Text Book

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0.0 GIS Cookbook

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0.01 Resolution of Board of Commissioners


Series of 2007


Signed Board Resolution in PDF will be available for download soon.
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0.02 Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Read Me First

  1. 1.01 About the Cookbook
  2. 1.02 The GIS Cookbook Framework
  3. 1.03 Scope and Limitations
  4. 1.04 The Target Group
  5. 1.05 Relationship of the GIS Cookbook to CLUP Guidebook Volume 1
  6. 1.06 Use of GIS as an Analysis or Presentation Tool in the CLUP Preparation
  7. 1.07 The Role of the Cookbook in Relation to the HLURB Previous Mapping Guidelines (Volume 7)
  8. 1.08 GIS on a Shoestring Budget: Maximizing the use of GIS within the municipal government organization
  9. 1.09 Map Appreciation

Chapter 2: Introduction to GIS

  1. 2.01 What is GIS?
  2. 2.02 ‘Digital Mapping’ and ‘Manual Mapping’ Compared
  3. 2.03 GIS for Presentation
  4. 2.04 GIS for Decision Makers
  5. 2.05 GIS for Beneficiaries/Stakeholders
  6. 2.06 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation in the LGU
  7. 2.07 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation between Cities/Municipalities and the Province
  8. 2.08 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation between LGUs and the National Government Agencies (NGAs)
  9. 2.09 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation between LGUs and Private Sector

Chapter 3: The Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS

  1. 3.01 Introduction
  2. 3.02 People (GIS Advocacy and Skills Development)
  3. 3.03 Methodology
  4. 3.04 Data
  5. 3.05 Software
  6. 3.06 Hardware (and Network Set Up)

Chapter 4: Methods - Procedures - Case Studies

  1. 4.01 LGU Case Studies
  2. 4.02 Strategies and Policies
  3. 4.03 GIS CLUP Start Package
  4. 4.04 External Technical Assistance in the CLUP Preparation
  5. 4.05 Information Product Descriptions - Basic Information
  6. 4.06 Information Product Descriptions - Socio-economic
  7. 4.07 Information Product Descriptions - Infrastructure
  8. 4.08 Information Product Descriptions - Environmental
  9. 4.09 Information Product Descriptions - Land Management
  10. 4.10 Needs Assessment
  11. 4.11 Risk & Suitability Analysis
  12. 4.12 Development Scenarios
  13. 4.13 Public Hearing Display
  14. 4.14 CLUP
  15. 4.15 Zoning Ordinance
  16. 4.16 CLUP Projects
  17. 4.17 An Overview of Central Institutions with Data for CLUP Preparation
  18. 4.18 Sample Municipal GIS Application Cum CLUP Dataset
  19. 4.19 Methods for Field Survey
  20. 4.20 Attribute Data Preparation
  21. 4.21 Spatial Data Preparation

Chapter 5: CLUP (Meta) Data

  1. 5.01 Quick Look, Table Index and Table Coding
  2. 5.02 Metadata for Basic Information
  3. 5.03 Metadata for Socio-economic
  4. 5.04 Metadata for Infrastructures
  5. 5.05 Metadata for Environment
  6. 5.06 Metadata Land Management
  7. 5.07 Metadata for Needs Analysis
  8. 5.08 Metadata for Project Monitoring
  9. 5.09 Metadata for Local Government Units
  10. 5.10 Metadata for Spatial Data

Chapter 6: Templates (Downloables)

  1. 6.01 LGU GIS Literacy Survey Form
  2. 6.02 LGU CLUP GIS Appraisal Form
  3. 6.03 GIS CLUP Start Package
  4. 6.04 GPS Survey Form
  5. 6.05 Data Request for the CLUP Preparation
  6. 6.06 Matrix with a Comparative Analysis of GIS Software Used and for Sale in the Philippines
  7. 6.07 Aerial Photo Project Formulation
  8. 6.08 Public Display in PowerPoint

Chapter 7: Training

  1. 7.01 GIS Training Agenda and Course Documentation
  2. 7.02 Training and Degree Programs on GIS in the Philippines
  3. 7.03 Tutorials on Some GIS Operations
  4. 7.04 CLUP Basemap Template Tutorial
  5. 7.05 Socio-economic Sector Tutorial
  6. 7.06.01 Infrastructure Sector Tutorial
  7. 7.07 Environment Sector Tutorial
  8. 7.08 Land Management Tutorial
  9. 7.09 How to Create the Needs Analysis Layer
  10. 7.10 Risk and Suitability Analysis Tutorial
  11. 7.11 Tutorial on How to Apply Recommended Color-Coding to a Draft CLUP

