1.0 Read Me First

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1.01 About the Cookbook

The GIS Cookbook is a part of the Comprehensive Land Use Planning (CLUP) Guidelines issued by the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) to assist local government units (LGUs) in the preparation of their Comprehensive Land Use Plans. The guidelines consist of:

“CLUP Guidebook: A Guide to Comprehensive Land Use Plan Preparation”

This volume provides the stepwise process of formulating the CLUP. It opens the door to a flexible planning process and documentation in relation to the municipal profile, that enables those predominantly rural municipalities to gather only those information applicable and necessary for the formulation of their respective CLUPs, without having to undergo the same in-depth analysis and sophistication in the planning documentation and process as those highly urbanized cities and municipalities, which are more likely to face competing and conflicting land uses that will also generate more sophisticated geographic information products.

“CLUP GIS Guidebook: A Guide to Comprehensive Land Use Data Management”

Often referred to as the GIS Cookbook, this volume introduces new approaches and methods in the preparation, documentation and presentation of CLUP information. It also describes an approach to GIS implementation that would make it not only a tool for the LGU Planning Office but also an LGU asset, which can be useful to other functions. This guidebook is made in compliance to the proposed flow and changes in the CLUP sector studies.

The GIS Cookbook describes the fundamentals for a Geographic Information System (GIS) and other information systems needed in the CLUP formulation process. It guides the user in the application of GIS as a planning and information management tool, and provides geographic information products to enable the planners and stakeholders to formulate the CLUP in a participatory manner, resulting in a plan that serves its function of regulating and catalyzing development in the given municipality/city.

The use of the GIS Cookbook as companion guide to the other volumes in the CLUP Guide Series may be as follows:

1. For a municipality/city that has decided to use GIS as a tool in the CLUP preparation, the following will be applied:

CLUP GIS GuidebookCLUP Guidebooks 
In addition to the guide:

2. For a municipality/city that will apply a traditional approach and not use GIS as a tool the following Guidelines will be used:

CLUP GuidebookCLUP Sector Studies
Volume 7
(Previous Series)
CLUP GIS Guidebook
Only recommendations for conventional database management & other templates

The Cookbook is found on HLURB Homepage, www.hlurb.gov.ph and can be downloaded for free. A digital version can be provided on a CD at cost price.

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1.02 The GIS Cookbook Framework

The GIS Cookbook consists of two parts:

Part One is the Textbook which is the narrative component that describes what needs to be known in starting up a functioning GIS to be used as a tool in the CLUP preparation.

Part Two is the Toolbox which is a compendium of detailed instructions, templates, forms and dummies that will be of help in the actual work.

The Textbook is made up of the following chapters:

Chapter 1: Read Me First

This is a general introduction to the GIS Cookbook and its role in the HLURB CLUP Guide Series.

Chapter 2: Introduction to GIS

This provides a general idea of what GIS is and its various applications. It shows the advantages of using GIS in local governance specifically in the city and municipal levels, and particularly in the CLUP preparation process.

Chapter 3: The Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS

This outlines what are necessary in terms of skilled people, proper methodology, accurate data, sufficient software and hardware, to put into operation a GIS that is customized for the specific municipality/city. It also describes the various information products using GIS that are of help in the preparation of the CLUP.

The Toolbox consists of the following chapters:

Chapter 4: Methodology, Procedures and Case Studies

This provides the more elaborate descriptions for the detailed components of a GIS system for CLUP.

Chapter 5: CLUP ( Meta)Data

This gives information on how to organize the data and the recommended standards that need to be applied.

Chapter 6: Templates

This contains the various masters and templates to be used in the CLUP preparation.

Chapter 7: Training

This includes useful materials and tutorials to be used for skills development training.

Chapter 8: Software

This provides a selection of software that will be useful to access the Guidelines.

Chapter 9: Mapping (Volume 7)

This contains the scanned version of relevant portions of the Mapping Guidelines in Adobe Portable Document Format (pdf).

Chapter 10: Glossary and List of Abbreviations

This contains the technical terms and acronyms used in Volume 3.

