ph
It is the central agency responsible for irrigation servicing 1000 hectares
and for those under the National Irrigation System. Communal Irrigation
Systems are not under the NIA but the funding would come from the LGUs.
The central office doesn’t have map data for this national irrigation
system though they have regional offices directly involved in the projects.
 
 
 

National Mapping and Resource Administration (NAMRIA)

www.namria.gov.ph

(insert image8 here)

There are two sets of maps available in NAMRIA that will
be of good use for CLUP preparation. The 1:50000 Topographic maps covering
the whole Philippines. Some areas have larger scale available which will
be much better to use and they are available in their map sales offices.
Land Classification Maps (LC) are available for many areas since according
to the last data posted on the DENR website, only 3.36% remains as Unclassified
Forest Land. The researcher should inquire for the availability of LC map
for their LGU.
Topomaps:


Map Sales Office at Fort Bonifacio, Binondo, FMB and all DENR Regional Offices



LC Maps and Lancover:


Remote Sensing R D A Division (RSRDAD) at NAMRIA
Paper Maps:

Topomaps

1 : 5 000

1 : 10 000

1 : 50 000

1 : 250 000

LC/Landcover

Varying from 1:100000 or larger
 
Digital Maps:

Available for certain map sheets
 
National Statistics Office (NSO)

www.census.gov.ph
NSO has many published and digital materials for demographic and household
data.

Census on Housing and Population (CPH) contains the numerous demographic
data (to be enumerated more) for the CLUP.

They also have two digital products that would be of use. The Data kit of
Official Philippine Statistics (DATOS) is an information package in CD that
offers easy access to the latest statistical database of the country, region,
province, city/municipality or barangay. It also has GIS modules, analysis,
simple calculation using the volumes, create and print thematic maps and
download database in Excel.

Another digital product is the PUF (Public Use File) that contains the raw
census 2000 data available per Province. It is formatted to create the tables
found in the CPH on a barangay level. It comes with the software used to
read the PUF (IMPS)
Central Office:

Library

Regional Offices

Paper Maps:

No published maps
Digital Maps:

Digital Map of administrative boundaries for display included in the DATOS
kit
National Telecommunications Commission (NTC)
www.ntc.gov.ph
NTC is the agency that grants licenses for cell sites but site approval
will be subject to the approval of the LGU for locational clearance and
development permit. They only have the address for the cell site so it is
recommended that data be captured by the LGU using GPS and research on the
capacity of these sites thru the local carriers of these cell sites.
Central Office:
 Common Carrier and Authorization Department

Paper Maps:

No paper maps available
 
Digital Maps:

No
 
Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical & Astronomical Services
Administration (PAGASA)
www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph
Climate Map (Whole Philippines)

Flood Hazard Maps (8 LGUs)

Strom Surge (4 Municipalities)
Geology, Geophysics Research and Development Division
Paper Maps:

Climate Map:

1:250,000
 
Digital Maps:

No
 
Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB)
www.pawb.gov.ph
They hold the data for NIPAS and Proclaimed Protected Areas. A list for
this is available in their websites. It would be best to inquire about the
availability of maps before proceeding to PAWB. Mapping of these areas is
done thru with the aid of NAMRIA. Maps are loaned for reproduction by the
requesting party.
Biodiversity (PAWB)

Protected Areas and Wildlife Services - DENR Regional Offices

Paper Maps:

Survey Plans:

Varying depending on the area of concern

 
Digital Maps:

Regional Maps Images of protected areas with survey plans available in the
web as jpeg
 
Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHICOLCS)
www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph
Active Fault Lines,
Volcanoes,
Liquefaction (Regional Scale)

Geology, Geophysics Research and Development Division

Paper Maps:

Survey Plans:

Varying depending on the area of concern

 
Digital Maps:

Available as jpeg images
 
National Transmission Corporation (TransCo)
www.transco.ph
TRANSCO is a GOCC (Government Owned and Controlled Corporation).
They are the ones responsible for setting up and maintenance of transmission
lines (69 kV – 500 kV). They are in the process of developing a GIS
system (Spatial Data Infrastructure Project) for their operation but for
now the data they have are limited and inaccurate.

They have digital data for transmission lines and substations but unlike
the output of their Project, they are only indicative maps which means they
are estimated lines where these transmission lines would pass.
 
Paper Maps:

No published paper map for public use
 
Digital Maps:

Digital maps available for their internal use
 

4.18 Sample Municipal GIS Application Cum CLUP Dataset


4.18.01 Case Study – A Synchronized Building Permit Application cum CLUP Dataset

Once the CLUP and the Zoning Ordinance have been approved, they constitute the basis for a number of different permits, such as the Locational Clearance, Subdivision Development Permit, Plan Approval, Building Permit and Business Permit. In the period before a revision of the CLUP is needed or decided on, these permits form a useful source of information and serves as a barometer for the land use development/changes in the respective municipality.

The situation in Ormoc City regarding Building Permits is as follows:

Situation Today The Building Permit is issued by the City Engineering Department, which also acts as the Office of the Building Official. There is a special Building Permit Section assigned for the task. The Building Permit, which actually consists of six licenses: line and grade / geodetic / tax-mapping (mandatory); architectural (mandatory); structural (mandatory); electrical (mandatory); sanitary / plumbing (mandatory); mechanical (optional), is recorded by hand in a ‘log book.’ Aside from the signed rubber stamp marks on the building plans the logbook is the only documentation.

The following records are captured for each Building Permit and comments are also made in case a digital (GIS) database system will be introduced:

Recorded Today: GIS Harmonization:
Building Permit #’, for example 2K504124-B which is a unique ID number with the coding ‘2K5’ refers to year 2005; 04 refers to the month of April; 124 refers to a serial number of 3 alphanumeric (which means that maximum 999 permits can be issued per month); ‘-B’ refers to type of permit, which is Building Permit or it could also be O(ccupancy); F(encing); R(enovation) or D(emolition). In a table object context proposed for a GIS, the unique number should be simplified to ‘2005 (year) 04 (month) 124 (serial number). The date recorded refers to when the application is forwarded (logged) to the Building Permit Section. The time for the approval process can obviously be measured by comparing with the ‘Date Issued’ data below.
‘Type of permit’ should be in a separate column.
Likewise, as in most cases, a Locational Clearance has to secured before the Building Permit and it is therefore useful to include that Unique ID into the dataset for easy reference.
It was not clear how the licenses were recorded, so maybe a special column is needed.
Date Issued’, for example September 10, 2005 If the existing Building Permit # (which also has a time annotation in the existing Logbook) indicates that there is a time gap between when the application was received and the permit granted, ‘Date Issued’ is justified.
‘’Name of Owner’ which also include an address (always the barangay, sometimes a street name) of the location of the building site (and not necessarily where the owner is residing) The data should be separated to be clear: the ‘Name of Owner’ (which is actually the name of the Applicant) in one column and the ‘site address’ in another column. At the moment, Ormoc City has no functioning digital cadastre, which, aside from the Barangay would be a good address.
Currently a name of the street/road will help to define the location.
In the GIS it is always possible to retrieve latitude and longitude if the location has been recorded by a GPS.
Payment #’, which is the number of the receipt when the permit fee was paid  
‘Amount Paid and ‘Date of Receipt’ Needs to be divided in two columns, one for ‘Amount Paid’ and another column for ‘Date of Receipt.’ The date of the receipt must always precede the release of the Building Permit.
Floor Area’ (in Sq. M) which is the component the fee is calculated from  
Estimated project cost’ which is the component the fee is calculated from in case the Floor Area is not possible to define  
Type of Building’ (and also the number of floors) which could be Residential, Apartment, Commercial, Institutional, Industrial. It is not clarified if these ‘types’ are the same as the zoning classifications. Needs to be divided in two columns, one for ‘Type of Building’ and another column for ‘Number of Storeys’
‘Signature of the Applicant’ It is not clear what the purpose of the signature is. It cannot be encoded in a GIS without the ‘digital signature’ process, which would be quite superfluous, as some kind of notification will be given to the Applicant in any case.
Attempts have been made by the staff to organize the data in a digital format but malfunctioning hardware has restricted the efforts.

Proposal The proposal presents a very simplistic system based on the current ‘computer appreciation level’ in Ormoc City. The system can in the future be developed into a more sophisticated method such as a network corporate solution.

1 The Building Permit Logbook is translated into a digital format with the adjustments noted above. MS Excel is used and the spreadsheet will have the following content:
(Sample Records Here!)
2 A date for the change of mode is decided on, which will give enough time for preparation such as procuring hardware, installing software and conduct of the necessary training. (1 January 2006?)
3 From the agreed date onwards, building permit applications will be encoded in a digital format using MS Excel. Eventually double entry bookkeeping must be done until the staff feel confident with the new system.
4 At the first inspection / visit, staff from the Engineering Office brings a handheld GPS and takes a reading of the building site. Depending on the staff’s skills and experience, the capturing of each location will be done using the same methodology as detailed in Chapter… or more sophisticated recording will be made.
5 The GPS recordings from building sites will be handed over to the planning unit at regular intervals. The planning staff will translate the GPS readings into locations on the digital map of Ormoc City.
Distribution of Responsibilities
The Building Permit Unit under Engineering will be the prime user of the Municipal Building Permit GIS and consequently be the ‘caretaker’ or custodian of the table objects of the Excel spreadsheets.

The Planning Unit, which has the overall responsibility of spatial data in Ormoc City, will handle the task of keeping the building permit site map layer up to date.

Hardware Requirements
An up to date computer, an A3 printer and a GPS are needed for the GIS. The GPS and the printer can be used by other units within the Engineering Department. The cost for the hardware will be about ???? Pesos.

Software
MS Office with Excel is needed to manage the table object database. The Planning Unit will need GIS software such as Arc View and Arc Reader to provide the GIS to the Building Permit Unit. A freeware browser can be used by the Building Permit Unit in the beginning and later on ArcIMS can be used. The initial cost will be Pesos? however, the cost can be shared as the system will be used to serve all other municipal offices.

Training
Basic training in Windows and MS Office is needed (2-3 days?), including instructions on how to browse and print information from the GIS (1 day). Training on how to use a GPS is also needed (half day). The Planning Unit has skills in all operations needed to manage the GIS.

Advantages
The data is secure provided that regular backups of the ‘digital logbook’ are done. What will happen today if the existing hardcopy logbook is stolen or if there is a fire destroying the logbook?

There is a great advantage for a digital archiving because it is easier to search, analyze and reproduce.

The Building Permit Unit will have a comprehensive and transparent documentation of its tasks and will be able to analyze, monitor, make projections, and present the essentials. If the data is properly encoded in the system it can answer questions such as:

  1. ‘Show me the different types of building permits for 2006 and the distribution over the City’;
  2. ‘Show me which Barangay has the most intensive building activity in 2006’;
  3. ‘Show me if there are Building Permits in 2006, which have not been proceeded by a Locational Permit
  4. ‘Show me (on a map) projects which permits have not been paid’;
  5. ‘Show me how much revenue can be collected for 2006’;
  6. ‘Give me the names of all the applicants who have not paid their fees’.

The Planning Unit will have a good picture of what’s going on in the municipality with regard to land use changes, and this is very useful information in the next revision of the CLUP.

Similar GIS application can be made for the Locational Clearance documentation, at it will be easier to start with this one since the Planning Unit is in charge of issuing these.

Getting a building permit is a long way from a one-stop-shop process as it is now. It is a tedious exercise for the applicant to get all the signatures for the permit. Nine signatures are needed today from different persons whose availability might be restricted and lengthen the process. Digital archiving will definitely facilitate a transition to a more client friendly system.,


4.18.02 Case Study - A Synchronized Business Permit Application cum CLUP Data Set

Presentation of the Study Area

For the study on synchronized Business Permit Application cum CLUP data set, the study area was Ormoc City. The study focused on their current process in handling the issuance of Building Permits, and a survey was done in Barangay District 7 located in the Central Business District (CBD). District 7 is a highly commercialized and a completely zoned barangay that consists of one whole block located next to the shopping mall in the urban center of Ormoc City, with 52 business activities that have been issued Business Permits.
In order to compare the handling of Business Permits in a city like Ormoc, with that of a low-income LGU, the same study was also conducted in the Municipality of Laurel, Batangas.

Situation Today in Ormoc City
The issuance of Business Permits is handled by the Licensing and Franchising Office under the Office of the City Mayor and is renewed every year. The majority of permits applied for is from the service sector and in particular, the transportation businesses. There was a sharp increase in the number of permits issued when the deregulation of issuance of tricycle plate numbers was implemented. Before that, the issuance of transport operation was controlled by the Sangguniang Panlungsod. The issuance of Business Permits requires the applicant to secure a Barangay Clearance, Tax Certificate, SSS or Pag-IBIG Clearance, Health Clearance and a Locational Clearance.

The Locational Clearance is issued by the Planning office to ensure that the business activity is in line with the current zoning ordinance.

In 2005, the City issued 3,456 business permits where 2,680 were renewal permits and 776 were new.

The required clearances needed in getting a business permit are only necessary for first time applicants. When a permit holder applies for a renewal, the clearances submitted by previous applications are still valid. In effect, those business activities located in zoned areas that are in conflict with the land use still continue to have valid permits, if these permits were issued before the current zoning was approved.

When a business permit is issued or renewed, the permit gets a new license number. When a new permit is issued, the business holder also gets a license plate number to display in the business facility. This plate shows the license number of the first year when the business applied for a permit. When the permit is renewed, the owner gets a new license number but still keeps the old plate. Proof of renewal is instead displayed with a tax sticker attached to the plate.

The permit records are kept in a computer system developed by the Information Technology Center under the Planning Office. The system is a user friendly system with simple forms for encoding data from the applications. It also assigns permit numbers, computes fees and penalties, among other functions.

The system is based on a network solution with a centrally stored database that keeps the tables containing the data of the Business Permit Records such as taxpayer’s name, business name, address, tax base and fees, license number, date and other data.

Situation Today in Laurel
In the Municipality of Laurel, the issuance of business permits is handled by the Mayor´s Office and is renewed every year. The officer in charge of the issuance of business permits is License Inspector Joe De Sagun. The majority of permits applied for are fish cages and sari-sari stores. In 2005, the number of business permits issued in Laurel was 245, of which 60 was for fish cages.

The records kept on hand are handwritten books and the permit numbers issued start at number 1 for each year.

The records are divided into two separate books with one book specifically used for Fish Cages. It contains information on the number of cages, capacity of the cage and other information. The other book is for other types of business activities which contains information on the business permits based on the logged-in records. These include the Permit Number, Business Name, Address, Nature of Business, Amount Paid, Official Receipt Number, Date Received, Remarks (New or Renewal), Date Released and the signature of the Licensing Officer.

Proposal
The proposal presents a method to gather and to build up a Business GIS for the LGU that can be used for the issuance of Business permits, for the renewal of the CLUP, and for other activities such as the preparation of statistical maps on development in the LGU, and tourist information.

The proposed tables to keep digital records of the Business Permits is a start up level for LGUs without current digital records and let them get started in MS Excel where a table sheet containing the attributes are stored and then linked to a GIS layer holding the surveyed locations of the business establishments.

In the case of Ormoc City and other LGUs with current digital systems, the suggestion is to instead keep the attribute database that is currently being used, and extend it with a link to the GIS.

Attributes
The attributes kept in the Business Permit Record are suggested to be divided into two tables: “Table 1” contains information about the actual permit with regard to ownership and type of business establishment, and “Table 2” contains data about payment of fees and taxes.

Table 1: “Business Permit”. A similar table is also found in excel format in Chapter 5.03.38.