Chapter 8: Software

  1. 8.01 Mozilla Firefox
  2. 8.02 Adobe Reader
  3. 8.03 Enforma

Chapter 9: Mapping

Chapter 10: Glossary/List of Abbreviations

  1. Abbrevations
  2. Glossary
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0.03 Introduction

Land-use planning is a dynamic, evolving field that emerged out of the convergence of two concerns:
  1. The provision of urban infrastructure; and
  2. Social reform through land-use planning.
Today land-use planning has expanded to include the development, implementation and evaluation of a wide range of policies, while at the same time continuing its underlying focus on community well-being. Urban and regional planners, in both developing and developed countries, are specifically concerned with:
  1. Land use planning and management, especially between rural and urban uses, in coastal zones, among contemporary urban functions, and with regard to urban form;
  2. Environmental management and risk management in hazard prone areas;
  3. The design of the municipality/city and harmonization of conflicts with the surrounding region;
  4. Regional planning, with particular interest in global-local interaction, uneven land-use development, industrial location and regional economic growth;
  5. The identification of social needs and the design and provision of services and facilities to meet these needs;
  6. The distribution of benefits and costs of resource allocation and use among people;
  7. Citizen participation in planning; and
  8. Decision making processes, policy and program evaluation.
The field of land-use planning is experiencing such fundamental changes that are having a profound impact on the use of computer-based models in planning practice and education. One of these key changes is the dramatically increased availability of powerful and easy-to-use Geographic Information System(s) (GIS) software and hardware. An appropriately designed, funded and staffed GIS is able to present complex relationships in a simple and easily understood scenario. The information products of a GIS are invaluable to the expert and layman alike. With an ever increasing need to automate and streamline information flows within the organization, the role of computers, computer networks and the necessary support to maintain a digital infrastructure is essential. However, there is a casually quoted statistic that roughly half of all GIS implementations fail. Most failures are related to institutional issues, resistance to change, lack of political support, insufficient funding, and the fact that GIS innovation results in a radical change in information flow within an organization. Most assessments of GIS implementation success have focused on developed countries, where user support for hardware and software, availability of trained GIS professionals, and access to a reliable power supply are not problems. The considerations relevant for any GIS implementation are compounded by additional circumstances and constraints in developing countries. Even when a GIS can be well executed from a technical point of view, project design strongly influences the effectiveness of the use of the information products that are generated. The timing of the user needs assessment, training, data collection, pilot phasing, and full project implementation, are critical to gaining institutional support and to ultimate project success. An awareness of land-use data products and analysis capabilities typically needs to be engendered in end-users at the outset so that the use of these products can be maximized fully. The user needs assessment is a vital component of GIS implementation within a municipality. Thoroughly exploring potential data sources, integrating the GIS with more traditional information management within the municipality, and promoting an understanding of land use information and analysis capabilities early-on are critical to project success. It is also important to have sufficient political support within the host institution to make the GIS installation a welcome change from the existing system of information management. In battling with these issues, the GlS Cookbook endeavors to assist municipalities/cities that are determined to use GlS as a tool in CLUP preparation. GIS-based land-use planning tools can be used to more thoughtfully design everything from specific plans to zoning ordinances. They are also useful for eliciting and enjoining public participation not only in land use planning but also in land use decisions and visioning projects. The basic analytical methods of GIS tools include:
  1. Establishing a benchmark measurement of existing conditions to allow decision makers to see where the problems lie. They can then determine whether a new project will help correct these problems or just make them worse;
  2. Forecasting what will happen if a municipality continues to grow in the same way, then measuring the impacts – whether positive or negative – of alternative land-use scenarios;
  3. Comparing several alternative land-use scenarios in order to help select a preferred alternative for adoption and implementation;
  4. Evaluating policy decisions after they are implemented to ensure that they are meeting the original objectives.
By applying the guidelines found in the GIS Cookbook, the LGU will be able to avoid the major uncertainties usually encountered in setting up the system. The guidelines will also make the CLUP preparation process more transparent and interesting for all stakeholders. The Guidelines are presented in a web based format on the Internet: www.hlurb.gov.ph. This electronic format will facilitate accessibility of the GIS Cookbook and will give HLURB the opportunity to keep the Guidelines most updated. The GIS Cookbook is Volume 3 in the revised HLURB CLUP Guidelines portfolio and is accordingly synchronized with Volumes 1 and 2. It succeeds the Mapping Guidelines, found in the previous set of Guidelines, for a municipality that is interested to test GIS as a land-use planning instrument. The GIS Cookbook is the product of the various series of consultations and workshops held nationwide involving a multidisciplinary cross-section of potential users of the book, ranging from the LGUs, the national government agencies involved in planning, the academe, to those private individuals and institutions involved in the planning profession. The various drafts have gone through these participative sessions after which comments and recommendations have been incorporated wherever applicable and feasible. A condensed write-up of the comments made during these consultative workshops is available for cross-reference. For the user’s convenience, the pages of the document provide appropriate footers on the lower left of the page so they can be referenced with the List of Contents.
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0.04 Foreword