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1.02.01 GIS Activities with reference to the Content of the Cookbook

The following matrix shows how the GIS Cookbook can be used in relation to the CLUP preparation:

  SITUATION
(WHAT TO DO)
COURSE OF ACTION
(HOW TO DO IT)
1 If you are a beginner in GIS it is recommended that you attend the Basic GIS and the Applied GIS Training Courses conducted by HLURB prior to using GIS in preparing the CLUP.
  1. Course Description and Training Program of the training modules are found in the Toolbox, Chapter 7.01.
  2. Contact HLURB (Regional Offices or Information Technology Group, through telephone +632 927 2698 and email address: gis@hlurb.gov.ph for information on scheduled trainings.
If you have previous training and experience in GIS you start here:
  SITUATION
(WHAT TO DO)
COURSE OF ACTION
(HOW TO DO IT)
2 There are 12 steps in the process of formulating the CLUP
  1. Refer to Volume 1
3 For each Step, one or several CLUP Information Products (IPs) are specified. IPs are defined as the instructive components that are needed to present a CLUP Step in a comprehensive way. It consists of tables, graphs and maps in both digital and paper-based formats.
  1. For more information about IPs, refer to Chapter 3.03.04.
  2. Examples of IPs are found in Chapter 3.03.07.
  3. A complete set of IP descriptions are included in the Toolbox, Chapters 4.05 – 4.09.
4 To prepare an IP, data needs to be gathered, stored and presented in a way that is easy to comprehend by the CLUP stakeholders.
  1. Examples of stakeholders are shown in page 22 of Volume 1.
  2. The data that needs to be captured is outlined in the Toolbox, Chapter 5.01.01 and in each IP respectively.
5 The CLUP attribute data is compiled in a number of tables. Some of the tables (called the Key tables) are required for all types of municipalities/ cities in order to do the analysis. There are also some tables (known as the Optional tables) that might be useful based on the specific profile, size, etc. of the respective LGUs being planned.
  1. A list of tables with prioritized (Key) and extensive (Optional) data is included in the Toolbox, Chapter 5.01.01.
  2. The LGU should consult HLURB Regional Office (RO) to find out what attribute datasets are required in the CLUP preparation.
6 The data is collected from the different sources, either from secondary sources or through primary field surveys conducted by the respective LGUs.
  1. The IP describes how the data should be gathered.
  2. Case studies on how to implement primary fields surveys are found in the Toolbox, Chapter 4.19.01.
  3. A list of CLUP data sources and what data is available from them is included in the Toolbox, Chapter 4.17.01.
7 The attribute data should be inserted in the above-mentioned (Excel) tables
  1. Templates can be copied/downloaded from the Toolbox, Chapter 5.
8 Some tables will be used in the GIS, while some will be used in the narrative text of the CLUP.
  1. A list of GIS tables and non-GIS tables is found in the Toolbox, Chapter 5.01.01.
9 The non-GIS tables should have a clear and concise layout.
  1. Templates can be copied/downloaded from the Toolbox, Chapter 5.
10 The spatial data is stored in GIS-format. It is recommended that standardized symbology, legend and (map) layout formats are used.
  1. The respective IPs provide the recommended Symbology and Legend to be used.
  2. The Palettes for the CLUP feature objects can be downloaded from the Toolbox, Chapter 4.21.02.
  3. Recommendations on layout and dimensions for printed maps are found in Chapter 5.10.01.

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1.03 Scope and Limitations

The GIS Cookbook is a guide on the application of GIS as a tool for CLUP preparation. It is generally intended for municipalities with minimal incomes, and whose CLUP formulation will involve only a minimum of data requirements and basic analysis. It will however, be useful for other LGUs, Highly Urbanized Cities (HUCs) and Independent Component Cities (ICCs), that have the resources to set up sophisticated GIS systems and acquire the necessary expertise.

The GIS Cookbook will not provide guidelines on the setting up of a corporate GIS for the entire municipality such as GIS applications for cadastral and tax mapping and the like. However, the GIS for CLUP could serve as a stepping stone towards the LGU’s acquisition of GIS Technology, once it appreciates how GIS proves to be useful not only in planning, but in various decision-making purposes as well. The minimal GIS on a “shoestring budget” outlined here, constitutes a platform that can be developed into a more sophisticated system when the LGU’s income status and financial resources improve.

Practical GIS knowledge is most valuable; however it is just one of the several requisite tools that the planner needs in performing his job. In addition, the planner should have the capability to manage and monitor the activities in the preparation of the CLUP, the skills to advocate for and present the Plan to officials and the public, and the proficiency to negotiate and synthesize opposing interests in the planning process. These are all requisites to a CLUP process that will contribute to rational land use decision-making.