Attribute name: Description:
PER_ID Business Permit ID, Unique ID for the Business Permit, the permit ID should be sustained over time and not be changed upon renewal.
PER_YR Permit Year, The year of which the permit is valid
PER_HOLD Permit Holder, Name of the applicant for the Business Permit
BIZ_NM Name of Business, Name of the Business facility
B_NM Barangay Name, Name of Barangay where the business is located.
BIZ_ADR Business Address, Address were the business is located
BIZ_CLASS Classification of Business, the classification of businesses are “Retailers”, “Services”, “Manufacturers” or “Banks and Other Financial Institutions”
BIZ_LINE Line of Business, Line of business activity, for example “Internet Café”, “Petrol Station”, “Sari-sari store” “Supermarket,” etc.
EMP_NO Number of Employees, Number of Employees working in the business.
PER_RM Permit Remarks, State whether the permit is “NEW” or “RENEWED”
LIC_DT License Date, Date when license was issued
The table can be extended to facilitate specific needs in different LGUs. For example: to handle additional information about fish cages such as those in Laurel.
Table 2: “Business Permit Fees and Taxes”

Attribute name: Description:
PER_ID Business Permit ID, Unique ID for the Business Permit, the permit ID should be sustained over time and not be changed upon renewal.
PER_TAX Tax Base, Basis for taxation of the business activity
LIC_FEE License Fee, LGU fee for issuance of license
INSP_FEE Inspection Fee, Annual Fee for inspection of business activity
POL_FEE Police Fee, Fee for Police Services
HP_FEE Health Permit Fee, Fee for issuance of Health Permit
GC_FEE Garbage Collection Fee, Fee for collection of garbage.
SP_FEE Sanitary Permit Fee, Fee for issuance of Sanitary Permit.
FI_FEE Fire Inspection Fee, Fee for fire inspection of business facility.
PEN Penalty, Penalty for delayed payment
GIS Layer

In order to utilize GIS for planning and monitoring, it is necessary to have the locations of the businesses stored in a GIS layer that is possible to link to the Business Permit Records.

If the LGU has an updated and accurate address database, GIS Records may be linked to that layer. But in most cases, there is no such data available at this time. The suggestion is to create a specific point feature layer to hold the location of the business facility and the Unique Permit ID to be able to link with the Records. It is also suggested that the GIS layer should contain a link to photos of the business facility.

GIS Table: “Business Permit GIS”

Attribute name: Description:
PER_ID Business Permit ID, Unique ID for the Business Permit to be able to link to the Business Permit Records
PHOTO Photo, Link to digital photo of the business facility
Method

Encode the attribute data in the Excel tables for the current Business Permit Records

Conduct a GPS survey of the business facility to gather the locations of the businesses and to build up GIS data containing the coordinates and the Business Permit ID

Set a date for when to start using the new method. From then on, all new Business Permits issued must be surveyed with a GPS.

When a new Business Permit is to be issued, an inspection is conducted where the inspector brings a handheld GPS. The inspector makes readings form the Business location and takes digital photos of the business activity.

The GPS reading and the digital photo form the business site will be handed over to the planning unit together with the Business Permit ID. The planning staff will then translate the GPS reading into a digital map containing the Permit ID and a link to the photo.

Distribution of Responsibilities The Licensing Officer under the Mayor’s office is the prime user of the Business Permit Records. It is the custodian of these records whether they are kept in an analog or digital format. It is suggested that in case of a shift from an analog record to a record kept in Excel, the custodian should still be the Licensing Officer.

The Planning Unit which has the overall responsibility for spatial data in most LGUs will have the responsibility of building up and keeping the Business Permit spatial layer up to date.

Advantages
The Licensing Office has a geographical view of the distribution of business permits in the municipality/city for easy reference and monitoring. The Business Permit layer can be used with the zoning layer to make a map that will display Business Permits that are in compatible or not compatible with zoning ordinance.

During the initial survey of Business Permits, it was found out that some business activities lacked the permits that could be used for monitoring purposes.

The Business Permit GIS can also be used for other purposes such as the preparation of tourist maps to show the locations of important tourism facilities. It can also be used to analyze and monitor the development of business activities in the LGU. If the data is properly encoded, the system can provide answers to questions such as:

  1. Show the distribution of Business Permits in the LGU and the density of Business Permits per Barangay
  2. Show the Business Permit Holders that have not paid their fees for 2006
  3. Show the Barangays with highest increase of business activities between 2005-2007
  4. Show a map of all the Internet Cafes in the municipality / city
  5. Show all the hazardous business activities located in an area zoned as residential

The Mayor’s office will have a good picture of the distribution of business activities to be used for monitoring of permits.


4.18.03 Case Study – A Synchronized Urban Poor cum CLUP Dataset

Ormoc Situation Today
The underlying reasons for the existence of informal settlements are poverty, population growth, urbanization, land scarcity and environmental hazards. In informal settlements most of the houses have been built by the families who occupy them. Infrastructure and services are lacking, and the house materials are of a temporary nature. Some informal settlements illegally occupy land that is often in a hazardous location. The inhabitants usually work in the informal sectors and their incomes are low.

The general solution adopted to low-income informal settlements by most of the ‘formal’ stakeholders in the Philippines is the relocation of the dwellers to new homes in subsidized housing areas usually located far from their areas of work or livehood. However, the pace of such transformation activities may accompany negative effects in the form of unaffordable rents and extended commuting. As a result, the relocated families tend to return to their former areas to find a source of income. Consequently, other solutions have to be sought in order to address these effects.

Urban development and wealth is created by the inhabitants of the area through economic, cultural and social activities. Stable conditions that support property rights imply the prediction of risks in order to mitigate them, thus promoting sustainable development. Besides land, inhabitants of urban areas need public services like water and sewerage, transportation, power etc., and social services for health, education and cultural activities. Local authorities need to be able to provide suitable conditions for these services and guarantee the necessary coordination among the different activities. In order to do this, local (and central) authorities require access to information about the land, its use, and the actors using the land in the area.

While studying the prepared CLUPs in the pilot municipalities/cities, it was found that the housing sector of the CLUP does not fully recognize the need to focus on the situation for the urban poor, and the requisite actions to halt the proliferation of informal settlements, and to improve the situation for informal settlers. The housing sector component of the CLUP normally contains the usual government policies and some pilot projects, but there is hardly any analysis and substantial proposals for alleviating the housing situation. Comprehensive overviews are not found and the Plans are not able to present any documentation on the low-income informal settlements, which should be a minimum requirement. While the municipality / city is in charge of providing services and implementing programs and projects for poverty alleviation, such actions are not found in the CLUP.

An ongoing project involving HLURB, HUDCC and Quezon City will hopefully result in more detailed guidelines on how to map informal settlements which will be added to the GIS Cookbook in the future.

In the Ormoc City CLUP, there is also very minimal information about informal settlements. Currently there is a specific unit within the Social Welfare Department called the Urban Poor Unit with a staff of four persons. This Unit coordinates with the National Housing Authority which is the agency responsible for providing housing for informal settlers through its various housing programs. However, this is not reflected in the city’s CLUP. Three years ago the Unit made an inventory and the output was a table showing the number of underprivileged families by Barangay. The information about the informal settlers was provided by Barangay officials. The Mayor has requested for a new survey.

(Picture of data from Urban Poor Unit)

Proposal
The proposal presents a simple system based on the current ‘computer appreciation level’ in Ormoc City. The system can be developed into a more sophisticated one in the future, such as a network corporate solution.

1 Two Excel spreadsheets will be sufficient to start with. One that shows the distribution of informal settler families by Barangays with the following indicators
2 The data in combination with the Demography Basic Information can be used as a base for analysis such as:
‘Show me what Barangays have the most concentration of informal settlers families in relation to total population (and the Barangay land area)’
(Map with Barangay boundaries with an overlay of informal settlers families per total Barangay population density)
 
Note that the common denominator for 'Population' must be synchronized in the CLUP data. Should it be 'Household' (one household can house more than one family), 'Family' (one family consists of six persons on an average) or 'Persons?’

3 If the settlers are occupying extensive land areas, the following table will illustrate the key indicators:
4 During the field inventory staff from Urban Poor Unit brings a handheld GPS and takes readings of the ‘corners’ of the informal settlement area. Depending on staff skills and experience, the process of recording location by GPS will be done using the same methodology as given in Chapter 4.19.01???, or a more sophisticated recording can be made.
5 The GPS recordings are handed over to the planning unit. The planning staff will translate the GPS readings into locations on the digital map of Ormoc City.
Distribution of Responsibilities
The Urban Poor Unit under the Social Welfare Department will be the prime user of the Municipal informal settlers GIS and consequently will be the ‘caretaker’ or custodian of the table objects of the Excel spreadsheets.

The Planning Unit, which has the overall responsibility of spatial data in Ormoc City, will be in charge of keeping the map layers up to date.

Hardware Requirements
An up to date computer, an A3 printer and a GPS are needed for the GIS. The GPS can be borrowed from the Planning Department and it is also recommended that the Planning Department help the Urban Poor Unit with printouts of the informal settlers maps.

Software
MS Office with Excel is needed to manage the table object database. The Planning Unit will need GIS software such as ArcView and Arc Reader to provide the GIS to the Urban Poor Unit. A freeware browser mention can be used by the Urban Poor Unit in the beginning and later on ArcIMS can be used. The initial cost will be?????,. The software however can be used to serve all other municipal offices.

Training
Basic training in Windows and MS Office is needed (2-3 days?). Likewise, there should be training on how to browse and print information from the GIS (1 day), including training on how to use a GPS (half day). The Planning Unit has skills in all operations needed to manage the GIS.

Advantages
The data is secure, provided that regular backups are done.

Other advantages for a digital archiving include ease of update, reproduction and analysis.

The Urban Poor Unit will have a comprehensive and transparent documentation of its tasks and will be able to analyze, monitor, project and present the essentials. If the data is properly encoded in the system, it can answer questions such as:

  1. ‘Show which Barangays had the largest growth of informal settlement areas between 2000 and 2005’;
  2. ‘Show (on a map) which informal settlements are occupying private land’.

The Planning Unit will have a good picture of what’s going on in the municipality/city with regard to expansion of informal settlements, which is very useful information for the next revision of the CLUP.

Similar GIS applications can be made for the Housing Improvement Programs that are introduced to prevent illegal settlements.


4.18.04 Change Detection Satellite


4.19 Methods for Field Survey


4.19.01 Guidelines How to Conduct a CLUP Field Survey

Objective
The objective for the survey is to locate (or verify) features that cannot be traced from the secondary source data (aerial photos, old maps, etc.) that are available in the planning office.

However, it is not only the physical location of a feature that should be recorded during the field survey. The completeness and accuracy of the databases found in the municipal office can also be validated on site, and other useful information about the table objects can also be gathered. For example, when the location of a school site is captured using a handheld GPS, photos of the school buildings are taken, and data about the school facilities such as actual number of classrooms can be listed at the same time. The conditions of the premises can be also be assessed and documented.

Hence, the survey must be properly planned at the office before fieldwork is conducted, and cooperative efforts by the planner and ‘sector custodians’ should be encouraged. As explained earlier, the data captured during the field trip is not only for the for the CLUP preparation, but will also be useful for other (sector) purposes, like project planning, maintenance programs, etc.

Preparation:
1 Prepare a ‘CLUP Directory Tree’ (if this has not has been done before) for the files which will be the result of the survey, copy and paste the sample directory found in the Toolbox into/create a file structure as recommended in Chapter 5.01.01 on the designated drive of the computer that will be the ‘home’ for the GIS data. Screen dump of the CLUP Directory tree here!
2 Copy the field survey form for spatial objects from Chapter 6.04 and print out enough forms to be used during the field survey. The idea is to use the form for each feature (schools, barangay offices, health clinics, etc.) and manually insert the GPS recordings and identification numbers for photos;
3 Copy from Chapter 5 and paste the head column from the Excel Table Object sheets of each object that is relevant for the respective municipality/city. For reference and selection, see the CLUP Metadata Index sheet (Chapter 5.01.01 ‘Quicklook.xls/index’) to find out what table objects are mandatory and what objects are extensive objects. Note that each object should be found in a separate Excel file.
4 Name the respective table object file according to the CLUP coding standard, which is found in the CLUP Metadata in the respective table object sheet ;
5 In the respective LGU sector offices archive, check the availability of data which is required to insert in the CLUP table object. The best way to do this is to invite the ‘LGU sector data custodians’ to report their versions of what is available in-house in order to find out if the field survey could be used to make up the existing databases. (Photo of a meeting with LGU staff working maps and tables.)
6 Make paper copies of the table object files for which the field survey can contribute and bring together with the CLUP Metadata.  
7 Make a route plan for the survey using for example a large size paper version of the old CLUP General (or Urban) Plan:
The Survey Team The recommended composition of the Survey Team is as follows:
A Team Leader (could be one the mentioned below)  
A GPS and Camera Operator (Picture of an equipped (and smiling) Team in front of a vehicle)
A Data Capturer who keeps the record  
A Driver  
In case the field survey is used to update existing table object dataset found in office, staff from the respective LGU sector department is recommended to join the team.  
Survey Equipment:
A vehicle. Sometimes a motorcycle can be useful if the features to record are found in remote areas with poor roads.  
A handheld GPS and don’t forget batteries in case there is no car charger for the GPS.  
A digital camera.  
Al types of maps and aerial photos useful to track locations.  
A compass and a tape meter  
White paint to mark ‘beacons’  
The Survey Forms indicated above  
Examples on How Surveys Can Be Conducted:
Example 1: Feature objects of the Base Map data which normally cannot be traced from secondary sources (an aerial photos, etc.)
In this case, it will be Administrative features linked to the table object‘ Administration’
And a couple of landmarks linked to the table object Cultural Heritage’
Go to the site, take GPS readings, take photos, interview resource persons (if available) and try to complete the indicators defined in the tables. Try to use the same place for the GPS reading, for example always at the entrance gate of the Barangay Hall compound or outside entrance to the Barangay Hall. (Picture exemplifying)
Example 2: Feature object of CLUP Sector data which normally cannot be traced from secondary sources (such as aerial photos, etc.)
In this case, it will be Health Facilities features linked to the table object Facilities by Type and Ownership
…and table object Facility by Capacity and Condition
Go to the site, take GPS readings, take photos, interview resource persons (if available) and try to complete the indicators defined in the tables. Try to use the same place for the GPS reading, for example always at the entrance gate of a school. (Picture exemplifying)
  The next step will be to enter the data into the CLUP GIS at the office, assign proper symbology and color coding to the feature
Note that Examples 1 and 2 can be surveyed at the same time
Example 3: A Business Permit survey for a block in a CBD, zoned as Commercial???
In this case it will be features linked to the table object ‘Business Permits, Year ????’
Take GPS readings of the 4(?) corners of the block  
Take GPS readings of each business activity going on, starting in the NW corner go to NE to SE to SW and back to NW. If it involves multistory activities start with the ground level activity and record upwards What about the street vendors, do they also have a business permit? If so are they assigned to a specified location? If so they have to be recorded as well.
Take photo of the business activities following the GPS readings and record the photo serial number in the Survey form
Back at office, compare the municipal Business Permit Register with the survey, use the Business Permit Register ID as the unique ID and copy/paste the data into the CLUP format
  (Example of a scanned business permit register here!)
Note that is important to behave discreetly in the data capturing activity to avoid giving a negative impression of the exercise. (e.g. GPS position on the other side and always a ‘tourist’ placed in front of the camera!) If the purpose of your activities is asked, always keep an official ID card.

The next step will be to enter the data into the CLUP GIS at the office, assign proper symbology and color coding to the feature
See Chapter… for a more in depth case study of this subject.

4.19.02 Case Study: A Barangay Map Survey and Information Product

The Case Study Area
Linao is a Barangay located in the west end of Ormoc City Urban Area. The Barangay became urbanized after the flooding in Ormoc in 1991 when a number of relocation sites were located in the Barangay. Prior to that, the area was mostly agricultural and industrial lands.

Linao has a number of issues and inconsistencies when it comes to actual land use compared to the zoning of the Barangay. When comparing the aerial photo with the zoning, there are two major industrial activities (Petron Depot and the Mac Builder Corporation) located in an area which is zoned as residential. There is also a widespread area of informal settlements along the coastal areas which are not presented in the CLUP.

Barangay Linao has a total land area of about 87 hectares of which 50% is used as agricultural land and 30% as residential. The rest is used for industrial, commercial and institutional activities. There is a large swamp in the western part of the barangay. The Barangay used to be zoned as Industrial and has a large Petrol depot located in the central area. Later on, the zoning was changed to residential for the most part of the Barangay, except for the area where the schools and the Barangay hall are located, which is zoned as institutional.

Today the population of Linao is around 9,000. Since 2003, there was a 32% increase in this number. Linao has one of the extensive areas of informal settlements in Ormoc City where just along the shoreline alone, there are approximately 200 households. The other 50 households are located in other parts of the Barangay.

There is a problem with lack of nutrition for the children living in the informal settlements, and apparently, this is due to the lack of adequate land to grow vegetables along the shore. Barangay Captain Sofronio Chu has started a program to grow plants in bags and plastic boxes which they distribute among the settlers to improve their ability to grow plants.