The publication of the CLUP GIS Guidebook is a landmark in local planning and development, a field that has gone a long way since the early 70s when land use planning was first placed mainstream into local development. Since then, Philippine municipalities and cities have gone through various stages of development, guided by their comprehensive land use plans (CLUPs) that were prepared in accordance with their mandates and in partnership with national government agencies, particularly the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB), and the local government units. Through the years, CLUPs have undergone several amendments and revisions. It would be safe to say that most CLUPs at this stage are now in their third or fourth generation of iterations. Throughout the planning exercises undertaken by the LGUs, preparation of the CLUPs have been facilitated by the use of the various planning guidelines formulated by the HLURB. These guidelines, presented in the form of serialized thematic manuals, have also been updated as lessons from the field were integrated in the planning process. To date, HLURB has revised some of these manuals and consolidated them into one volume, with a ground-breaking new volume is off the press. With the introduction of the CLUP GIS Guidebook, it is hoped that the local planning process is further enhanced, leading to more informed decisions of the LGU executives and stakeholders, thus enabling towns and cities nationwide to contribute to the country’s sustainable development.

Hon. Vice-President NOLI L. DE CASTRO Chairman, Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC)
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0.05 Acknowledgement

HLURB would like to acknowledge the assistance of the following in the preparation of this Guidebook for their active participation in the various consultation workshops conducted nationwide:
  1. Local Government Units (LGUs), particularly the City Planning and Development Coordinators (CPDCs), Municipal Planning and Development Coordinators (MPDCs), and Provincial Planning and Development Coordinators (PPDCs). For the active participation of the Municipalities of Ormoc and Laurel.
  2. National Government Agencies such as: Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM), Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR), Department of Agriculture (DA), Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Department of Tourism (DOT), Environmental Management Bureau (EMB), Forest Management Bureau (FMB), Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC), Land Management Bureau (LMB), League of Cities of the Philippines, Local Government Academy (LGA), Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA), Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MBG), National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), National Historical Institute (NHI), National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA), National Statistics Office (NSO), National Telecommunication Commission (NTC), National Transmission Corporation (Transco), Philippine National Police (PNP), Philippine, Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Population Commission (PopCom), Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB). Special thanks to Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) for providing us with the aerial photos and digital data.
  3. Other Stakeholders from the Academe, Private Sector, Non-Governmental Organizations, Consultancy Firms, Professional Organizations, namely: DARUMA Technologies, Inc., DRIM Consultancy Services, Far Eastern University - Center for Studies on the Urban Environment (FEU-SURE), FF Cruz & Co., Inc., GEODATA System Tech. Inc. (GSTI), Geodetic Engineers of the Philippines (GEP), Geo-Surveys & Mapping, Inc. (GSMI), GeoiDex, International Labour Organization (ASIST-AP), Manila Observatory, MAPUA Institute of Technology, Miriam College Foundation, National Center for Transportation Studies (NCTS), National College of Public Administration and Governance (NCPAG), NIKA Tech., Norconsult Management Services Phils., Inc., Palafox Associates, Philippine Institute of Environmental Planners (PIEP), Planning Resources Operations System (PROS Inc.), The UP School of Urban and Regional Planning (SURP), Sentro para sa Ikauunlad ng Katutubong Agham at Teknolohiya, Inc. (SIKAT), TAM Planners, Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry (TCAGP), UP Diliman - College of Architecture, UP Diliman - College of Geography, U.P. Planning and Development Research Foundation, Inc. (UP PLANADES), URBIS, World Wide Fund (WWF).
Special thanks to both Central and Regional Staffs of the Board for their kind cooperation in the provision of necessary inputs, comments and suggestions during the seemingly endless discussions. Finally, we also would like to convey our sincere appreciation to those whose names may not appear in the list but have greatly contributed in the completion of this Guidebook.
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1.0 Read Me First