Formulating the CLUP, and making the best use of the GIS Cookbook plus the other volumes in the CLUP Guide Series, requires a full-time LGU planner in charge of the CLUP preparation. These planning guidelines are meant to provide the municipal/city planner with the knowledge, the tools, and the confidence, to manage the preparation of the CLUP.

The aim of the GIS Cookbook (with its Toolbox) is to assist the municipal/city planner with minimal or no experience in GIS, given the support of the HLURB staff in the Regional Offices who have been trained in GIS.

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1.04 The Target Group

The ability to use computer-based applications or ‘GIS literacy’ in the country, based on a recent survey of municipalities and cities of their levels of expertise and familiarity with computers, is currently very low (NAMRIA, 2004). The survey results showed that less than 30 out of 1,650 surveyed LGUs, have functional GIS systems, and these are predominantly high income cities (see Map below).

The GIS Cookbook therefore has been designed to serve the needs of LGUs, particularly low-income municipalities/cities, or those in the ‘development stage,’ i.e. those LGUs still in the initial phases of establishing databases and developing appropriate skills.

The establishment of an optimal GIS system for a specific LGU is contingent on the capacity of the said LGU in terms of budget, manpower and other resources. Based on the IRA grant classification rules for LGUs, the GIS Cookbook classifies municipalities and cities into three groups as shown in the matrix below.

CLUP GroupMunicipalities CoveredRecommendations for GIS
ALGUs that shall comply with minimum requirements for the CLUP preparation Municipalities/cities of IRA Class 4-6 without any other special classifications.
This covers about 956 LGUs.
These municipalities/cities are estimated to have financial and staffing resources to build a basic GIS.

For final classification, the HLURB Regional Office should prepare a list of the LGUs according to the above-shown recommended groupings, based on its experiences with concerned LGUs.

This group includes majority of the LGUs, and is the main target user of the HLURB GIS Cookbook.

B LGUs that shall comply with modest requirements for the CLUP preparation Cities of IRA Class 4-6 and Municipalities/cities of IRA Class 1-3,

This covers about 544 LGUs.

These cities and municipalities are estimated to have financial and staffing resources to build a modest GIS, and will find the HLURB GIS Cookbook very useful.
C LGUs that shall comply with advanced requirements for the CLUP preparationCities of IRA Class 1-3

This covers about 117 LGUs.

These cities are estimated to have financial and staffing resources to build a sophisticated GIS without the need of the HLURB GIS Cookbook.

For final classification, the HLURB Regional Office should prepare a list of the LGUs according to the above-shown recommended groupings, based on its experiences with concerned LGUs.

Detailed information on the IRA Classification is found in the Toolbox, Chapter 5.09.

Help Us to Update
A GIS literacy questionnaire is available to update us with correct information. It can be found in the Toolbox, Chapter 6.01. Please send filled up questionnaires to Information Technology Group - Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board, Kalayaan Ave., Diliman, Quezon City. , Fax +632 927 2731.

Map Showing the GIS Literacy Levels in the Country

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1.04.01 The LGU Planner in Focus

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1.05 Relationship of the GIS Cookbook to CLUP Guidebook Volume 1

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1.05.01 Volume 1 in Brief

This volume provides the stepwise process of formulating the CLUP. It opens the door to a flexible planning process and documentation in relation to the municipal profile, that enables those predominantly rural municipalities to gather only those information applicable and necessary for the formulation of their respective CLUPs, without having to undergo the same in-depth analysis and sophistication in the planning documentation and process as those highly urbanized cities and municipalities, which are more likely to face competing and conflicting land uses that will also generate more sophisticated geographic information products.

Volume 1 summarizes the rationale for land use planning and the need for the CLUP. It also identifies and describes the steps in the process of CLUP preparation.

The GIS Cookbook provides the tools for GIS in the form of Information Products that are reflective of a planning process that is participatory, and a CLUP that is both regulatory and catalytic.

The step-wise process given in Volume 1 is shown as follows:

The GIS Cookbook elaborates on those Information Products (maps, graphs, tables, etc.) that are necessary to fully equip the Planner with the knowledge and understanding of the specific Step in the Planning Process.