In the Barangay hall today, they have no map that covers the whole area. The only map available is a Tax Map showing the Tax Parcels in central blocks. The map lacks topographical references and even the Barangay Captain and his staff have a hard time locating the precise points that the map presents.

Scope

The main target of this survey is to gather useful data in the preparation of the CLUP and at the same time gather information for the preparation of a Barangay map to for use in the barangay hall.

The scope of this survey is to:

  1. Compare the Zoning with the Actual Land Use;
  2. Identify major changes in land use, newly built-up areas etc;
  3. Identify issues obtaining in the Barangay;
  4. Prepare findings for use in updating the CLUP, including a Land Use map;
  5. Locate facilities in the Barangay.

Preparation

In preparation for the barangay survey, a meeting was held with the Barangay Captain, and secondary source materials such as aerial photos were used in locating the different objects of land uses that should be included in the survey. These were also marked on a map.

Prior to the survey the following activities were conducted:

  1. Scheduled a meeting with the Barangay Captain;
  2. Put together a survey team with a driver, a GPS operator and a person to take notes and pictures during the survey;
  3. Prepared note-taking forms for the survey (GPS point ID, photo number, name of location or activity etc);
  4. Prepared Maps to note the different objects to include in the survey;
  5. Made a list of objects and questions for the Barangay officials that are of interest to the survey;
  6. Made sure that the following were available: vehicle, GPS recorder, digital camera, extra batteries etc.;
  7. Prepared for outdoor walking,
  8. Prepared survey team provisions such as drinking water and raincoats.

It is good to have a survey team member living in the area who. Thus, the team is familiar with the different locations and can provide additional information during the survey.

Implementation

The survey started with a meeting with the Barangay Captain who went through a list of different services located in the Barangay and noted them on the aerial photo.

With the help of the Barangay Captain, the locations of sports facilities such as badminton hall, basketball courts and a sports hall under construction were plotted on the map, including schools (an elementary and a high school), a health center, police station, churches, bakeries, industrial activities, etc. that have been constructed and where new residential areas have appeared since the aerial photo was taken in 1997. He also presented other information about the barangay.

Also identified on the map was the swamp area that is not suitable for residential use but is within the residential zone.

The Barangay Captain also joined the field survey around the vicinity of the Barangay Hall, which took less than one day and covered interesting sites that are useful in the preparation of the full barangay survey. Some basic attribute data were also elicited from the elementary school principal and the Barangay Police Chief in Linao.

After the interview, the survey team drove around the Barangay visiting the different sites to gather GPS readings and take pictures of the objects, and at the same time looked out for other interesting objects in the area to survey that may relevant for the CLUP preparation and for the Barangay Map.

Objects Surveyed

The different objects listed by the Barangay Captain were visited during the survey. The team also ‘discovered’ and surveyed a residential area that is actually a housing area for urban poor which has been built after 1998 when the aerial photo was taken. This was noted among the objects to be surveyed. In total, 28 objects in the barangay were surveyed, ranging from industrial activities to bakeries and sports facilities. The Barangay Police Chief also provided information about crime rate in the area, and the elementary school principal gave data about the school.

Objects visited during the barangay survey
Processing data and updating the Land Use Map
During the conduct of the survey, it was determined that the Zoning in Barangay Linao was not reflective of the actual or even intended land use in all areas of the Barangay. This is illustrated by the Petron Plant which is a highly hazardous industrial activity. It is a permanent structure that is located right in the middle of a residential area. The Mac Builder area is also located in the residential zone.

With this data and with the use of aerial photo, the current land use map can now be updated to have a better input for the next CLUP preparation process.

Based on the survey, the residential area was subdivided into smaller parts and the data for the major land areas were changed from residential to agricultural use. The areas occupied by Petron and Mac Builder were changed to industrial use, and the swamp area in the west end of the barangay was also indicated. The updated Land Use Map forms a good base for the updating of the CLUP and for a more accurate zoning for the barangay.

Preparing the Barangay Map

With the use of data gathered during the Barangay Survey it is also possible to prepare a barangay map that shows the location of facilities available in the barangay such as the Barangay Hall, Police Station, Health Center, Schools, Religious facilities and sports facilities.

The barangay map is a useful information material in the barangay, and serves as an important tool in the political process when discussing development and visualizing the need for new locations for ongoing and proposed activities at the barangay level.

The barangay map for Linao is printed in an A2 format, and laminated so it can be used in discussions where the local officials can also draw on the map with whiteboard markers and reuse the map for different projects.


4.19.03 How to Use GPS in CLUP Data Preparation

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a worldwide radio-navigation system formed from a constellation of 24 satellites and their ground stations. GPS uses these satellites as reference points to calculate positions accurate to a matter of meters or up to centimeter level in advanced forms of GPS receivers.

GPS receivers have been miniaturized to just a few integrated circuits and so are becoming very economical, making the technology accessible to virtually everyone. These days GPS is finding its way into cars, boats, planes, construction equipment, movie making gear, farm machinery, and of course into laptop computers.

Because of the great reduction in price (same price as a mid range cellular phone), GPS surveying is a practical way of getting primary data for the CLUP GIS. This chapter will now show how GPS works, and presents tips that may not be found in the GPS user manual.

GPS Survey

Know your receiver
A GPS receiver is a new device for many people who should familiarize themselves with the device. This information can save time, resolve problems in operation, and prevent accidental data loss.

Read the manual. Know the specifications of the GPS model, set-up, functionalities, how to use, and the limitations of the gadget.
Find out what operations would result in data loss (reset, delete, clear track records, etc), in order to prevent accidental data loss.

Take the time to practice using the receiver before conducting an actual survey. Practice set-up procedures, data collection and data deletion. Observe signal strength and level of accuracy for different weather conditions and locations.

Learn to clear all captured data (tracks, waypoint, routes). Observe what happens to the other data if one set is erased (e.g. would erasing all waypoints have an effect on the route).

Observe battery life of the GPS receiver. This is important in planning the survey and in case there are no available spare batteries for the unit.

Plan the survey
GPS survey will consume time and resources (gasoline for the vehicle, manpower). Here are some things to do in planning the survey.

Prepare a map of the area to be surveyed and have it printed in a size that can be easy to write on and read while in a moving car or outside the field (A3 or A4).
Find source persons for the places to be surveyed if nobody in the survey team is familiar with the places. Plan the survey routes on the map. If working in teams, assign which areas to cover and alternate areas to survey in case the survey is completed early or if problems arise for primary areas.

Consider hazards and risks that may be encountered in the survey areas (flash flood areas, road conditions, insurgents, bulwarks of rival political parties, etc.) to avoid delays and prevent any untoward incidents from happening.

Plan who to bring with the team, what type of vehicle to use in certain areas (model, marked or unmarked, etc. ) to avoid physical (rough road) and social (presence of insurgents or areas controlled by rival political parties) constraints. Bring along a resource person for the areas during the survey if possible.

Assign roles to the members of the survey team (GPS operator, recorder, photographer).

Prepare materials before conducting the Survey
Prepare extra maps of the route plan if more than one team is organized.
Prepare data sheets for the GPS readings. This serves as the back up for the data and a much easier way to write down notes. Use a clipboard folder for writing data in the field. An example of a GPS data capture sheet is found in Chapter 6.04.
Bring spare batteries, if available; otherwise make sure to fully charge the battery before going to the field.
Bring a digital camera if available and take pictures of the areas being surveyed.

Before leaving for the survey
Check the weather if GPS survey is possible.
Check if all materials are okay and ready to go to avoid any delays.
Initialize and set-up the instrument before going out to the field
Turn on the GPS receiver and apply appropriate settings. Here are some of the settings that should be applied that would be common to most receivers.
Datum : WGS84
Units : Metric
Bearing : True

Latitude/Longitude Units: DD:MM:SS.S (Degrees-Minutes-Seconds)
Find an open space with a good view of the sky and wait for the GPS to set-up.
Once the GPS is set-up, take some test readings. Take note of the accuracy of the test readings. This will serve as an estimate for the next readings.

Place receiver in the dashboard while inside the vehicle to prevent signal loss thereby eliminating the need to set-up the receiver again.

Getting the readings

  1. Locate an open area on the area to be surveyed. If the area is a small building (less than or equal to two floors), find an area near the structure that will still have a good view of the sky.
  2. Get GPS readings on the area and observe the accuracy. Wait for the accuracy to stabilize, at least to a meter level, and take note of the highest accuracy level possible.
  3. Save the reading when the accuracy is within the highest stable reading possible.
  4. If accuracy reading fluctuates and is unstable, try to find a new area and repeat the readings.
  5. If a different area continues to give unstable reading even for a long period of time, save the data with the highest observed accuracy.
  6. Record the readings on the data sheet and the point number recorded in the GPS.
  7. Take pictures of the area using a digital camera and record the photo number/s in the data sheet for the corresponding point.

Notes:

  1. Take readings from the same area per feature type. (e.g, flagpole for all schools, front of building for all Barangay Halls).
  2. Stay away from tall buildings and sources of strong electrical current or interference (e.g, transmission lines, substations, electrical generators, cell sites);
  3. Track reading is a feature common to GPS receivers today. It records the route of the survey as points that can also be downloaded into the computer. Turn this feature on whenever available. Clear track readings in the receiver whenever starting a new day for survey but before doing so, make sure it is already downloaded and saved in a computer.
    Take note that track readings (called ‘track logs’ in some models) is different from point readings (‘waypoints’ in some GPS models) to prevent any accidental erasesure of other data stored;
  4. Set-up the GPS using the above procedure whenever it is turned off (e.g. lunch break);
  5. Download the readings (points and tracks) to a computer after a day’s work.

    Next page contains a form that can be used for the data capturing in the field. In Chapter 6.04 the Excel file is found.


4.20 Attribute Data Preparation


4.20.01 Create an Attribute Data in Excel and Save in dBase Format

Excel comes with the basic MS office package and seems to be a quite familiar tool throughout the municipalities for spreadsheet work, thus Excel will be used for the attribute data entry and maintenance. Compared to other procedures it might not be the quickest method to acquire data for the GIS, however it is relatively simple and easy to be operated by the LGU staff and in computers found in the various offices involved in the introduction of the GIS in the LGU.

Later on when the staff become more familiar with standards and procedures of how to keep the Geographic Information updated and well maintained, and the GIS software becomes available elsewhere other than in the Planning Office, more sophisticated methods and more advanced software can be practiced.

Capture the Data
The procedure how to get the data is described in Chapter… ‘Search for data’

Organize the Data in Digital Format
In a basic GIS, it is recommended to use Excel for building the attribute data for non-spatial datasets. Two methods will be needed for the CLUP:

The first one will be used in the GIS and will be joined with the spatial data that must have a very basic design, as it will be saved in the dBase format in ArcView or other GIS Software. Details are discussed in the latter part of this section, or for more information about the dBase format, refer to Chapter…. Tutorials.

In brief the following must be followed:

  1. Only 8 alphanumeric in the column heads;
  2. No merging or text wrapping of the cells

The second one will be used in the narrative/documentation part of the CLUP. It is recommended that these tables (also) have a uniform layout and should have an appealing design to attract interest. This version of the table will also be used when graphs are prepared for further planning analysis.

There are many ways to create an attribute database to be merged with spatial data in a Geographic Information System. It can be built within the GIS software (e.g. ArcView). Access or other (attribute) database software can also be used. At this point, in order to consider the awareness level among the trainees, the availability of computers and software and the distribution of responsibilities for the data gathering and data maintenance in the LGU, a very basic and practical approach is proposed to be used for the guidelines.

Work with a Template
As mentioned in Chapter 5.01.01 ‘Quick Look’, metadata table templates are made available for data gathering of different planning sectors needed in the formulation of the CLUP. These templates are made possible to provide comprehensible and easy-to-understand procedures for organizing data.

The table templates will provide working resources for handling of data used for planning for the efficient provision of adequate and equitable services. However, there may be other indicators and data needed for efficient management and planning strategy, these templates are just a few examples that can be used for CLUP preparation.

Basic instructions are discussed in the ‘ReadMeFirst’ section of the Quick Look, thus the following procedures can also be pursued to be able to work on the attribute tables using the templates:

  1. Open the Excel software by clicking the Excel icon in the computer desktop (or from the Start button, click Programs, then click Microsoft Excel)
  2. In the CLUP file directory navigate to the ‘Metadata Tables/ 02_Socio Economic/ 03_Education‘ and open the specific sector table needed. (Example: SE20_Education: Capacity & Condition of School, Year???)

    The basic metadata table looks like this:

  3. Copy the row for the coding of the field names with the field description of the table, open a new Excel table and paste in cell 1A, which should look like this:

Now you have the working table where the data needed for the CLUP can be inputted by the planning unit or other data custodians for a certain planning sector.

Saving the attribute data in Excel can be done in two ways; the first one is by saving it as a Microsoft Excel Workbook with the prescribed file name under the specified sector folder you are working on, if the data are not yet complete. This Excel file would serve as the working table for the continuation of the data entry procedure.

Before saving to dBase format, please take note of the following:

  1. The encoded data should be formatted according to how the user wants it to be seen in dBase format. A number with decimal values (e.g. 3.141) but displayed as a whole number (e.g. 3), will be saved whole numbers in dBase. Make sure to set the cell properties according to the data type and format required before saving.
  2. Fields with blank entries will be converted as text data types.
  3. The Unique ID field is important for linking. Make sure that it is of the same data type as that of the Unique ID field in the attribute table of the spatial data. Ideally, unique ID should be a Number Data type. If the user will assign the Unique ID, it should be as a number data type. But if a structured ID is assigned (like the PSGC or PIN), text will be required in order to maintain the structure.

Once the data is completed, it can now be converted or saved in dBase format following some simple procedures:

  1. Click on the first cell with the field name (code only), without releasing the mouse click, drag the cursor to the last field column then down to the last row containing the data;
  2. Then from the ‘File’ menu click on ‘Save As…’ navigate to the GIS folder of the specific planning sector you are working on and the same file name as recommended in the metadata ‘Instructions’ can be used;
  3. In the ‘Save as Type…’ search for the ‘DBF 4 (dBASE IV)’ format, then click Save.

Work Without a Template
For planners or data custodians who are not able to have the table templates, creating attribute tables in Excel is as easy as following some simple procedures:

  1. On a new Excel spreadsheet, click on cell A1 so that there will be a thick frame around the cell space. The cell is now active for data entry.
  2. Type ‘ID’, it is a specific and unique identification number given to each data or information. It will be the linking agent to the spatial information found in the table attached to the location (of a school for example), which has been organized in ArcView or any other GIS Software.
  3. Move to the next cell on the right (cell B1), and type ‘NAME’.
  4. Continue to insert the codes for the succeeding column heads needed for the table. The reason for the abbreviated coding is that the heading of the column has to be set to not more than 8 digits in order to be accepted by ArcView and other GIS Software.

The result of creating the field names for the columns where the data will be inserted should look like this:

Saving the table follows the same procedures mentioned above.

Remember the following when creating a table in Excel to be used in ArcView or any other GIS Software available:

  1. Always start in the upper corner of the Excel worksheet (cell A1);
  2. Use a maximum of 8 digits/letters for the field names or code;
  3. Use a uniform spelling for the data (ex: name of a school);
  4. Organize files in an easy-to-find way in the specified file directories for fast and easy retrieval;
  5. Exit/close Excel when working in ArcView or any other GIS Software, and exit/close ArcView or other GIS software when working with the attribute table in Excel.

For detailed and step-by-step procedures on saving attribute data in Excel and joining/linking it to ArcView or other GIS software tables, see Chapter 7.03.03.


4.20.02 Prepare Table and Graph with Information Value

It is important that the conventional tables that are needed for the CLUP preparation are prepared in a clear and concise way. It will also be useful that the content is shown with a comparative indicator. Adding color to the design will also bring out the essence of the information. Several tables found in Chapter 5 contain proposed designs in a template format that can be customized for the use of the LGU. Brief instructions are also/sometimes included to facilitate the application as shown in the example below.


4.21 Spatial Data Preparation

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4.21.01 An Example of Examining Map Accuracy

GIS technology has broadened our view of maps. Instead of being a static entity, a map is now a dynamic presentation of geographic data. The advantages are outstanding but there are also risks involved. In this case study, the importance of observing positional accuracy between the input data and the end product in form of a CLUP map is shown.