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1.01 About the Cookbook

The GIS Cookbook is a part of the Comprehensive Land Use Planning (CLUP) Guidelines issued by the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) to assist local government units (LGUs) in the preparation of their Comprehensive Land Use Plans. The guidelines consist of: “CLUP Guidebook: A Guide to Comprehensive Land Use Plan Preparation” This volume provides the stepwise process of formulating the CLUP. It opens the door to a flexible planning process and documentation in relation to the municipal profile, that enables those predominantly rural municipalities to gather only those information applicable and necessary for the formulation of their respective CLUPs, without having to undergo the same in-depth analysis and sophistication in the planning documentation and process as those highly urbanized cities and municipalities, which are more likely to face competing and conflicting land uses that will also generate more sophisticated geographic information products. “CLUP GIS Guidebook: A Guide to Comprehensive Land Use Data Management” Often referred to as the GIS Cookbook, this volume introduces new approaches and methods in the preparation, documentation and presentation of CLUP information. It also describes an approach to GIS implementation that would make it not only a tool for the LGU Planning Office but also an LGU asset, which can be useful to other functions. This guidebook is made in compliance to the proposed flow and changes in the CLUP sector studies. The GIS Cookbook describes the fundamentals for a Geographic Information System (GIS) and other information systems needed in the CLUP formulation process. It guides the user in the application of GIS as a planning and information management tool, and provides geographic information products to enable the planners and stakeholders to formulate the CLUP in a participatory manner, resulting in a plan that serves its function of regulating and catalyzing development in the given municipality/city. The use of the GIS Cookbook as companion guide to the other volumes in the CLUP Guide Series may be as follows: 1. For a municipality/city that has decided to use GIS as a tool in the CLUP preparation, the following will be applied:
CLUP GIS GuidebookCLUP Guidebooks 
[/td][td]In addition to the guide:[/td][td]
2. For a municipality/city that will apply a traditional approach and not use GIS as a tool the following Guidelines will be used:
CLUP GuidebookCLUP Sector Studies
Volume 7 (Previous Series)
CLUP GIS Guidebook
[/td][td][/td][td]Only recommendations for conventional database management & other templates
The Cookbook is found on HLURB Homepage, www.hlurb.gov.ph and can be downloaded for free. A digital version can be provided on a CD at cost price.
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1.02 The GIS Cookbook Framework

The GIS Cookbook consists of two parts: Part One is the Textbook which is the narrative component that describes what needs to be known in starting up a functioning GIS to be used as a tool in the CLUP preparation. Part Two is the Toolbox which is a compendium of detailed instructions, templates, forms and dummies that will be of help in the actual work. The Textbook is made up of the following chapters: Chapter 1: Read Me First This is a general introduction to the GIS Cookbook and its role in the HLURB CLUP Guide Series. Chapter 2: Introduction to GIS This provides a general idea of what GIS is and its various applications. It shows the advantages of using GIS in local governance specifically in the city and municipal levels, and particularly in the CLUP preparation process. Chapter 3: The Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS This outlines what are necessary in terms of skilled people, proper methodology, accurate data, sufficient software and hardware, to put into operation a GIS that is customized for the specific municipality/city. It also describes the various information products using GIS that are of help in the preparation of the CLUP. The Toolbox consists of the following chapters: Chapter 4: Methodology, Procedures and Case Studies This provides the more elaborate descriptions for the detailed components of a GIS system for CLUP. Chapter 5: CLUP ( Meta)Data This gives information on how to organize the data and the recommended standards that need to be applied. Chapter 6: Templates This contains the various masters and templates to be used in the CLUP preparation. Chapter 7: Training This includes useful materials and tutorials to be used for skills development training. Chapter 8: Software This provides a selection of software that will be useful to access the Guidelines. Chapter 9: Mapping (Volume 7) This contains the scanned version of relevant portions of the Mapping Guidelines in Adobe Portable Document Format (pdf). Chapter 10: Glossary and List of Abbreviations This contains the technical terms and acronyms used in Volume 3.
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1.02.01 GIS Activities with reference to the Content of the Cookbook