It should be noted that some of the steps in the process shown in the above CLUP Process illustration, need not be sequential but can be done simultaneously, such as Steps 2, 3, and 4. And since some of these Steps will need more graphic displays of data than the others, it is important to exercise wider flexibility in order to maximize the time needed in the whole process. For example, if there is no available digital base map or baseline data yet, Step 4 can proceed simultaneously with Steps 2 and 3 as this requires a lengthier period to prepare. This is shown in the illustration below.

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1.05.02 GIS Information Products for the Steps in the Planning Process

Information Products are the instructional components needed to present a CLUP Step in a comprehensive way. They consist of tables, graphs and maps in both digital and paper-based formats.

Information Products for Step 1 – Getting Organized (to Work with the CLUP)
It is equally important to “plan for the planning process” in order to anticipate and prepare the resources necessary for the planning exercise, thus enabling a smooth implementation and timely accomplishment of the planning outputs.

Making use of GIS as a tool in CLUP preparation will require the mobilization of the ‘GIS Start Package’ (consisting of five components) to ensure that the needed resources for the GIS activities are readily available.

The GIS Cookbook provides the guidelines for the procurement of sustainable hardware, software, development of human resources and possible consultant involvement. In Step 1, it is recommended that the LGU consult with HLURB to find out the scope of data capture that would be applicable for the respective municipality/city based on class, size, economic resources and profile, and so that the budget can also be assessed properly. For more information, see Chapter 3 (The Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS) and referred subjects in the Toolbox.

Information Products for Step 2 – Identifying Stakeholders (of the CLUP)
No special GIS requirement has been identified for this Step in the CLUP process.

Information Products for Step 3 – Setting the Vision (for the CLUP)
No special GIS requirement has been identified for this Step in the CLUP process. However, if the city/municipality already has an existing Vision statement, it should be revisited in this Step for further refinement if necessary.

Information Products for Step 4 – Analyzing the Situation
Step 4 of the planning process - Situation Analysis - basically answers the question: Where are we now? It is both analytical and diagnostic, geared towards identifying issues, potentials and future development needs and the spatial requirements of the city/municipality. Assessment consists of technical and participatory methods. Technical assessment is based on factual data derived from surveys, official publications and records of the city/municipality, concerned national agencies and other entities. It involves the use of indicators such as proportions, rates, frequencies, qualities/conditions (e.g. severity, critical, etc.), standards and other parameters that are vital in characterizing the current situation. On the other hand, participatory assessment is based on the results of barangay/community consultations, focus group discussions (FGDs), meetings with key informants, multi-sectoral meetings, etc. These activities facilitate the generation of the community’s felt needs, desires, and perceived issues and opportunities. Suggestions to address issues and concerns can also be derived from this exercise.

It is important to prepare the digital CLUP Base Map at the outset because this takes time to accomplish (see the IP on Basemap preparation found in the Toolbox, Chapter 4.05.01). It is essential to have the Base Map readily available as soon as possible to facilitate sectoral data gathering and analysis.

It is also necessary to prepare the demographic data upon which the baseline studies and sectoral analyses for education, health, transport, agriculture, etc. will be based. It is recommended that only one population projection be used for all the sectoral studies.

In general there is a lack of accurate current data for municipal land use planning, and much time is needed to acquire data for the CLUP planning. Data acquisition makes up about 80% of the total cost of establishing a CLUP GIS.

With regard to data, see the distinction between Key and Optional indicators in Chapter 3.03.02. As mentioned previously, it is important to consult with HLURB at the outset of Step 1 in order to determine the level of data capture applicable to the municipality / city being planned, in accordance with its municipality class, size, economic resources and profile. This should result in a more focused specification of data tailored to the particular requirements of the specific LGU’s CLUP. Once the scope of data requirements has been determined, the data gathering activities should proceed per specifications, and the primary surveys and secondary data acquisition (from the respective entities) should be conducted in a timely manner. A template (Data Request for CLUP Preparation, found in the Toolbox, Chapter 6.05) in combination with the Information Products described in Chapter 4 should be used in this process.

Some of the basic data about demography is presented for the entire LGU, hence no GIS is used. In this case, demographic information is presented in Excel format as tables and graphs (see tables in Chapter 5.02).