Sources of Data
In the preparation of the CLUP using GI Technology, secondary source data will be used when available. Sources and samples of these data are discussed in Chapter 4.17.01. The LGU planner makes use of data captured by a national agency (e.g. geologic map, soil map, erosion map, flooding map, etc.). More often than not, these data will be in a paper format though there could be some where digital files are available in JPEG (scanned or imported image of the map) or vector file. Some may have already been produced using modern methods (GPS, Aerial Photography, Satellite Imaging, Digital Processing, etc.), but majority of these have been produced manually. Scales vary and little is known about the accuracy when they were produced (little metadata is attached). Furthermore, the process of production, reproduction and use of these maps will also produce distortions or errors (e.g. crumpling, stretching, uneven surface or rotation during tracing or production). It is important that during request and acquisition, researchers should take the time to ask about the data. This will be critical in assessing the accuracy and limitations of the data being acquired. In Chapter 5, Metadata specifications are given on some of the data but a lot more needs to be done to assist the planner properly.

In order to be of use in a GIS, the source map must be transformed to a digital layer. In technical terms, the paper maps will need to be digitized. Scanning and georeferencing, which is discussed in Chapters 4.21.04 and 4.21.05, is the first step in digitizing where acceptance and accuracy should be observed with respect to those processes. The presence of errors within the source will be transferred into the digital form plus any errors that might have been incurred during reproduction of the source data, scanning and georeferencing process. The accuracy of the digital data will be limited to the accuracy of the secondary source and comparison will only be between secondary data sources. How to treat errors between primary and secondary sources will be taken up in a different chapter.

The accuracy of digitization is dependent on the accuracy of the source. The georeferencing operation and output digital file will never be more accurate than the source. We can only make these source data. The use of a more accurate source will be superseded when dealing with administrative boundaries that will be discussed later on. If the accuracy of a secondary source cannot be determined, it should be compared to other secondary sources that have comparable features.

Care must also be taken when comparing data. Most secondary sources were done manually, and could have a lot of errors. It is possible that there are secondary sources that have been produced digitally like orthophotos and GPS surveys. These sources would have greater accuracy than all other secondary sources and the manner in which this data is treated, compared to manually made data, should be considered differently.

First step is to compare secondary datasets, which were manually prepared.

Use a 1:50,000 topographic map published by NAMRIA and digitize a portion of a road (yellow line) in the map retaining the thickness.

When the digitized road (yellow line) is overlaid on a Soil Map published by the Bureau of Soils and Wastewater Management (BSWM) with a scale of 1:100000, it will be apparent that there is a big discrepancy in size and direction of the same road on the other map (thick blue line).

Compare the scales. A 1:50000 map would be twice more accurate than a 1:100000 map. Consider plotting in these two scales using 0.5 mm technical pen. A 0.5 mm thick line on a 1:50000 map would have an equivalent ground distance of 25 m and on a 1:100000 map, an equivalent ground distance of 50 m. A 10-meter main road will be more accurately plotted on a larger scale map. Data taken from a larger scale map should be treated more accurately. In the case shown above, the road on the NAMRIA map would be 30 meters wide while the Soil Map displayed the road as 100 meters wide. Of course the NAMRIA 1:50000 topomap will have to be used for the road data if no other up to date source is available.

Now take a look at another aspect to consider when assessing accuracy.

In some cases, there is metadata on the map. Look at the dates on the map, both source preparation and production. Unless otherwise known, newer data should have more weight in accuracy than old data. Newer data means that new methods were used, more accurate survey equipment, better plotters and printers and more accurate computations. In this example, it says “map series 1:50,000 compiled in 1955” so it should be treated as more accurate for map data created prior to that year and less accurate for map data after that year. Even if the map was produced recently, the source data will still be the old.

This map is a slope map from BSWM. The base map used is a NAMRIA 1:50000 topomap with the Metadata used above. A portion of a road was digitized on the map.










Overlaying the road with the NAMRIA 1:50000 Topomap and zooming in on the area shows that the road will still be out of place. In this example, it is off approximately 65 meters in ground units.




This example shows maps that have the same source but with different outcomes. One can never be more accurate than the source (NAMRIA 1:50000 topomap) so adjustment for the road data will have to be made in conformance with the NAMRIA Map.

(example of areal photo will be added if photo is already available)

Lessons Learned
In searching for data, there will always be discrepancies found. It is only now that these discrepancies become apparent through the use of GIS. It should not discourage the user because as has been shown, there is not one good single source for data.

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4.21.02 Design Symbols with Information Value

Introduction
We envision information in order to reason about, communicate, document, and preserve that knowledge – activities nearly carried out on two-dimensional paper or computer screen. Escaping this ‘flatland’ and enriching the density of data displays are the essential tasks of information design – a progress of methods for enhancing density, complexity, dimensionality, and even sometimes beauty. A systematic approach to cartographic design is one of the tools and may prove to be very useful in the process of producing maps.

In GIS, lot of efforts goes to prepare data and make analysis but when it comes to map-making and design of the outcome not so much is done. But data and analyses do not speak for themselves, the result of your work must be designed so it is easy to read and comprehend.

The software provides you with a million opportunities of symbols and colors. However when you try it out you soon realize that you still are the one who will decide how it should look like.

Normally, graphic symbols can be more or less distinctive by manipulating with the following:

The Visual Variables

  1. Position
  2. Form
  3. Orientation
  4. Color
  5. Texture
  6. Value
  7. Size
  8. Checklist for Symbols

The Visual Variables
Seven types of variations are perceivable to the human eye, which graphically present information. These are called visual variables and are used for the construction of symbols. Through variations in the application of visual variables, symbols can become distinctive taking in consideration the three major categories of map symbols namely; point, line, and polygon (area) symbols. These visual variables are: position, form, orientation, color, texture, value, and size.

Position
Refers to X and Y location of the information, which determines its place on the map. This visual variable is always used in combination with one or more of the other visual variables.

Form
Refers to the form of individual elements with which the symbols are constructed.

Orientation
The direction in which symbols are placed. The attached figures show the use of this visual variable in the application to point, line, and polygon (area) symbols respectively. For point symbols, depending on the type of symbol used (e.g. square), variation in orientation is limited.

Color
This visual variable is the most powerful and most frequently used. Color can be described according to its three variable characteristics: hue, value and saturation.

Hue is the wavelength of a particular color such as red, orange, yellow, green, brown, blue, violet, etc.

Value is the amount of light reflected by a color; this reflectance value can be compared with the values of a grey scale.

Saturation is the purity or intensity of a color starting from a pure hue; the saturation is changed by adding neutral grey to it.

Texture
The variation in density of the graphic elements under constant value, i.e. with the same overall grey impression. Texture variation is applied to point, line and polygon (area) symbols.

Value
Refers to the values on a grey scale, ranging from the values white to black.

This gives an overall grey impression by using different shades or tones of grey ink or paint. Similar effects can be obtained by using line or dot screens. Attached figures illustrate the application of value to point line

Size
Refers to the dimensions of the individual elements with which the symbol is built up. Figures attached illustrate the application of the visual variable size of point, line and polygon (area) symbols.

To appreciate the difference between the size and value, if the dimensions are small such that the first impression is that of grey tone variation, the visual variable value is used. Only when the dimension is large and the eye will catch spontaneously and instantaneously the variations in the individual element sizes, will there be a proper application of the visual variable size.

Checklist for Symbols
For easy understanding of the (geo)graphic information such as a thematic map, it is important that to have a well thought-out strategy. The producer must know that the thematic map might be used together with other layers

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4.21.03 Recommended Palettes to use for CLUP Spatial Feature Object (First Draft Version)

4.21.04 Scanning

Introduction
On-Screen or Heads Up Digitizing is now the most popular method of digital conversion. It is recommended that Heads-up digitizing is used. First step to be performed in Heads-up digitizing is scanning.

Things to Know About Scanners
There are many scanners available today. For map digitizing, two features are to be considered.

Scan Size
For mapping, it is best to use large scale scanners or scanners that can scan big size documents in one scanning process. There are a variety of large scale scanners; some models offering both large scale printing and scanning are available in the market. The drawback is price. Large scale scanners are expensive. There are also A4 scanners today are very common and available at a cheap price which can scan slightly larger than an A4 size documents. A4 scanners will also come in two types, flatbed and paper feed. Use only flatbed if scanning for A4 scanners. A3 scanners are also available but comes at a higher price that A4 scanners but cheaper than large scale scanners.

Resolution
Second thing to consider is the resolution of the scanner. Usually it is represented in DPI or dots per inch. The more ‘dots per inch’, more details are captured thus a higher resolution. High resolution scanning would also result in a larger file size since it captures more details. And it also takes longer to scan in higher resolutions.

Resolution becomes a factor if we are to use maps with many details are to be captured.

Preparing Maps for Scanning
The accuracy of our digitize data will be dependent on how good the quality of our scanner. Thus it is important to remove any other errors that may cause discrepancies in the map.

Before scanning

  1. Inspect the map to be scanned. Straighten out any folds and crumples.
  2. Check map features if they are visible and clear. If not, find better a copy of the same map if available.
  3. Check for control points* within the map. A map should have at least 4 control points. The more available control points, the better.
    * Control points are points on the map where exact positional location can be derived or acquired.
  4. If there are no valid control points, do a research from other maps (digitized or paper) of the same area and identify the areas which can be used as their control points.

During scanning

  1. When using small scales scanners where it is not possible to cover the whole map in one scanning, make sure to cover all possible control points for each scan portion. Allow at least 15 to 30 % overlaps in between scan portion.
  2. If a scan portion would already have at least 4 valid control points, these portions can be individually georeference. If less than 4 is available, consolidate scan portions to (using an image processing software) to produce and image having at least 4 valid control points.
  3. Adjust scanning resolution accordingly if file size will be a consideration. For black and white or single colored map, small resolution can be used as long as the output is readable.
  4. Inspect the scanned image for clarity. All control points should be visible and all features required to be digitize can be clearly distinguishable.
  5. Some scanners can adjust they scanning process for better quality by consider the surface type of the material. Some maps may be made of glossy or covered in reflective material (like laminated maps) which will tend to make contrast very bright if the light sensitivity is not adjusted. Adjust appropriately if possible. Reflective surfaces should have a lower light sensitivity setting.
  6. Save in JPEG format uncompressed.


4.21.05 Georeferencing

Concept of Georeferencing
Georeferencing means that coordinates from a known system are assigned to an aerial photo or scanned paper map (both are raster data). Thus, the photo pixels get a geographic location. The procedure is carried out so that the raster datasets can be used with other spatial data.

If the raster data only consists of a scanned map or photo, attributive data needs to be assigned to the picture. A photo or scanned map is often manually digitized into vector format features.

What Are the Steps in Georeferencing?
The general steps for georeferencing a scanned map or (aerial) photograph are:

  1. Identifying the reference system of the source data (scanned map). In the Philippines, most of the available data as of now is based on the Luzon datum (the old system). For newer and future datasets produced by NAMRIA and DENR the PRS-92 is used.
  2. Import and opening of files in the GIS software. Open (and add to the work space) the source data and the other datasets/layers that to be used for the georeferencing.
  3. Identification of control points. Identify the quality of possible control points (at least four). They have to be identifiable in the source data and the coordinates should be estimated. Control points without clear coordinates must be clearly visible in both the source data and in the datasets. The coordinates must come from the reference datasets. Road intersections, buildings and other obvious landmarks can be used as control points.
  4. Rectification.

Things to Consider In Georeferencing
The georeferencing operation is a crucial step when transforming analogue data to digital data, as well as raster data to vector format data. The quality of the transformed data depends on both the type and properties of the scanned map (or photograph) as well as the vector datasets.

Control Points
Control points should be clearly seen in both the scanned map (photograph) and the reference data sets. One should aim at using the most accurately measured features in the reference data sets.

The approach should also be to distribute the control points evenly over the scanned map. Preferably, the control points should surround the features that are to be analyzed (and/or) digitized. The transformation itself is in general more accurate in the area that is delimited by the control points than the area outside of the control points.

Residual Errors on Transformation
A value that will indicate the accuracy of the map transformation is the RMS error. High values indicate that something is wrong with either the scanning or the assessed control points or the both.

If the error is particularly large for a control point, this should be removed and a new point could be assessed instead, hopefully with a better result. If the RMS still is very high and there are only four control points, consider re-scanning the map.

Rectification
The term rectification implies a permanent transformation; i.e. the scanned map will be saved as a new (raster) dataset which is georeferenced. It is always recommended to go ahead and rectify a good transformation. If the software asks for resolution or cell size of the rectified image, make use of the resolution of the original image.


4.21.06 Digitizing

Concept of Digitizing
The concept of digitizing refers to the capture of data from analogue maps into a digital format. The procedure includes, first, geographic data capture (e.g. the ‘actual’ extension of a road). Then, second, is attributive data capture (e.g. the name, width, classification or pavement of the road) which is mostly covered in other procedures. Needless to say, these different procedures very much depend on one another, and a coherent and carefully planned approach to the issues would be a good idea. Since current data often only occurs in analogue formats, constructing the GIS database will involve a lot of digitizing to input the data. Maintaining and updating the database will also involve digitizing.

It should be noted that digitizing during the construction phase of a GIS consumes much time and resources. When the LGU is confronted with a large number of analogue datasets to be digitized, it should consider two alternatives. First is to outsource the digitizing project to a professional company, and the second is to ensure that its personnel have proper training, equipment and enough time for the upcoming task of digitizing.

Table Digitizing
Through the set-up of a digitizing table to the GIS Software, digitizing is carried out straight from the paper map. Before starting to use the digitizer, the following steps must be followed.

  1. Set up the digitizing tablet and install the driver software.
  2. Configure the digitizer puck buttons.
  3. Ensure the quality of the paper map.
  4. Establish control points on the paper map.
  5. Register the paper map.

Table digitizing can be good if there are several large maps that can not be scanned in a normal scanner. However, the equipment is rather expensive and therefore the screen digitizing provides an option that is as good as table digitizing.

Screen Digitizing
Screen digitizing is carried out after a scanned map (or photograph) has been georeferenced (this corresponds to Steps 4 and 5 in the table digitizing set-up). In the ArcGIS software environment this kind of digitizing is referred to as creating new features while editing a layer. The layer is edited by digitizing the features on the underlying map or photograph.

What Are We Digitizing?
The most available data is analogue maps. Also, some aerial or satellite photographs can be acquired from some institutions.

  1. Old maps are digitized when the paper itself is “worn and torn” or the paper has shrunk in length but not in width (or the other way round). There is scarce (if any) documentation of the construction and the data of the map. The features range from measured to sketched (or even invented) and their topicality is very old;
  2. New maps are digitized on high-quality paper, good documentation and only on-ground-measured or photogrammetric measured features;
  3. Aerial photos are digitized, from which interpretation is done manually and separate different features;
  4. Satellite photos are digitized where simple remote sensing is done at the same time.

The features often constitute polygons or polylines. Point objects also occur, but very seldom.

Things to Consider When Digitizing

Detail Level/Zooming
Line features should be digitized along the middle of the source line. By using the zooming tool, one can verify that the digitized line follows closely to the middle.

The zooming level is a factor in how accurate digitizing is done. The type and extension of the feature that being digitized should decide the zooming level to be used. However, in order to be efficient one should keep a zooming rate that allows work without having to zoom in or out every ten seconds. In-zooming should be used where the digitizing feature has a complicated extension or border on other features. Large extent in-zooming should only be used when digitizing small features that are accurately represented on the source data, such as the demarcation marks of a piece of lot.

Snapping
Snapping is a valuable tool that helps the operator to avoid common digitizing errors. When using snapping, the new node of a line or polygon will be the same as an already existing node, provided that the cursor is within the snapping distance. Thus, polygons are closed if one clicks within the snapping distance of the polygon’s starting point, and, a new polygon adjacent to an existing polygon will have the same extension and nodes. However, it is important to be aware of the snapping settings and always check the digitized features afterwards to detect possible errors.

The snapping settings enable one to choose to what feature the snapping will be carried out. In ArcGIS choose the layer(s) that contain(s) those features and if snapping will be carried out to these features’ vertices, endpoints or edges. The ‘edge’ setting helps to snap the digitized feature, even if there is no node (vertex) in the proximity. This setting will be useful when a new polygon is digitized along an adjacent existing polygon.