The following matrix shows how the GIS Cookbook can be used in relation to the CLUP preparation:   SITUATION (WHAT TO DO)COURSE OF ACTION (HOW TO DO IT) 1 If you are a beginner in GIS it is recommended that you attend the Basic GIS and the Applied GIS Training Courses conducted by HLURB prior to using GIS in preparing the CLUP.
  1. Course Description and Training Program of the training modules are found in the Toolbox, Chapter 7.01.
  2. Contact HLURB (Regional Offices or Information Technology Group, through telephone +632 927 2698 and email address: gis@hlurb.gov.ph for information on scheduled trainings.
If you have previous training and experience in GIS you start here:   SITUATION (WHAT TO DO)COURSE OF ACTION (HOW TO DO IT) 2 There are 12 steps in the process of formulating the CLUP
  1. Refer to Volume 1
3 For each Step, one or several CLUP Information Products (IPs) are specified. IPs are defined as the instructive components that are needed to present a CLUP Step in a comprehensive way. It consists of tables, graphs and maps in both digital and paper-based formats.
  1. For more information about IPs, refer to Chapter 3.03.04.
  2. Examples of IPs are found in Chapter 3.03.07.
  3. A complete set of IP descriptions are included in the Toolbox, Chapters 4.05 – 4.09.
4 To prepare an IP, data needs to be gathered, stored and presented in a way that is easy to comprehend by the CLUP stakeholders.
  1. Examples of stakeholders are shown in page 22 of Volume 1.
  2. The data that needs to be captured is outlined in the Toolbox, Chapter 5.01.01 and in each IP respectively.
5 The CLUP attribute data is compiled in a number of tables. Some of the tables (called the Key tables) are required for all types of municipalities/ cities in order to do the analysis. There are also some tables (known as the Optional tables) that might be useful based on the specific profile, size, etc. of the respective LGUs being planned.
  1. A list of tables with prioritized (Key) and extensive (Optional) data is included in the Toolbox, Chapter 5.01.01.
  2. The LGU should consult HLURB Regional Office (RO) to find out what attribute datasets are required in the CLUP preparation.
6 The data is collected from the different sources, either from secondary sources or through primary field surveys conducted by the respective LGUs.
  1. The IP describes how the data should be gathered.
  2. Case studies on how to implement primary fields surveys are found in the Toolbox, Chapter 4.19.01.
  3. A list of CLUP data sources and what data is available from them is included in the Toolbox, Chapter 4.17.01.
7 The attribute data should be inserted in the above-mentioned (Excel) tables
  1. Templates can be copied/downloaded from the Toolbox, Chapter 5.
8 Some tables will be used in the GIS, while some will be used in the narrative text of the CLUP.
  1. A list of GIS tables and non-GIS tables is found in the Toolbox, Chapter 5.01.01.
9 The non-GIS tables should have a clear and concise layout.
  1. Templates can be copied/downloaded from the Toolbox, Chapter 5.
10 The spatial data is stored in GIS-format. It is recommended that standardized symbology, legend and (map) layout formats are used.
  1. The respective IPs provide the recommended Symbology and Legend to be used.
  2. The Palettes for the CLUP feature objects can be downloaded from the Toolbox, Chapter 4.21.02.
  3. Recommendations on layout and dimensions for printed maps are found in Chapter 5.10.01.
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1.03 Scope and Limitations

The GIS Cookbook is a guide on the application of GIS as a tool for CLUP preparation. It is generally intended for municipalities with minimal incomes, and whose CLUP formulation will involve only a minimum of data requirements and basic analysis. It will however, be useful for other LGUs, Highly Urbanized Cities (HUCs) and Independent Component Cities (ICCs), that have the resources to set up sophisticated GIS systems and acquire the necessary expertise. The GIS Cookbook will not provide guidelines on the setting up of a corporate GIS for the entire municipality such as GIS applications for cadastral and tax mapping and the like. However, the GIS for CLUP could serve as a stepping stone towards the LGU’s acquisition of GIS Technology, once it appreciates how GIS proves to be useful not only in planning, but in various decision-making purposes as well. The minimal GIS on a “shoestring budget” outlined here, constitutes a platform that can be developed into a more sophisticated system when the LGU’s income status and financial resources improve. Practical GIS knowledge is most valuable; however it is just one of the several requisite tools that the planner needs in performing his job. In addition, the planner should have the capability to manage and monitor the activities in the preparation of the CLUP, the skills to advocate for and present the Plan to officials and the public, and the proficiency to negotiate and synthesize opposing interests in the planning process. These are all requisites to a CLUP process that will contribute to rational land use decision-making. Formulating the CLUP, and making the best use of the GIS Cookbook plus the other volumes in the CLUP Guide Series, requires a full-time LGU planner in charge of the CLUP preparation. These planning guidelines are meant to provide the municipal/city planner with the knowledge, the tools, and the confidence, to manage the preparation of the CLUP. The aim of the GIS Cookbook (with its Toolbox) is to assist the municipal/city planner with minimal or no experience in GIS, given the support of the HLURB staff in the Regional Offices who have been trained in GIS.
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1.04 The Target Group