Other basic demographic data are broken down to Barangays, and this may be elaborated in GIS format (see table in Chapter 5.02.04 as an example). Furthermore, the data extracted from these layers can be used as components of the baseline studies in this step and in Step 5. For example, when analyzing the provision of health services, the current and projected population data will be matched with the planning standards and the current availability of basic health facilities.

Under Step 4, thematic spatial layers -Baseline Studies- need to be prepared for all sectors and sub-sectors included in the CLUP. The locations of service facilities such as schools, health clinics, etc.; infrastructure such as roads, power transmission lines, etc.; and those areas under protection such as ancestral domains etc.; need to be defined with an accuracy that is acceptable for CLUP planning and analysis.

There may be two ways to find out the location of the sector’s features:

  1. Organize a field survey to capture the locations. For example, go to the locations of the health clinics and track the positional coordinates using a GPS.
  2. Get secondary source data and customize it to fit the specific criteria or the specific sector feature. For instance, to identify the distribution of various soil types, get a printed map from the Bureau of Soils and Management (BSWM), and this can be cropped and overlaid on the base map to constitute the soil sector component.

It is also recommended that a proper File and Folder system should be introduced in the computer(s) that will manipulate and store the CLUP GIS data (see Chapter 3.04.03, ‘Guidelines for File and Folder Management’).

In the Toolbox, instructions are given on how to carry out the following:

  1. How to conduct a field survey to get/retrieve spatial data (Chapter 4.19)
  2. How to convert secondary source data into spatial data layers (Chapter 4.21)

Chapter 4.19.02 also provides an example on how to conduct a comprehensive and integrated primary survey at the Barangay level. The survey will identify basic data as well as issues and concerns needed for baseline studies that may encourage participatory planning activities.

The Needs Assessment Information Products will be a comprehensive combination of maps which will reveal weaknesses or gaps in the municipality/city’s distribution of goods and services as well as the LGU’s basic needs based on population projections. GIS will prove useful for this and Chapter 1.06 shows how it can be used to make it transparent to the general public.

The Risk & Suitability Analysis Information Products will focus on the constraints and potentials originating from the natural environment and man-made/enforced restrictions/ rules and regulations. These will provide the bases for some examples for the formulation of a sustainable development plan for the municipality/city.

Information Products for Step 5 – Setting the Goals and Objectives (for the CLUP)
The next step after the data gathering and analysis is the formulation of goals and objectives that will help the municipality/city to achieve its vision. It is important that the goals and objectives reflect the “common good” and consensus of the broader community so that implementation of the plan effectively engages all sectors, and ownership is shared community-wide. A good way to achieve this is to conduct participatory goal-setting processes in public settings where the Needs Assessment and Risk & Suitability Analysis Information Products can be presented. The presentation should be adjusted to the audience’s assimilative levels (see Chapters 1.09 and 4.21.02).

Information Products for Step 6 – Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies
This step is critical in determining the future overall spatial development of the municipality/city. It involves the understanding of what is appropriate, feasible and possible through an exploration of different land use alternatives or scenarios. After exploring at least three alternatives, the municipality/city will prepare a draft structure/concept plan based on a preferred alternative. Depending on the planners’ levels of knowledge, the use of GIS at this stage will be limited to actual presentation and display work (for beginners), or advance to a more sophisticated spatial analysis (for those with more advanced skills).

The information products in this step are the three alternative Spatial Development Forms and the preferred structure/ concept plan (see Chapter 4.12 in the Toolbox).

Information Products for Step 7 – Preparing the Draft CLUP
It is at this stage that the location and details of the Land Use Plan components are put into final draft form. GIS will be useful in furnishing the templates which are based on map standards in terms of format and symbology (see Chapter 4.21.02). Thematic maps can also be extracted from the GIS and be included in the narrative text of the CLUP. The information product in this step is the Draft Land Use Plan Map.

Information Products for Step 8 – Preparing the Draft ZO
The drafting of the Zoning Ordinance (ZO) basically entails translating the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) into a legal document / tool. In general, Zoning has the same features or land use classifications as the CLUP, except that it provides for more detailed information on zone boundaries and use regulations / controls, among others. In the same way as the draft CLUP, there is a GIS application for the Zoning Ordinance that will facilitate the preparation thereof. The information product in this step is the Draft Zoning Map (see Chapter 4.15 in the Toolbox for details).