Polygon snapping – A good example of a digitizing task where snapping should be used is in the digitizing of thematic maps (e.g. land coverage.) For example, the forest areas are first digitized as a certain feature class. Thereafter, the agricultural land areas are digitized as another feature class. The snapping settings should now be set to be carried out on vertex and edge to the forest feature class. Whenever an agricultural area is adjacent to a forest area, the operator will snap the agricultural circumference line along the forest circumference line. When it is time to move on with a new feature class, e.g. water bodies, the snapping settings will be set to include the agricultural feature class and so on.

However, if two polygons share a large extension of a circumference line, a better alternative to snapping could be to copy the first digitized polygon to the new feature class. Thereafter the new polygon is cut and the part that should not constitute the new feature class circumference is deleted. Then, digitizing (with appropriate snapping) is carried out on the rest of the polygon.

(Poly)line snapping – An example of snapping polylines is the digitizing of roads. Each road that intersects with another road is properly connected with the use of snapping.

End Points
For some polygon features the operator should not digitize the circumference line. Instead, the points to select are the marked corners. Examples of this include the lots on a cadastral map. The actual border consists of the straight line between two demarcation marks.

Common Digitizing Errors

Polygon Digitizing
There are some common errors that can easily be removed by using the software’s digitizing help tools. Errors like open polygons, surplus and deficits should not be a problem nowadays, since most software automatically finish the polygons in the starting point. “Loop polygons” can, however, still occur.

Polyline Digitizing
The risks with polyline digitizing are that surplus and deficits can occur. These errors are avoided by using the snapping tool.

The Accuracy of Digitized Features – An Important Part of the Metadata
In any GIS it is important to keep track of the quality, topicality and type of data capture.

The digitizing effort will never be better than the analogue source. For example, a barangay boundary identified as a one-millimeter thin line on an analogue map with the scale 1:10 000, already comes with an inaccuracy of 10(!) meters when the line is digitized. That is, providing that the georeferencing of the map was perfectly accomplished and that the boundary itself is perfectly presented in the analogue map, one still cannot apply a more accurate value than 10 meters on the digitized boundary. This is due to the uncertainty of having digitized the exact location on the 1 mm thin line.

This serves as an example of how important it is to be aware of the sources of errors in the whole process of converting data. Thus, it is recommended that a dataset’s metadata contains information about the original data (such as how it was measured, original scale, and its topicality) and how this was captured into digital format (e.g. through screen digitizing of a scanned georeferenced copy of the original map).


5. CLUP (Meta) Data

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5.01 Quick Look, Table Index and Table Coding

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5.02 Metadata for Basic Information

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5.03 Metadata for Socio-economic

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5.03.01 Housing

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5.03.02 Health

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5.03.03 Education

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5.03.04 Protection

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5.03.05 Religion

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5.03.06 Recreation

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5.03.07 Social Welfare

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5.03.08 Commerce

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5.03.09 Industry

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5.03.10 Tourism

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5.03.11 Agriculture

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5.03.12 Forestry

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5.03.13 Economy

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5.04 Metadata for Infrastructures

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5.04.01 Transport

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5.04.02 Water

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5.04.03 Sanitation

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5.04.04 Power Supply

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5.04.05 Communication

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5.04.06 Mining

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5.05 Metadata for Environment

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5.06 Metadata Land Management

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5.07 Metadata for Needs Analysis

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5.08 Metadata for Project Monitoring

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5.09 Metadata for Local Government Units

Local Government Units
Region - A sub-national administrative unit comprising of several provinces having more or less homogenous characteristics, such as ethnic origin of inhabitants, dialect spoken, agricultural produce, etc. MAP

Province - The largest unit in the political structure of the Philippines. It consists, in varying numbers, of municipalities and, in some cases, of component cities. Its functions and duties in relation to its components cities and municipalities are generally coordinative and supervisory.

City - There are three classes of cities in the Philippines: the highly urbanized, the independent component cities which are independent of the province, and the component cities which are part of the provinces where they are located and subject to their administrative supervision, (see City Classification)

Municipality - Is a political corporate body, which is endowed with the facilities of a municipal corporation, exercised by and through the municipal government in conformity with law. It is a subsidiary of the province, which consists of a number of barangays within its territorial boundaries, one of which is the seat government found at the town proper (poblacion).

Barangay - The smallest political unit into which cities and municipalities in the Philippines are divided. It is the basic unit of the Philippine political system. It consists of less than 1,000 inhabitants residing within the territorial limit of a city or municipality and administered by a set of elective officials, headed by a chairman (punong barangay).

Urban/Rural Classification
In the Philippines, "urban" areas fall under the following categories:

  1. In their entirety, all municipal jurisdictions which, whether designated chartered cities, provincial capital or not, have a population density of at least 1,000 persons per square kilometer: all barangays;
  2. Poblaciones or central districts of municipalities and cities, which have a population density of at person’s square kilometer;
  3. Poblaciones or central districts not included in (1) and (2) regardless of the population size which following:
    1. Street pattern or network of streets in either parallel or right angel orientation;
    2. At least six establishments (commercial, manufacturing, recreational and/or personal services);
    3. At least three of the following:
      1. a town hall, church or chapel with religious service at least once a month;
      2. a public plaza, park or cemetery;
      3. a market place, or building, where trading activities are carried on at least;
      4. a public building, like a school, hospital, puericulture and health center or library.
  4. Barangays having at least 1,000 inhabitants, which meet the conditions, set forth in (3) above and where the occupation of the inhabitants is predominantly non-farming or fishing.

Rural Areas - All poblaciones or central districts and all barrios that do not meet the requirements for classification of urban.

City Classification
Highly Urbanized Cities - Cities with a minimum population of two hundred thousand (200,000) inhabitants, as certified by the National Statistics Office, and with the latest annual income of at least fifty Million Pesos (P50,000,000.00) based on 1991 constant prices, as certified by the city treasurer.

Independent Component Cities - Cities whose charters prohibit their voters from voting for provincial elective officials. Independent component cities shall be independent of the province.

Component Cities - Cities, which do not meet the above requirements, shall be considered components cities of the province in which they are geographically located. If a component city is located within the boundaries of two (2) or more provinces, such city shall be considered a component of the province, which it used to be a municipality.

Income Classification for Provinces, Cities and Municipalities
(Based on Department of Finance Department Order No.32-01
Effective November 20, 2001)

Provinces

ClassAverage Annual Income
(For The last 3 calendar years)
First P 250 M or more
Second P 170M or more but less than P 255 M
Third P 120M or more but less than P 170 M
Fourth P 70 M or more but less than P 120M
Fifth P 35 M or more but less than P 70 M
Sixth Below P 35 M

Cities

Class Average Annual Income
(For The last 3 calendar years)
Special Per Presidential Decree No. 465
First P 250M or more
Second P 155 M or more but less than P 250 M
Third P 100 M or more but less than P 155M
Fourth P 70 M or more but less than P 100 M
Fifth P 35 M or more but less than P 70M
Sixth Below P 35 M

Useful information that is found in the Toolbox:

http://www.nscb.gov.ph/activatestats/psqc/listcity.asp City classes, etc
http://www.nscb.gov.ph/activatestats/psqc/listmun.asp Municipal classes, etc

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5.09.01 Structure of the Philippine Standard Geographic Code (PSGC)

Inter-Level Codes

  1. Region Code – This is a two-digit code number that identifies a specific region. It ranges from 01 to 99. Generally, the Region Code corresponds to the Region number (e.g., Region Code 01 refers to Region 1, 02 refers to Region 2, etc.)

  2. Province Code – This is a two-digit code number that identifies the province. It ranges from 01 to 99, generally defining the relative alphabetic sequence of all provinces in the country except those created after 1977 which were added to the list following the updating procedures in Section 2.2.2. A Province Code is independent from a Region Code. This means that even if the province is transferred to another region, its Province Code remains the same.

  3. Municipality Code – This is a two-digit code that generally defines the relative alphabetical sequence of the municipalities within the province. It ranges from 01 to 99. Municipality Code 01 means it is the first municipality in alphabetical sequence within that province. The Municipality Code is dependent upon the Province Code to fully establish the identity of municipality. This two-digit code is used to identify the municipalities, cities or municipal districts in a particular province. In the case of the first regional district (City of Manila) of Metropolitan Manila Area (National Capital Region), the fourteen city districts of the City of Manila are treated as municipalities.

  4. Barangay Code – This is a three-digit code number which generally defines the relative alphabetical sequence of the barangays within the municipality. The code ranges from 001 to 999. Barangay Code 010 means it is the 10th barangay in alphabetical4 sequence within that municipality. The Barangay Code is dependent upon the Municipality Identifier to fully establish the identity of a given barangay.

Municipality Identifier
The Municipality Identifier is the core of the national standard geographic classification system. This is composed of the Province Code followed by the Municipality Code. The Municipality Identifier is a four-digit number that defines the identity of the municipality.

Illustration:
The municipality Identifier 7310. The first two-digits 73 is the Province Code for the province of Zamboanga del Sur. The last two-digits 10 is the Municipality Code. This means that it is the 10th municipality within the province of Zamboanga del Sur, which in this instance is Kabasalan. The Municipality Identifier 7310 would therefore define Kabasalan, Zamboanga del Sur.

Continuous addition of newly created barangays as a result of periodic updating resulted in the discontinuous alphabetic arrangement of barangays in the later portion of the list.

Municipality Code Dependent on Province Code
It will be noted from the above illustration that the Municipality Code only provides for the relative alphabetical sequence of the municipality within the province (e.g. 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.). By itself it is not sufficient to define the municipality. However, when the same is attached to the Province Code, it acquires a unique meaning. For the Municipality Identifier 7310, there is only one municipality within Zamboanga del Sur whose code is 10, and this is the municipality of Kabasalan. Hence, the Municipality Identifier (Province Code and Municipality Code) defines the unique identity of the Municipality.

Municipality Identifier Independent of Region Code
As has been pointed out, the Municipality Identifier not only identifies the municipality but also the province to which it belongs. An added feature of the Municipality Identifier is its independence from the Region Code. Regardless of the Region, the Municipality Identifier for Kabasalan will remain 7310 as long as it is part of Zamboanga del Sur.

Barangay Identifier
Illustration:
Barangay Identifier 7310001. The first four digits 7310 is the Municipality Identifier as fully explained in section 4.2. The last three digits 001 is the Barangay Code which refers to the first barangay within the municipality with Municipality Identifier 7310. Barangay Code 001, in this case, refers to Barangay Balongis. Thus, Barangay Identifier 7310001 means Barangay Balongis in Kabasalan, Zamboanga del Sur.

Barangay Code Dependent on Municipality Identifier. The Barangay Code only provides for the relative alphabetical sequence of the barangays in the municipality. Barangay Code 001 means it is the first barangay in the alphabetical sequence. By itself the Barangay Code is not sufficient to define the identity of the barangay. However, when the Barangay Code is attached to a Municipality Identifier, the result is a unique code which fully establishes the identity of the barangay. In Barangay Identifier 7310001 there is only one barangay in the entire Philippines with such code number, and that is Barangay Balongis in Kabasalan, Zamboanga del Sur.

Hierarchy of Recapitulation
(09) - 7310-001 : Barangay Identifier, with Region Code prefixed. This gives the details on the barangay level. By definition, the aggregate of all barangays in a municipality defines the municipality.

(09) - 7310 : Municipality Identifier, with Region Code prefixed. This gives the details on the municipality level. The aggregate of all municipalities defines the province.

0973 : Region and Province Code. This is the recapitulation of details by province, within each region.

Agency Unique Requirement
The Philippine Standard Geographic Code establishes standardization for the following: Region, Province, Municipality and Barangay. This however, does not preclude an agency from devising additional sub-categorization on geographic area units geared purely to its operational functions to meet its unique requirements.

A good case in point here is the unique requirement of National Statistics Office (NSO) in statistical surveying functions. In addition to the Region, Province, Municipality and Barangay Code, it needs additional coding for the Enumeration District (ED) as well as rural and urban classification. This is purely a unique requirement of the NSO to monitor and enhance its survey operations. Other agencies may have similar unique requirements.

In order to effect standardization and at the same time be responsive to the unique operational requirements of an agency, the following guidance was established:

  1. The whole string of digits representing the Region Code, the Province Code, the Municipality Code, and the Barangay Code shall remain standardized for all agencies in the government. The sequence in the code structure must be maintained as standardized.

  2. Any other unique code that may be devised by an agency could be added to the basic standard geographic code, provided the structure of the standard geographic code is not altered.

  3. he concerned agency should inform the Code Administrator of the PSGC of any unique code application.

Source: www.nscb.gov.ph

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5.10 Metadata for Spatial Data

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5.10.01 AA Paper Format Dimension

Fig. 1. Dimension of AA paper sizes with respect to each other.Fig. 1. Dimension of AA paper sizes with respect to each other.

The ISO A Series paper size is widely used all over the world today. We know them as paper sizes like A4 and A3 which are common and the larger sizes A2, A1 and A0. It is base on the International Standards Organization ISO 216

ISO 216 defines the A series of paper sizes based on these simple principles:

  1. The height divided by the width of all formats is the square root of two (1.4142).
  2. Format A0 has an area of one square meter.
  3. Format A3 is A2 cut into two equal pieces. In other words, the height of A3 is the width of A2 and the width of A3 is half the height of A2.

  4. All smaller A series formats are defined in the same way. If you cut format An parallel to its shorter side into two equal pieces of paper, these will have format A(n+1).

The standardized height and width of the paper formats is a rounded number of millimeters.

HOW TO FOLD AN A3 MAP INTO AN A4 REPORT SIZE MAP

Fig. 2. Example of an A3 map with suggested dimensions.Fig. 2. Example of an A3 map with suggested dimensions.

Dimensions above be converted into the next bigger paper size (A2) by multiplying the value by the square root of 2 (1.4142). Ex. The right margin of 1.25 cm in A3 will be 1.76 cm in A2 (1.25 cm X 1.4142).

Step 1. Fold the paper map (A3) into two (2) equal halves as shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3Fig. 3

Step 2. Fold the other half, containing the North Arrow, Scale, Legend, etc. in two (2) equal halves, as shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4Fig. 4

Fig. 5. A folded version of an A3 size paper map into an A4 report size map.Fig. 5. A folded version of an A3 size paper map into an A4 report size map.

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5.10.02 Map Scales Projection

Introduction
One of the activities of the Inter-Agency Task Force on Geographic Information (IATFGI) is to develop and recommend minimum standards for Geographic Information System interchange, and standard methodologies and concepts and definition for universal adoption by all government agencies in the generation of geographic information.

The function/task of the IATFGI and its Technical Working Group are to come up with standards or at least an agreement with member agencies on the scales of maps and the type of map projection to be used by each agency.

It was observed that when integrating and overlaying data from maps of different agencies, it was always a difficulty doing spatial analysis since most of the maps used are of different scales much more if the maps produced were compiled using different projections.

With the availability of computer techniques to handle reducing and enlarging of maps, the above is not much of a problem these days. However, paper continues to play a role in modern mapmaking. Mapping institutions that have evolved from paper-based- to digital-based mapping face a dual problem; how to create new maps electronically, and how to convert existing maps into compatible electronic formats. Also, map related projects may involve a mixture of new electronic data as well as legacy data stored on paper, forcing the user to put together mapped information from different sources.

Recommended Solution
It is the intention of IATFGI to come up with agreed map scales to ease up overlaying procedures. The following table shows the map scales to be used both for central and local government as well as the private sector:

Table 0

The scale of the map should permit representation of needed details with reasonable precision. The size or positioning of the smallest detail should fall within the allowable accuracy of the map (i.e. 0.2 mm for X and Y/planimetric coordinates at map scale at the smallest and thinnest line that can be plotted in the map, and 1/3 the contour interval in Z/elevation coordinates). As an example, a 1:10,000 map has an accuracy of 2.00 meters in X and Y ground coordinates and 3.00 meters in elevation (if contour interval is 10.00 meters). This means that a feature may have an allowable error of 2 meters in X and Y and 3 meters in Z from its exact position.

Table 1

Map Projection
In the production of the maps, the Transverse Mercator Projection shall be used except for maps at scales 1:1,500,000 which is in a Conical Projection where the reference latitude will be the equator (lat 0 ).

The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection shall be used for all maps with scales smaller and equal to 1:10,000.