Information Products for Step 9 – Conducting Public Hearing on CLUP/ZO
This involves a 3-stage process namely: public display and information dissemination; conduct of public hearing/consultation, and the Land Use Committee Hearings. The process aims to inform the general public and ensure an objective and participatory review of the draft CLUP / ZO and to encourage ownership of the plan and gain support for its implementation.

GIS will be a useful instrument in translating the plan into a format that will be understood by the stakeholders. The information products in the previous step can be printed out and displayed and / or be included in a PowerPoint presentation. The information products in this step are the refined Land Use and Zoning Maps.

Information Products for Step 10 – Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO
Step 10 involves the mandatory and comprehensive review of the CLUP and ZO, after which adoption of the CLUP and enactment of the ZO by the Sangguniang Bayan/ Panlungsod and approval by either the Sangguniang Panlalawigan or HLURB will take place.
This step will benefit from GIS in the form of excellent digital maps compared to the tedious process of reviewing analog maps.

Information Products for Step 11 – Implementing the CLUP and ZO
ProjectProjectImplementation of the CLUP will require resources, institutional structures and procedures, among others. The local government code allows flexibility for the LGU to design and implement its own organizational structure and staffing pattern, taking into consideration its vision, mission, goals and objectives as contained in the CLUP, and its accountability to the community.
GIS enables the planner to readily extract data from the database and CLUP project profile, making it easier for the LGU’s to manage / implement projects as well as share project information with stakeholders / project implementors.

Information Products for Step 12 – Monitoring & Evaluating the CLUP/ZO
With the CLUP and its implementation program established, assessment procedures for its effectiveness must be instituted. Monitoring and evaluation are performed to assess how fully and how effectively a plan is being carried out.

The combination of attribute and spatial data, which is a unique advantage of GIS, greatly facilitates the measurement of development outcomes and trends. For example, the tables and maps for development, clearances and permits will be excellent monitoring tools, that will provide useful inputs in analyzing land use changes, project implementation, and the attainment of the LGU’s vision, goals and objectives.

As the GIS software is developing strongly into more user-friendly interface it will also be easier to meet a growing demand for ‘political transparency’ and participatory planning.

The information products in this step are the decision maps, charts and figures reflecting status of projects.

Summary
The following graph summarizes the interaction between the Planning Steps and the Information Products:

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1.05.03 Preparing a CLUP Work Plan

A Project Management Software is useful in preparing the CLUP Work Plan in Step 1. A useful software of this kind is Microsoft’s MS Project, which helps the planner to align the planning activities with the available resources, and set milestones and deadlines for better management and results. By using its flexible reporting and analysis capabilities, the planner is assured of operational information to optimize resources, prioritize work, and align the CLUP planning with overall objectives. The following is a sample outline of Steps 1 to 4 in a Gantt chart using MS Project:

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1.06 Use of GIS as an Analysis or Presentation Tool in the CLUP Preparation

Please note that not all the ‘graphic’ information found in the CLUP can be defined in a GIS. There are, for example, graphs based on tables that will simply facilitate the reading of the report which are listed in the GIS Cookbook’s CLUP Metadatabase Specification. These examples of conventional databases (and the corresponding templates in Chapter 5 in the Toolbox) can be used by LGUs who have no access to GIS but have some knowledge of MS Excel.

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1.07 The Role of the Cookbook in Relation to the HLURB Previous Mapping Guidelines (Volume 7)

Although it is advantageous to use GIS in the preparation of the CLUP (and many other related activities of the LGU), some municipalities/cities may not be able to acquire a GIS system in the immediate future. In this case, the previous CLUP Guidelines Volume 7 (’Mapping’) is still available for use to guide users in manual mapping activities. However the GIS Cookbook’s recommendations for conventional data management and the appropriate templates will still be useful.

Relevant parts of Volume 7 are found in the Toolbox, Chapter 9.





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1.08 GIS on a Shoestring Budget: Maximizing the use of GIS within the municipal government organization.

The word ‘shoestring’ is used because the current structure of the GIS presented in the Cookbook is based on lower end technology solutions. It is necessary to emphasize that if the LGU does not have a sophisticated computer environment, i.e. existing departmental and/or cross-departmental networks, modern computers, computer-literate employees or the expertise to maintain the system, then it will not be advisable to proceed to higher end technology solutions.