To abide with the DENR Administrative Order No. 72-1 Series of 1990, a pair of Philippine Transverse Mercator (PTM) lines shall be shown on topographic maps to aid local surveyors and other users familiar with the use of the Philippines. Only the maps of PALAWAN at scales 1:250,000 shall use Zone 50 (117), the rest will be Zone 51 (123).

Table 2

For maps on scales larger than 1:10,000, this system (PPCS) shall remain to be used. These maps shall follow the specifications stated in the Manual for Land Surveys in the Philippines (Lands Administrative Order No. 4 dated 3 July 1980).

Table 3

In cases where it cannot be ascertain to which zone 1he map is to be projected or the area traverses two zones, then as a rule of thumb, the zone with the largest area will be the deciding or dominant zone is to be used.

The assignment of provinces into the map projection zones of the PPCS shall be as follows:




Exercises
Compare recommendations with actual situation of the respective LGU
Implication of the zone system for respective LGU

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5.10.03 Satellites Earth Observation





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6. Templates

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7. Training

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7.01 GIS Training, Agenda and Course Documentation

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7.01.02

Test


7.02 Training Matrix

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7.03 Tutorials on Some GIS Operations

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7.03.01 Georeferencing Tutorial

7.03.02 How To Create Shapefiles

    In this exercise we will create a new shapefile from scratch. This new shapefile will be joined with attribute data in tutorial 7.03.03

Getting started

  1. Start ArcMap. A window with three alternatives appears. (See image below.) Choose A new empty map. Click OK.

  2. Start ArcCatalog by clicking on the ArcCatalog button in the toolbar. The ArcCatalog window appears.

  3. Navigate to the C:\CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\01_SE\ folder in the catalog tree.

    Creating New Shapefile

  4. From the ArcCatalog menu bar, select File > New > Shapefile… (see image below).

  5. The Create New Shapefile window appears (see image below). In the Name field type ‘SE20_SchCap08’. Choose Point in the Feature Type dropdown list .

  6. Click Edit to define the shapefile’s coordinate system. The Properties for Spatial Reference window opens.

  7. Click Select. The Browse for Coordinate System window appears. Navigate to the Geographic Coordinate System/Asia/ folder. Select Luzon 1911.prj, click Add. Back in the Properties for Spatial Reference window, click Apply, then OK.

    When the Properties for Spatial Reference window first opened, three alternatives were given: Select; Import; New. A smooth way to set the coordinate systems is to use the Import alternative. You will browse to an already existing shape-file and copy its spatial properties to the new shapefile. In the best case scenario a CLUP dataset collection will only consist of dataset in the same coordinate system and the Import alternative will be very easy. In other cases you must of course be aware of and choose a shapefile with the correct spatial settings.

  8. Click OK. The new shapefile is created.

    Adding Field to the Shapefile

  9. We will later join attribute data to this shapefile. In order to prepare for this we need to create an index column – or field - that corresponds to the template found in Chapter 5. Right-click on the shapefile in the catalog tree, then select Properties. The Shapefile Properties window appears.

  10. Go to the Fields tab, see image below. Click on an empty row in the Field Name column and type ‘SCH_ID’ as the name of the new field. Select Long Integer from the Data Type drop list. In the Length field under Field Properties type 10. Now click Apply and then OK.

    You are done with this exercise.


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7.03.03 Create Attribute Table in Excel and Join in the GIS Software

In this exercise we will build up an attribute table for a planning subject and make necessary arrangements so the data can be linked to the features of the subject on the map in the GIS software.

ARRANGING THE DATA

Keywords: Excel, dBASE

Software: Excel, ArcGIS 8/9.x

Preconditions: Folder directories for the CLUP has been created previously; see 3.04.02 Data Preparation for more information. The data to be encoded has been gathered from the field. Spatial layers needed have been prepared beforehand.

The building up of the attribute data will be done in Excel.

The ‘Instructions’ sheet in Quick Look gives you information what to consider at data gathering and where to find the templates you need for the specific table.

From these instructions this table IS01 is defined as a Key table meaning that all LGU’s should prepare it for analysis purposes in the CLUP. However, some of the columns (“A”) might have a light yellow colored background (meaning the data is “Optional”) as opposed to the light green colored columns (it is a “Required” data). In the example below which describes segments in a road network, the data for ‘width’ (of the road) column may not be required if it is very hard to get. Each column has corresponding codes (“B”) for the Field Names.

The data to be encoded for the respective road segment is (hopefully) prepared by the caretaker of the municipal road management (the Engineering Department). He/she is the custodian of the attribute data and in this case he/she has managed to get the data. On the other hand, if in case the road has no individual name, that column is blank. So the populated dataset to start from will look something like this:

The data to be encoded for the respective road segment is (hopefully) prepared by the caretaker of the municipal road management (the Engineering Department). He/she is the custodian of the attribute data and in this case he/she has managed to get the data. On the other hand, if in case the road has no individual name, that column is blank. So the populated dataset to start from will look something like this:

For example, you can see that the road segment with ID 101 is a municipal road, has a gravel surface and is in a poor condition.

The next step is to convert the file to dBase format. Unfortunately dBase is an old MS Dos format which means that the dataset must be very ‘clean and appropriate’ to be used.

In the example below the data has been encoded already digitally so there is an opportunity to start from that. If the data is still in a paper format, it is recommended to use the GIS Table to encode the data and save it in dBase format. (How to will be explained later).

Highlight and copy the cells that should be found in the dBase file:

Open a new Excel file and paste in cell A1. Save the file with a filename in the specific CLUP GIS folder as recommended in the Quick Look.

Before saving the file in dBase format, some pointers are needed to be remembered:

The field name of each column must be in a single cell dBase format. Highlight the column head and do procedures A, B and C to format the field name:

Only one sheet is allowed in dBase. Remove sheet 2 by right clicking on the flip and choosing delete. Do the same procedure with sheet 3:

Highlight the cells with the information, then from the File menu select Save As…, navigate to the CLUP directory, (1) locate the specific sector you are working on and into the GIS folder. (2) In the Save as type select dBase4 format and (3) type the name of the file preferably the same as the Excel file:

Click Save:

A Dialogue box will appear, informing you to save only the active sheet.

Click OK:

Another Dialogue box will appear asking if you want to keep the workbook in its existing format.

Click exit (1) and Yes (2)

A Dialog box will appear asking if you want to save changes you made to the file.
Click YES.

Again the Dialog box informing you that the only one to be saved is the active sheet will appear.

Click OK again.

Then a another Dialog box informing you that the file may contain features that are not compatible with DBF 4 (dBASE IV) and asking if you want to keep the workbook in that format.

Just click YES.

Please remember to have Excel closed when you work with ArcView.
If you want to revise a .dbf file you should close ArcView before you open Excel.
Now it is time to join the attribute data with the shape file you have made for the road:
Open ArcView and open the project you were working on before. Right click on the road layer and select ‘Join…’:

  1. Id’ was the column head or field name where you encoded the unique IDs for the road segments.

  2. IS01_RdYr’ is the name of the dBase table you have prepared that contains the attribute information of the road segments.

  3. RD_ID’ is the field name of the column where the unique ID has been encoded.

  4. Click OK

Let’s see how the table looks like by opening the Attribute Table.

The columns from the dbf table have been integrated into the road segment table:

To make it easier to read we need to hide some columns and give proper alias. Right click on the file name and select ‘Properties…’:

Select Field. Select name by name (A), un tic if it should not be visible (B), if it will be kept visible type an alias in the box (C) and click OK (D):

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7.03.04 Buffering Tutorial

Disclaimer: The objective of this tutorial is to get familiar with the GIS software. The tutorial only covers some parts that are being done In a real analysis. The results that are being displayed in the tutorial can’t be compared with the results a real analysis would generate.

Introduction

The objectives of this exercise are to arrange layers properly and to use the buffer wizard to create a buffer. The scenario is to prepare an analysis based on right of way for existing and planned electrical transmission lines and try to identify eventual conflicts to existing land-use, urban areas in particular.

1 Getting started
1.1 Open ArcMap. Select the A New empty map option.
1.2Click on to add the IS17_Tl2007 (transmission lines) layer to the work space. It is found in C:/ CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA/02_IS/ folder. Click Add.

Also add some base map features from the C:/ CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA/00_BM/ folder such as barangays_bndry, Lake and Roads. To identify conflicts with residential/urban areas we need to add a land use layer. Add the LM01_ExiLu2007 layer from the /04_LM/ folder.

1.3 Rename the IS17_TI2007 layer to Transmission Lines. To do this, right-click on the layer in the table of content, select Properties. The Layer Properties window opens. Go to the General tab and type the new name in the Layer name field. (See image below.) Click OK. (You can also click on the layer in the table of content and type the new layer in the table of content without opening the Layer Properties window.)

1.4 Also rename LM01_ExiLu2007 to ‘Land use’ and barangays_bndry to ‘Barangay boundaries’. (Repeat step 1.3 on these layers.)
1.5In the menu bar click File > Save As… to save a map document as buffering_v1 in /CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA/06_Workfolder/. Don’t forget to save your progress now and then throughout the exercise.
2 Applying Symbology
2.1First of all arrange the layers in the following order (from top to bottom): Transmission lines, Roads, Barangay boundaries, Land use and Lake. Simply drag the layers in the table of content so that they are positioned in the correct order.
2.2Open the Layer Properties window (refer to step 1.3 if you forgot how to do this) and go to the Symbology tab for the Transmission Lines layer.
See image below. At the left, click on Categories and click Unique values, many fields. Then choose TL_VOLT from the first Value Fields list menu and TL_NAME from the second Value Fields list menu. Click the Add All Values button.

2.3Uncheck the symbol for . Place the cursor over the words TL_VOLT, TL_NM in the Label-column. Click once. You can now edit the label to ‘Voltage (kV):’. In the same way rename the label for 230, Planned 2008 to ‘230 (planned’). Delete the comma after 69, 230 and 500. Click Apply.
2.4Now right-click on 500 (in the Value column), select Properties for selected Symbol(s). The Symbol Selector window will open. (see image below). Click More symbols and select Forestry. To the left, search and select the T23 Pipeline 2 symbol. Choose width 9,00. Click OK.

2.5(Back in the Layer Properties window, click Apply if you want to update the map.) Repeat step 2.4 on the other categories (other voltage). Use the same symbol but the size ‘7,00’ for 230 and 230 (Planned) and size ‘5,00’ for 69. Click Apply.
2.6To be able to separate the planned distribution lines from the already existing ones, open the Symbol Selector window for 230 (Planned) once more. Click Properties. The Symbol Property Editor window appears. In the Layers box at bottom-left, select the line symbol (see image below).

2.7Select Simple Line Symbol from the Type list menu. The settings in the window changes to Simple line. From the Style list menu, select Dotted, as seen in the image below.

2.8Click OK and OK again.
2.9Now go to the Symbology tab in the Layer Properties window for the Land Use layer. Click Import. The Import Symbology window opens. Select the first option "…from a layer file” and browse for landUse.lyr (found in /LM_04/ folder and click Add. Click OK in the Import Symbology window. The Import Symbology Matching Dialog window opens. Select ELU_TP from the Value Field list menu. Click OK.

If this worked well the Symbology tab should now look like in the image below. If it didn’t work out, follow the procedure as in step 2.2 but select only Unique values and assign symbols based on the ELU_TP field (refer to 4.21.03 for proper color coding).

2.10As you can see in the map, and from the order of the layers in the table of content, the Barangay boundaries layer covers the Land use layer (the nice palette in the land use layer cannot be seen in the map). Now, assign proper symbology for the Barangay boundaries layer – that is no fill-color (select No color and Boundary, neighborhood as outline symbol (click Properties in the Symbol Selector window and Outline in the Symbol Selector Editor window).

A tip! Since you don’t need to categorize the symbology as in step 2.2-4 here, use this shortcut: Simply double-click on the symbol next to the layer’s name in the table of content, and the Symbol Selector window will appear right away. Assign the proper symbology from here.

If you add a polygon layer such as land use/coverage or built-up areas, this should be at the bottom. Then, polyline layers such as roads and rivers can be displayed atop on the polygon layer. This is also the reason why we assigned no fill-color to the Barangay boundary layer – the boundaries will now be shown atop of the other layers, whereas the barangays’ areas (or more correct: surfaces) will be completely transparent.

2.11Verify that your layers are in a correct order (so that all features are displayed properly) and also have proper symbology. To change the order, simply drag each layer up or down in the table of content. See image below.

3 Creating a Buffer

From the map we can see that the proposed new power line will cross through urban areas and it could be interesting to analyze the negative impact on existing urban settlements. The next step is therefore to do the buffering. Creating a buffer provides a visual representation on the map of the area within a certain distance of one or more features. We can also use the buffer to select features in other layers that fall within the buffered area..

3.1In the menu bar click Tools > Customize. The Customize window opens (see image below). Go to the Commands tab and select Tools in the Categories box at the left. Click the Buffer Wizard icon in the Commands box to the right. Drag the icon and drop it in the Toolbar. Click Close.

3.2Now click the Bufferd Wizard icon that you just dropped in the toolbar (). The Buffer wizard window appears (see image below). Select The features of a layer. In the list menu below, select Transmission Lines. Click Next. [/b].

3.3Refer to the image below. Select At a specified distance and type the distance. The buffer for a 500 kV transmission line is 65 m.
Select Meters from the Distance units arelist menu. Click Next.

3.4Refer to the image below: Select Yes to Dissolve barriers between.
Select In a new layer. Specify output shapefile or feature class. Click on to define the output folder /CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA/06_Workfolder/ and type the filename ‘Transmission_lines_buffer_65m’. Click SavE then Finish.

3.5Change symbology on the Transmission_lines_buffer_65m layer to a hatching symbol. You are now done with the exercise. The result will look something like this (zoomed in a bit where the planned transmission line starts):

It seems that the alignment of the will cause impact on substantial parts of the urban settlements. If an aerial photo or a cadastre dataset would have been available it would have been quite easy to point out what lots/parcels that will be affected. Maybe it is a good idea to try an alternative route for the new transmission line?

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7.03.05 Tutorial on Creating Population Density Map

7.04 CLUP Basemap Template Tutorial

  Disclaimer

The objective of this tutorial is to get familiar with the GIS software. The tutorial only covers some parts that are being done In a real analysis. The results that are being displayed in the tutorial can’t be compared with the results a real analysis would generate.

  Introduction

In this exercise we will use a template to make a base map. The main purpose for the exercise is to get familiar with the tools to modify a template and populate it with data and proper accessories.
You can easily create your own template to use for your maps. It is also possible to edit an already existing template to your preferences. In this exercise, however, we will use the template prepared in the Cookbook. This template is set up for a landscape A3 print out map

By the term CLUP Basemap we understand a map for background use. When using GIS, the base map features are put under other layers that are important for a specific analysis. We use the base map (features) to make it easy for the map user to locate sites and zones according to streets, rivers, districts, etc.

1 Getting started
1.1 Open ArcMap. A popup window with three options will appear (see image below). The options are:
A new empty map
A template
An existing map

1.2 Choose A template. Then click OK.
1.3 Browse and select Basemap_Template(A3).mxt, then click Add, see image below. The file is found in the folder \CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\00_BI)\ .

1.4 The template will now appear in your workspace. Check what will happen by changing from Layout View to Data View. You can do this either by selecting View > Data View from the menu bar or by using the Data View or Layout View buttons, found at the bottom. During this tutorial you will be working in the Layout View when not otherwise noted. Change back to the Layout View.
2 Adding Data
2.1 Click on the add data button and browse for and select the following base map features:
barangay_bndry (barangay boundaries)
municipal_bndry (municipal boundaries)
Lake
Roads
Rivers

These shapefiles are found in this folder: CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\00_BI)\. Click on Add. Now the map will appear as in the image below:

3 Saving a Map Document
3.1 In the menu bar, select File > Save As… Browse to CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA/ . Name the file basemap_v1 and make sure that the file type is ArcMap Documents. Click on Save. Don’t forget to save your progress now and then throughout the exercise.
4 Applying Symbology and Changing Names to Layers
 
It’s a very good idea that already in this step assign proper symbology to the layers that will constitute the base map. In our case, we won’t use any land cover features (e.g. land use). Due to this, there’s a risk that the map becomes too black-and-white and dull. By assigning a light color to the municipal_bndry, the areas belonging to the municipality will clearly be visible and separated from those belonging to adjacent municipalities.