As GIS technology flourishes, the opportunities for establishing GIS in lower-income municipalities/cities will increase. To take advantage of these opportunities, these municipalities/cities need to identify existing data sources within the larger organization. The data can then be accessed and/or exchanged, made possible by data sharing agreements that allow free access to GIS data. Furthermore, instead of hiring additional staff, work loads can be distributed among existing staff, thereby maximizing the use of in-house personnel to do additional GIS work. Training the in-house staff can also be made possible without additional expenses.

Finally, financing GIS hardware and software can be done through upgrading of existing systems or by including it as part of a larger project that requires GIS services. (See chapter 2.06.01 for more information on municipal integrated database management.)

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1.09 Map Appreciation

The general public and most stakeholders of the CLUP may not be familiar with maps. It is therefore a very important task for the planner to prepare mapped information that is easy to understand.

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1.09.01 (Geo)graphic Information

Maps are used to answer questions such as: "Where can I find…?", "How do I get to…?", "What feature can be found at…?", or "Where else do I find that feature?" or "What feature can be found to reveal attribute information about, for example schools, which can be compared and analyzed?”, and so forth.
Maps have to be well designed to be able to answer questions such as these. If the translation from data to graphics is successful, the resulting maps are the most efficient and effective means of communicating geospatial information. The map user is able to locate geographic objects, and he is informed of the characteristics of these geographic objects by means of the shape and color of the signs and symbols that represent them. The map reveals spatial relations and patterns, and gives the user the insight and overview of the distribution of particular phenomena.

Before maps can be designed, the planner should get a feel for the nature of the information, since this determines the graphic options. This is done through cartographic information analysis. Based on this knowledge, the planner can choose the correct symbols to represent the information in the map. The planner has a whole toolbox of visual variables available to match symbols to the nature of the data, which are applied according to cartographic rules and guidelines.

However, maps constructed using these basic cartographic guidelines may not necessarily be appealing. Although well-constructed, they could still look sterile. The design aspects required to create appealing maps also have to be included in the visualization process. “Appealing” in a communicative sense does not only mean having nice colors. One of the keywords here is contrast. Contrast will increase the communicative role of the map since it will create a kind of hierarchy in the map contents, assuming that not all information is of equal importance.

Google Earth on the Internet is a breakthrough for using spatial data. Formerly known as Earth Viewer. it maps the earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS 3D globe. Depending on the currentness and resolution of the data, it will show houses, the color of cars, and even the shadows of people and street signs for some selected areas. The screen dump above shows the Municipality of Laurel.Google Earth on the Internet is a breakthrough for using spatial data. Formerly known as Earth Viewer. it maps the earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS 3D globe. Depending on the currentness and resolution of the data, it will show houses, the color of cars, and even the shadows of people and street signs for some selected areas. The screen dump above shows the Municipality of Laurel.

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1.09.02 Participatory GIS

Participatory GIS implies making GIS available to all CLUP stakeholders, especially those marginalized groups in the municipality/city, in order to enhance their ability in generating, managing, analyzing and communicating information in the following contexts:

  1. Self-determination (for example, in protecting ancestral land and resource rights and entitlements);
  2. Management of conflicts among local community groups, and between communities and local authorities with regard to access, use, control and allocation of natural resources;
  3. Collaborative research and resource use planning and management;
  4. Good governance in terms of transparency and consensus decision-making with respect to land use;
  5. Raising awareness and assisting with education and social learning for the younger generation;
  6. Promotion of equity with reference to ethnicity, culture, gender, environmental justice and hazard mitigation.
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1.09.03 Visual Variables

Planners and cartographers convey spatial geographic information through a visual language consisting of a combination of the following:

  1. symbols (points, polylines, and polygons),
  2. variables (hue, orientation, value, shape, size and texture), and
  3. interpretation keys.

The effectiveness of a map in communicating its intended purpose depends on the selection of features, the way these features are depicted, and the ability of the users to objectively understand and relate these features to their life situation.

For instance, when a map is used to support active interaction among parties during the planning exercise, such as in the formulation of the CLUP Scenarios, it is important that the graphic vocabulary of the maps that have been prepared is fully understood by all parties and each feature is provided with a commonly defined key for interpretation (see Chapter 4.21.02 in the Toolbox).

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