It’s also a good idea to rename the default layer names (that correspond to the actual file names) to more comprehensible names.

4.1 In the table of Content, right-click on the municipal_bndry layer then select Properties. The Layer Properties window appears.
4.2 Go to the General tab. Rename municipal_bndry to ‘Municipal Boundary’. Click Apply.
4.3 Now go to the Symbology tab. Click on ---- and the Symbol Selector window appears.
4.4 Refer to the image below. In the Symbol Selector window, click on the small arrow next to Fill Color. A list box containing some colors appears (to the right in the image below). Select No Color (found at the top in the list box).

4.5 Now, still in the Symbol Selector window, click Properties. The Symbol Property Editor window appears.
4.6 Set the Outline width to 1.00. Now click Outline.
4.7 Select the Boundary, City symbol in the left of the window. (If you don’t find it, click More Symbols and select the ESRI library). Choose a dark-grey color. Click OK, then OK again.
4.8 Now, open the Layer Properties window for the Roads layer. Go to the Symbology tab.
4.9 Refer to the image below. In the Layer Properties window, click on Categories to the left and select Unique values . Select RD_CL From the Value Field list menu. Click Add All Values .

4.10 You can still refer to the image (now above). Uncheck the box in the symbol column for . Place the cursor in the Label column and delete RD_CL and rename municipal to ‘Municipal road’ and provincia to ‘Provincial road’. Click Apply. Note the changes on road symbology in the table of content.
4.11 Still in the Symbology tab of the Layer Properties window, double-click on the colored line (the actual symbol) in the symbol column in the municipal row. The Symbol Selector window opens. Select the Major Road symbol. Click OK.
4.12 Repeat step 4.11 on provincial road and select the Highway symbol.
4.13 Place the provincial road on top of the municipal road by using the arrows at the right in the Layer Properties window. Click OK.
4.14 The last thing is to assign to the symbology Barangay Layer. To do this, open the Layer Properties window for the Barangays_bndry layer. (First go to the General tab to rename the layer to ‘Barangays’.) Then go to the Symbology tab.
4.15 Follow same procedure in steps 4.4 to 4.6 but this time choose Boundary, Military Installation when selecting the outline symbol for the Barangay Boundary in step 4.6.
4.16Click Apply and OK. As you can see the Municipal boundary is not seen very well. In the list of content, arrange the layers in the following order by dragging and dropping the layers: Municipal boundary, Roads, Rivers, Lake and Barangays.
5 Setting Data Frame Properties
 
Keep in mind that a printed map must have a logical and even scale (e.g. 1:10,000; 1:25,000; 1:50,000; 1:100,000), that is a scale that makes sense and is easy to use for calculation of real-world distances. When using any template you should find such a scale that will make the map features fill the data frame as much as possible.

In our A3 template, the whole municipality will fit in a scale of 1:50,000. We don’t want to show the whole lake in the map.

5.1 Set the map scale to 1:50,000 by using the map scale selector tool, found in the toolbar.
5.2 Right-click on the Data Frame in the table of content (a top of all layers) and select Properties. The Data Frame Properties window will appear. This window contains several tags. Go to the Data Frame tab, see image below.

5.3 Select Fixed scale and verify that this is 1:50,000. Click Apply then OK. Note that the map scale selector tool and the “normal” zooming tools in the toolbar now have been disabled. Instead, you will be served by the Layout toolbar zooming tools, see image below. (If the Layout toolbar hasn’t appeared on your workspace, get it by clicking View > Toolbars > Layout. You can drag and drop it to a suitable place in the workspace.)
5.4 Use the Pan tool in the normal toolbar () to move the map to its best position in the data frame.
The Layout Pan tool () will move the whole template. The map should now look something like this:

6 Adding and Changing Text
6.1 Use the Select Elements tool (). Click on the text string that reads ‘MUNICIPALITY OF’. It should now appear in a box. This means that the text is selected. Either double-click or right-click and choose Properties. The Properties window will appear, see image below.

6.2 Make sure that you are in the Text tab. Type ‘MUNICIPALITY OF LERUAL’, then click Apply.
 
As you can see in the Properties Window, there are two tabs, Text and Size and Position. There are here a lot of text properties that can be adjusted to your personal preferences. Feel free to do that. Only a reminder! One advantage with using a template is that different maps get a similar layout. If you change a lot of properties, you better also save a new template file so that your other maps can have the same appearance.

6.3 Repeat step 6 and 7 to change the appropriate text into ‘PROVINCE OF CANTANGAS’ and ‘Region IV C'.
6.4 Go to the menu bar. Select Insert > Text. A text box appears in the data frame. Type ‘BASE MAP’, then drag it with the mouse and place it below the text stating “Legend” (we will remove this later). Make it bigger by opening the Properties window for this text. Click Change Symbol… in the Text tab and choose text size 24. Click OK then OK again. The result should be something like below:

7 Inserting map elements
 
In the Insert menu you have some options to insert different map elements. (See image below.) In this exercise we will insert a scale bar, a north arrow and a legend. All elements are easy to drag and drop wherever you want to place them in the map. It is also possible to resize and reform them by selecting a corner of an element and dragging it. Also, you can use the Properties window for each element to change it according to your preferences.


8 Inserting Scale Bar
8.1 Select Insert > Scale Bar. The Scale Bar Selector window appears. See image below.

8.2 Choose one of the scale bar types (for example scale line 1).
8.3 Click on Properties. The Scale Line Properties window opens. Here you can choose and try to find what properties could be assigned for a nice-looking scale bar.

You will get a nice scale bar in the right information column of the template by using the settings below.

8.4 Go to the Scale and Unit tab. Select the following settings (also refer to the image below):
Scale:
Number of divisions: 3
Number of subdivisions: 2
When resizing: Adjust division value.
Units:
Division Units: Kilometers
Label Position: below bar

When you’re done with this click Apply.


8.5 Go to the Numbers and Marks tab. Select the following settings in both the Numbers and the Marks section in the window (also refer to image below):

Frequency: divisions and first subdivisions.
Position: Above bar

When you’re done with this click Apply followed by OK and OK once more.


8.6 Drag the scale bar to a position similar to the one in the image below. Resize it so that you will have the marks on 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kilometers. You can go back and change settings by right-clicking on the scale bar and selecting Properties.

9 Inserting North Arrow
9.1 From the menu bar, select Insert > North Arrow… The North Arrow Selector window opens. Select one type and feel free to change some properties. Click OK.
9.2 Drag the north arrow and place it in a similar position as shown in the image below. You can also resize it to your preferences.

10 Inserting Legend
 
You have probably already observed that a legend (together with scale text) has automatically been rendered by our template. This legend can be edited by clicking on the respective text box and dragging and dropping. You will in this step also try the alternative way to create a legend from scratch using the legend wizard. At the end of step 10 you can decide which legend you want to keep and thus delete the other one.

10.1 Now you will insert a legend. First make sure that the layers are named in a comprehensible way. (You should already have done this in step 4 above)
10.2 Select Insert > Legend… The Legend wizard appears (see image below).

10.3As default all the Map Layers (left) are automatically added to the Legend Items (right). Since we have decided to show each barangay with a separate color, we need to remove Barangays from Legend Items. Select Barangays and click on <. Sort the legend items in the following order by using the arrows (up/down) at the right:
Municipal boundary, Roads, Rivers, Lake. Click Next.
10.4 In this step of the wizard you can change some text properties. Size 16 and font Arial will work fine. Click Next.
10.5 In this step of the wizard you can edit the legend frame properties. No legend frame is however necessary. Click Next.
10.6 In this step of the wizard you can edit the legend items properties. The Patch fields refer to the size of the symbol (point, line or polygon). Click Next.
10.7 In this last step of the wizard you can edit spacing in the legend. You can choose to change the settings or use the default settings. Click Finish.
10.8 The legend is added to the map. Drag it and place it at a suitable place at the right (compare to image below). If you’re not satisfied with the appearance of the legend, you can easily edit each legend item by clicking on it. You can also delete the legend and run the wizard again from the beginning.

11 Adding and Editing Barangay Names in the Map
11.1 In the table of contents, right-click on the Barangays layer and choose Label Features. If you have the “correct” settings, the barangay names are added to the map and placed on their default positions. If not, don’t hesitate. We’ll take care of this very soon.
11.2 Open the Properties window for the layer Barangays layer. (Right-click on the layer in the table of content and choose Properties.) Select the Labels tab, see image below.

11.3 Make sure that the Label features in this layer box is selected. From the drop-down menu to the Label Field, select NAME (which is the column that contains barangay names). You might also want to change the text size to 11. Click Apply, then OK.
11.4 ArcMap places the labels automatically. You might have to improve the positions of the labels if they are overlapping each other or important features in the map. (As for example the Poblacion1-5 barangays). To be able to place labels manually, switch to the Data View (View > Data View)(refer to step 1.4 above if you forgot how). Right-click anywhere in the map and select Convert labels to annotations. A window with the same name appears, see image below.

11.5 Set the following In the Convert labels to annotations window (also see image above).
Select In the map.
Select All features.
Make sure that you have the Barangay boundaries layer. (If not, you need to exit the window and make sure that only this layer is set to label features.)
Select Convert unplaced labels to unplaced annotations. Click Convert.
11.6 You might have to perform the drag and drop procedures in the Data view. Use the Select Elements tool ()
Adjust the annotations (the Barangay names) that need a better position by selecting, dragging and dropping them. You can also edit the font and size (and divide a name into two rows) separately by double-clicking on each annotation for the Properties window. Switch to the Layout view () now and then to verify how it turns out.
12 Inserting an Index Map
12.1 Go the menu bar. Select Insert > Data Frame. A new data frame will appear on the map.
12.2 Drag the new data frame to the index map box in the template. Resize it so that it fits in the box.
12.3 In the table of content, rename this new data frame to ‘Index Map’. (You could also remain the existing data frame to ‘Base Map Lerual’.) To do this, right-click on the data frame, choose Properties and the General tab and type the new name.
12.4 Click on to add the following layers to the Index Map data frame:
Adj_municipalities
Lake
Municipal_bndry
They are all found in this folder: CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\00_BI)\.
12.5 Assign suitable color by opening the Symbology Selector window. (Refer to step 3.1-6 if you forgot how). The Lake layer ought to be assigned a lake-blue color. Assign a light grey color to the Municipal_polygon layer. This is done to highlight Lerual municipality in the index map for the sake of easier orientation for the map user.
13 Adding a Grid to the Map
13.1 Open the Data Frame Properties window for the Base Map Lerual data frame. (Refer to step 5.2 if you don’t remember how to do this.) Go to the Grids tab. Click New Grid… The Grids and Graticules wizard opens.

13.2 Select Graticule: divides map by meridians and parallels. Click Next.
13.3 This is the Create a graticule step: Select Tick marks and labels. Enter the intervals 0°2’0” for both latitude and longitude. Click Next.

13.4 No changes are necessary in Axes and Labels step. Click Next.
13.5 Create a graticule. Select Place a simple border at edge of graticule and Store as fixed grid that updates with changes to the data frame. Click Finish.
13.6 Back in the Data frame Properties window, click Apply, then OK.
14 Finalizing the Map Design and Composition
14.1 The last step will be to arrange all the elements so that you are satisfied with the result. (For example, enlarge the scale text, delete or changed default text in the text boxes at bottom-right of the template. At the end your design and styling of the map it could look like this:

  If you have a map similar to the one above you have completed the exercise. Congratulations!

Ver 1.0


7.05 Socio-economic Sector Tutorial

7.05.01 Education

 Disclaimer

The objective of this tutorial is to get familiar with the GIS software. The tutorial only covers some parts that are being done In a real analysis. The results that are being displayed in the tutorial can’t be compared with the results a real analysis would generate.

 Introduction

The Output map of this tutorial is a map showing the physical condition of the schools in the area and a 1000 meters buffer around the schools, illustrating the schools catchments area.

All map layers are presumed to have been digitized, projected and georeferenced before proceeding to this tutorial.

1 Getting started
1.1 Open ArcMap, select a new empty map. You will now save the map file. Click on File>Save as… in the menu bar. Browse to the folder C:\CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\ and type ‘Educational_v1.mxd’. Click Save/OK.
1.2 Add the files………. . Click on the add data button and browse to C:\CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\00_BI and select the files.
Barangay_bndry
Lakes
Municipal_bndry
Roads
Rivers

Click OK.

Click on the add data button and browse to C:\CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\01_SE and select the files.

SE19_SchTp2007
SE20_SchCap2007
Click OK. (See image below.)

2 Joining the tables
 
We are now going to join the table containing the schools (SE19) with the table containing the physical condition of the schools (SE20). Both these tables have one column in common and that is the SCH_ID column. We are joining these two tables based on this.

2.1 In the layer menu right click on the school layer, select Joins and Relates>Join… In the field “What do you want to join to this layer?”, mark Join attributes from a table
2.2 In the field “Choose the field in this layer that the join will be based on”, mark SCH_ID
2.3 In the field “Choose the table to join to this layer, or load the table from disk”, mark SchCapYr1
2.4 In the field “Choose the field in the table to base the join on:”, mark SCH_ID
2.5 Press the Ok button
2.6 Open up the attribute table of the school layer to see if the two tables have joined correctly. If they have done this, your attribute table should look like the one below.


3 Making selection by attributes
 In this example we are analyzing the following aspects of the educational sector: Schools in fair, poor or critical condition.
 The schools physical condition
Since none of the schools in the area are in critical condition, we only have to make two layers. One that contains schools in fair physical condition, and a second layer that contains schools in poor physical condition. To do this you have to do the following query.
3.1 Open the selection menu >selection by attribute
3.2 The layer that we are making our selection from is the school layer. In the operator window type "SchCapYr1.SCH_CON" = 'Poor'
3.3 Press the Apply button
3.4 In the layer menu right click on the school layer, then > Selection >Create Layer From Selected Features.
3.5 Rename the newly created layer Schools in poor physical condition. The symbol for the new layer should be a yellow square
3.6 Repeat step 1-5 but change the operator window to "SchCapYr1.SCH_CON" = 'fair' in number 2. The symbol for schools in fair physical condition should be a green square

When you have created the two new layers your screen should look like the one below.

4 Buffering
 In this example we assume that the catchments areas of the schools are 1000 meters and therefore we create a circular buffer around the schools with a radius of 1000 meters.
4.1 Open the Buffer Wizard >The features of a layer.
4.2 The selected layer is SE19_SchTp2007
4.3 Press the next button.


4.4 Set the distance units to Meters.
4.5 Set the distance to 1000 meters in the bullet “At a specified distance
4.6 Press the next button
4.7 In the “buffer output type” mark yes to the question “Dissolve barriers between”.
4.8 In the bullet “specify output shapefile or feature class” as C:\ CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\01_SE _1000meter_buffer_of _schools
4.9 Press the Finish button


5 Presentation
 The final step is to present the results of the analysis. The final products should be effectively communicating the findings to your audience. In most cases, the results of the GIS analysis can best be shown on a map.
Charts and reports of selected data are two other ways of presenting the results. Charts and reports can be printed separately, be embedded in the CLUP narrative text or be placed on a map.

The education analysis layers will be put on top of the Base Map. As recommended in Volume two, it is be overlaid with the population density map to show distribution of schools with respect to the number of people residing within an area:

A zoomed screenshot of the map.

Ver 1.0


7.06 Infrastructure Sector Tutorial

Disclaimer: The objective of this tutorial is to get familiar with the GIS software. The tutorial only covers some parts that are being done in a real analysis. The results that are being displayed in the tutorial can’t be compared with the results a real analysis would generate.

Introduction

The objectives of this exercise are to get more familiar to some basic ArcGIS operations. We will create shapefiles, work with attribute data in Excel, digitize features to a new shapefile and join attributes to a shapefile.

The scenario of this exercise is that we will prepare an analysis based on road data to identify the bottlenecks of a road leading from the transport corridor at the municipal boundary where a major new settlement is located to the poblacion at the lake.

It should be noted that the procedure (digitizing an already digitized feature) in the tutorial is very unlikely to be used in real GIS applications. Rather, the existing road layer would be broken down in segments constituting a network, and the attribute data would be joined to the original, but modified, dataset. Constructing networks in ArcGIS is however an advanced task and a precondition is that the software is expanded to include network extension applications.

1 Getting started
1.1 Open ArcMap. Select A new empty map.
1.2 Add the following layers to the workspace:
Barangays_bndry
Roads

The first file is found in C:\CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\00_BI\ and the two other files are all found in the \02_IS\ folder.

1.3 Assign proper symbology to the layers and rename them in the list of content. Since we will digitize the road layers, assign a line symbol with a rather large width (e.g. 3,0). See image below. To start changing the symbology, either double-click on the layer symbol in the table of content or open the Layer Properties window and select the Symbology tab.

1.4 In the menu bar click File > Save As… to save a map document as road_analysis_v1 in C:\CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\. Don’t forget to save your progress now and then throughout the exercise.
2 Creating a shapefile
2.1 Open ArcCatalog (click on in the ArcMap tool bar).
2.2 In the catalog tree, navigate to the C:\CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\02_IS\ folder. In the menu bar click File > New > Shapefile… The Create New Shapefile window appears.
2.3 Type the Name ‘RdAnalysis’ and select Polyline as Feature Type. See image below.

2.4 Assign the same coordinate system as the RdMun layer. First click Edit… to open the Spatial Reference Properties window. Click Import, browse for the RdMun layer and click OK. See image below.

2.5Click OK in the Spatial Reference Properties window. Click OK in the Create New Shapefile window. The new shapefile is created.
3 Digitizing
 
We will use GIS to show road segments that are in a critical or poor condition or have an inadequate width compare to road classification standards. The road will be digitized in segments where the nodes are defined at barangay crossings (so that the analysis can be used for comparisons between the barangays) and intersections with other roads (so network analyses can be made). In step 1.2 we added those files with road features and barangay boundaries to the workspace and we can thus proceed.

A good way to generate the road condition data is to print a map and use the paper map to make a sketch where the nodes should be located which will be the road segments before you start with the screen digitizing. Then the actual conditions of these road segments could then be verified in the field before it is digitized. A unique numerical ID will also have to be written and assigned in the sketch as to make field surveying and filing up the information easier and would also allow to easily assigned to corresponding ID to features that will be digitized.

3.1 Go back to the ArcMap window. (If you have closed it, you can start it again by clicking on in the ArcCatalog toolbar. If this is the case you also have to open the map document road_analysis_v1.mxd.)
3.2 Now it is time to add the shapefile we prepared for the analysis of the road condition. Click on and browse for RdAnalysis.shp. Click Add.

Nothing is seen on the map although the RdAnalysis layer is activated to be shown. The reason for this of course that no roads have yet been digitized into the layer. If you open the attribute table to the shapefile, you will find it empty, compare to image below. Now it’s time to start digitizing.

3.3 If it’s not already visible, you need to open the Editor toolbar. In the menu bar click Tools > Editor. The Editor toolbar appears. Drag and drop it to a suitable place in the workspace (e.g. within the toolbar).
3.4 In the Editor toolbar, click Editor > Start editing. See image below.

3.5Make sure that the settings are set to Create New Features and that the target layer is RdAnalysis. Click ???
3.6Set the snapping properties so that your digitizing effort will snap to vertices, along the line and the endpoints of both the RDAnalys_V1 and Roads layers and the edge of Barangay layer. In the editor menu, click Editor > Snapping… The Snapping Options appears between the table of content and your map (see image below). Select (check the corresponding box) according to what is mentioned above. You can now close the Snapping Options.

The plan is now to digitize as indicated below. A RdAnalysis line segment’s nodes will be at changes in road condition, crossings with barangay boundaries or intersections with other roads. For this exercise, we will assume that the changes in road condition falls directly within the intersection of the road with barangay boundary and road other roads. Note also that the ID used is just the order of roads that are to be digitized (top to bottom) and sequential numbering is used to make the exercise simpler.

3.7 Zoom in to segment 1 to a scale about 1:15000 or use the scale selector and the pan tool. (Now it will be easier to digitize.)
3.8 Refer to the image below. Start (click once) at the barangay boundary and follow the road and click again after a small section. Continue to click once at points along the road. End at the crossing of the road leading south by double-clicking to finalize the road segment. The result is shown in the second image below:



3.9 Assign another symbology to the RdAnalysis layer, so that your digital effort is clearly seen in the map. Choose for example a red and wide line symbol.

If you are not pleased with the result, use the redo button before you proceed with the next segment. Also get into the habit of saving (2) your work often. When you are finished or need to proceed with another GIS operation you should stop editing (1). Refer to image below.

3.10 Repeat step 3.8 on the other segments. Follow the order given in the sketch image just before step 3.7 above. When you’re done with this, your map should look something like this.

3.11 Click Editor > Stop Editing.
4 Assigning Road Segment ID to Conform with Attributes in the dBase File
4.1 Don’t close the editor. Open the attribute table by right-clicking on RdAnalysis in the list of content and selecting Open Attribute Table. The Attributes of RdAnalysis window appears. See image below. If you have followed the sketch above you should have ten segments in the table, each with its unique FID number. There is also another Id column that has zeros at the moment but needs to be identified in order to connect it with the attributes in the Excel/dBase tables.

4.2 So what ID should we give the segments? Well, there could be different alternatives. Here, we need to use the IDs that are found in the dBase file. decide to use the PSDG number of the barangay where the road segment is situated to give it its unique ID number. To facilitate we insert a name label for the barangays. In the table of content, right-click on the barangay boundary layer and select Properties.
4.3 The Layer Properties window appears (see image below). Go to the Labels tab. Select Label features in this layer. From the list menu to Label field select NAME. Click OK.

The result will look something like the image below and you see that in this case the road passes the barangays of Niyugan, As-is, Poblacion 1 and Poblacion 4.
The first segment is situated in a barangay named Niyugan, which has a barangay ID (0)1. We assume that we do not need to divide a road into more than 99 segments in a barangay. As this segment is the first we give it the unique ID of 101.

4.4 Make sure that you are still in editing mode. (If not choose Editor > Start Editing from the editor toolbar.) Return to or open the attribute table (refer to step 4.1 if needed).
4.5 Place the cursor in the first row in the Id column in the Attributes of RdAnalysis table window. Click once and type 1401 for FID0. (Since As-is barangay ID is 14 and this constitutes the first road segment in barangay.)
4.6 Providing that you digitized the same segments in the same order as in the sketch above, repeat step 4.5 on the other rows and assign Id according to the table/image below:.

4.7 Click Editor > Save Editing.
4.8 Also make sure to save the map document road_analysis_v1 by either clicking on in the toolbar or selecting File > Save in the menu bar.
5 Converting the Attribute Excel File to dBase Format
 
We will now work on the dBase Table with additional attribute data of the road. (This data has been captured on ground within a field survey and entered into an excel file.) When working with Excel, it is always recommended that ArcMap is closed (and vice versa). This is due to avoid accessing the same files from the two programs, which can lead to quite some problems. If you have a printed sketch map with the segments, also add the new Id numbers onto this map.

5.1 Close ArcMap. Open Excel.
5.2 Open the file IS01_RdTp2007.xls found in C:\CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\02_IS\. (See image below where, for example, the road segment with ID 101 is municipal road, has a gravel surface and is in a poor condition.

5.3 Select (highlight) the cells that will be found in the dBase file. (Place the cursor in cell B2 and drag it to cell H12.) From the excel menu bar, select Edit > Copy.
5.4 Open a new file. (Go to File > New then select New empty document.) Place the cursor in cell A1 and select Edit > Paste. See image below.

5.5 The head column must be in one line in dBase format. Select the cells constituting the column head (A1:G1). From the menu bar select Format > Column > AutoFit Selection.
5.6 Only one sheet is allowed in dBase. Remove Sheet 2 by right-clicking on the Sheet2 tab and selecting Delete. (See image below.) Repeat this procedure on Sheet 3:

5.7 Select only the cells with data (A1:G9). Select File > Save as…
5.8 In the Save As window, browse for the folder C:\CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\02_IS\ and type the File name IS01_RdTp2007.dbf. From the Save as type menu list, select the DBF 4 (dBASE IV) (*dbf) option. Click Save.
5.9 Now a couple of alerts will appear one after each other. Simply click OK to the alert as below:

5.10 Click Yes to the alert below:

5.11 Click the exit button (1) and Yes (2) below.

5.12 Click OK again

5.13 Finally, click Yes.

5.14 Close Excel.
 
It’s always recommended to have Excel closed when you work with ArcGIS.
If you want to revise a .dbf file you should close ArcGIS before you open Excel.

6 Joining the dBase File to the Shapefile
6.1 Open ArcMap and the map document road_analysis_v1.
6.2 In the table of content, right-click on RdAnalysis and select Joins and Relates > Join… (see image below).

6.3 The Join Data window appears. (See image below.) You should have the following settings:
1.’ Id’ was the column head where you inserted the unique Ids for the road segments
2. ‘IS01_RdYr’ is the name of the dBase table you have prepared that contains the attribute information of the road segments.
3. RD_ID is the name of the column where the unique ID have been inserted
4. Click OK.

7 Viewing the Result of the Analysis
7.1 Open the attribute table for the RdAnalysis layer. As you can see, the columns from the dBase table have been intergrated.
7.2 To make the table easier to read we need to hide some columns and give proper alias. Open the Layer Properties window and go to the Fields tab.
7.3 Place the cursor on the first row (RDAnalysis.FID). This is ArcGIS’s column with little information value for us. Therefore, unselect the Visible box. (See image below.)

7.4 Repeat step 7.3 for the consecutive fields. If a field is selected visible, you should assign a more understandable Alias.
Set the following fields to be visible and assign the respective alias:
IS01_Rd_ - ‘Road Segment ID’
ISO1_Rd_ - ‘Road Classification’
Etc…
  You have completed the exercise! Well done.
You can now think of different ways to present the analysis. Test the “interactive presentation” by using the Identify tool on the Rd_analysis layer. Since you’ve set the fields display properties above and thus reduced redundant and unnecessary information, the result will be fairly easy to interpret for a “normal” computer user.

Ver 1.0


7.07 Environment Sector Tutorial

Ver 1.0


7.07.01 Flooding Tutorial

 Disclaimer The objective of this tutorial is to get familiar with the GIS software. The tutorial only covers some parts that are being done In a real analysis. The results that are being displayed in the tutorial can’t be compared with the results a real analysis would generate.

Introduction
The Output map of this tutorial is a map showing all flooding hazards. This layer will be useful when you are making your hazards analysis later on.

All map layers are presumed to have been digitized, projected and georeferenced before proceeding to this tutorial.

1 Getting started
1.1 Open ArcMap, select a new empty map. You will now save the map file. Click on File>Save as… in the menu bar. Browse to the folder C:\ CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\06_Workfolder\ and type ‘Flooding_v1.mxd’. Click Save/OK.
1.2 Add the files……….. to ArcMap. . Click on the add data button and browse to C:\ CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\00_BM and select the file.

barangays_bndry

Lake

municipal_bndry

Rivers

Roads

Click OK.

Click on the add data button and browse to C:\ CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\03_EN and select the file.

EN03_Fld

Click OK. (See image below.)

The shape file that contains the flooding also contains areas that are not affected by these hazards, see the picture below.

If geohazards map is the source of flooding data, then all flooding indicated will be used as restriction. If other sources are used, where several degrees of flooding are specified, then you have to single out the areas that are severely flooded. In this example we use map with several degrees of flooding.


2 Making selection by attributes

For this example we assume that areas that are hit by “Moderate seasonal flooding”, “Severe seasonal flooding” and “Waterlogged” are not suitable for future urban development.
We have to make one new layer that contains the areas with “Moderate seasonal flooding”, “Severe seasonal flooding” and “Waterlogged”.

2.1Open the selection menu >selection by attribute
2.2 The layer that we are making our selection from is EN03_Fld In the operator window type "FLD_TP" = 'Moderate flooding'.


2.3 Press the Apply button
2.4 In the method column. Change to “Add to current selection”.
2.5 Change the operator window to " FLD_TP " = 'Severe flooding'
2.6 Press the Apply button
2.7 Change the operator window to "FLD_TP" = 'waterlogged'
2.8 Press the Apply button.
3 Create a new layer for the selected features
3.1 In the layer menu right click on the floodinghazard layer, then > Selection >Create Layer From Selected Features.
3.2 Rename the newly created layer floodinghazard selection

3.3 Remove the EN03_fld layer
4 Save the floodinghazardselection layer as a shapefile

To be able to use the layer containing the selected types of floodinghazards in another template, you have to save the layer as a shapefile.

4.1 In the layer menu right click on the floodinghazardselection layer,then > Data> Export Data.

4.2 Chose “All features” in the Export field
4.3 Mark the “Use the same Coordinate system as this layer’s source data” bullet.
4.4 In the row “specify output shapefile or feature class” save as C:\ CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\03_EN \floodinghazardselection

4.5 In the “Save as type”, chose shapefile
4.6 Press the save button
4.7 Press the Ok button
4.8 You will be given a question if you want to add the exported data to the map as a layer. Press No.

The shapefile that you just created containing the unsuitable flooding areas are going to be used when you create the geohazards layer.

Ver 1.0


7.07.02 Erosion Tutorial

 Disclaimer

Disclaimer: The objective of this tutorial is to get familiar to the GIS software. The tutorial only covers some parts that are being done In a real analysis. The results that are being displayed in the tutorial can’t be compared with the results a real analysis would generate.
Introduction

Introduction

The Output map of this tutorial is a map showing hazards caused by erosion. This layer will be useful when you are making your hazards analysis later on.

All map layers are presumed to have been digitized, projected and georeferenced before proceeding to this tutorial

1 Getting started

1.1 Open ArcMap, select a new empty map. You will now save the map file. Click on File>Save as… in the menu bar. Browse to the folder C:\ CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\06_Workfolder \ and type ‘Erosion_v1.mxd’. Click Save/OK.
1.2 Click on the add data button and browse to C:\CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\00_BM and select the files:

barangays_bndry

Lake

municipal_bndry

Rivers

Roads

Click OK.

Click on the add data button and browse to C:\CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\00_BM and select the file:

EN04_Erosn

Click OK. (See image below.)

The shape file that contains the erosion hazards also contains areas that are not affected by these hazards, see the screenshot below.

2 Making selection by attributes

In this example we assume that areas that are affected by moderate and severe erosion are not suitable for future urban development.

We have to make a new layer that contains the areas with no moderate and severe erosion.
The erosion hazard layer contains “no apparent erosion, slight erosion, moderate erosion and severe erosion”. We will have to make a new layer that contains moderate and severe erosion

2.1 Open the selection menu >selection by attribute
2.2 The layer that we are making our selection from is EN04_Erosn. In the operator window type "EROSN_TP" = 'Moderate erosion”.
2.3 Press the Apply button.
2.4 In the method column. Change to “Add to current selection”.
Change the operator window to “EROSN_TP" = 'Severe erosion'

2.5 Press the Apply button.

3 Create a new layer for the selected features

3.1 In the layer menu right click on the erosionhazard layer, then> Selection >Create Layer From Selected Features.
3.2 Rename the newly created layer erosion hazard selection
3.3 Remove the EN04_Erosn layer

4 Save the erosionhazardselection layer as a shapefile

To be able to use the layer containing the selected types of floodinghazards in another template, you have to save the layer as a shapefile.

4.1 In the layer menu right click on the erosionhazardselection layer,then > Data> Export Data.
4.2 Chose “All features” in the Export field
4.3Mark the “Use the same Coordinate system as this layer’s source data” bullet
4.4 In the row “specify output shapefile or feature class” save as C:\ \CLUP_EXERCISE_DATA\03_EN\erosionhazardselection

In the “Save as type”, chose shapefile

4.5 Press the save button
4.6 Press the Ok button
4.7 You will be given a question if you want to add the exported data to the map as a layer. Press [/b]No


Ver 1.0


7.07.03 Faultlines

7.07.04 Hazard Tutorial

7.09 How to Create the Needs Analysis Layer

7.10 Risk and Suitability Analysis Tutorial

Disclaimer

The objective of this tutorial is to get familiar to the GIS software. The tutorial only covers some parts that are being done In a real analysis. The results that are being displayed in the tutorial can’t be compared with the results a real analysis would generate.

Introduction

The Output map of this tutorial is a map showing the Suitable Areas for Future Urban Development shown below.

All map layers are presumed to have been digitized, projected and georeferenced before proceeding to this R&S tutorial.

1 Getting started