The ability to use computer-based applications or ‘GIS literacy’ in the country, based on a recent survey of municipalities and cities of their levels of expertise and familiarity with computers, is currently very low (NAMRIA, 2004). The survey results showed that less than 30 out of 1,650 surveyed LGUs, have functional GIS systems, and these are predominantly high income cities (see Map below). The GIS Cookbook therefore has been designed to serve the needs of LGUs, particularly low-income municipalities/cities, or those in the ‘development stage,’ i.e. those LGUs still in the initial phases of establishing databases and developing appropriate skills. The establishment of an optimal GIS system for a specific LGU is contingent on the capacity of the said LGU in terms of budget, manpower and other resources. Based on the IRA grant classification rules for LGUs, the GIS Cookbook classifies municipalities and cities into three groups as shown in the matrix below.
CLUP GroupMunicipalities CoveredRecommendations for GIS
ALGUs that shall comply with minimum requirements for the CLUP preparation Municipalities/cities of IRA Class 4-6 without any other special classifications. This covers about 956 LGUs. These municipalities/cities are estimated to have financial and staffing resources to build a basic GIS. For final classification, the HLURB Regional Office should prepare a list of the LGUs according to the above-shown recommended groupings, based on its experiences with concerned LGUs. This group includes majority of the LGUs, and is the main target user of the HLURB GIS Cookbook.
B LGUs that shall comply with modest requirements for the CLUP preparation Cities of IRA Class 4-6 and Municipalities/cities of IRA Class 1-3, This covers about 544 LGUs.These cities and municipalities are estimated to have financial and staffing resources to build a modest GIS, and will find the HLURB GIS Cookbook very useful.
C LGUs that shall comply with advanced requirements for the CLUP preparationCities of IRA Class 1-3 This covers about 117 LGUs. These cities are estimated to have financial and staffing resources to build a sophisticated GIS without the need of the HLURB GIS Cookbook.
For final classification, the HLURB Regional Office should prepare a list of the LGUs according to the above-shown recommended groupings, based on its experiences with concerned LGUs. Detailed information on the IRA Classification is found in the Toolbox, Chapter 5.09. Help Us to Update A GIS literacy questionnaire is available to update us with correct information. It can be found in the Toolbox, Chapter 6.01. Please send filled up questionnaires to Information Technology Group - Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board, Kalayaan Ave., Diliman, Quezon City. , Fax +632 927 2731. Map Showing the GIS Literacy Levels in the Country
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1.04.01 The LGU Planner in Focus

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1.05 Relationship of the GIS Cookbook to CLUP Guidebook Volume 1

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1.05.01 Volume 1 in Brief

This volume provides the stepwise process of formulating the CLUP. It opens the door to a flexible planning process and documentation in relation to the municipal profile, that enables those predominantly rural municipalities to gather only those information applicable and necessary for the formulation of their respective CLUPs, without having to undergo the same in-depth analysis and sophistication in the planning documentation and process as those highly urbanized cities and municipalities, which are more likely to face competing and conflicting land uses that will also generate more sophisticated geographic information products. Volume 1 summarizes the rationale for land use planning and the need for the CLUP. It also identifies and describes the steps in the process of CLUP preparation. The GIS Cookbook provides the tools for GIS in the form of Information Products that are reflective of a planning process that is participatory, and a CLUP that is both regulatory and catalytic. The step-wise process given in Volume 1 is shown as follows: The GIS Cookbook elaborates on those Information Products (maps, graphs, tables, etc.) that are necessary to fully equip the Planner with the knowledge and understanding of the specific Step in the Planning Process. It should be noted that some of the steps in the process shown in the above CLUP Process illustration, need not be sequential but can be done simultaneously, such as Steps 2, 3, and 4. And since some of these Steps will need more graphic displays of data than the others, it is important to exercise wider flexibility in order to maximize the time needed in the whole process. For example, if there is no available digital base map or baseline data yet, Step 4 can proceed simultaneously with Steps 2 and 3 as this requires a lengthier period to prepare. This is shown in the illustration below.
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1.05.02 GIS Information Products for the Steps in the Planning Process

Information Products are the instructional components needed to present a CLUP Step in a comprehensive way. They consist of tables, graphs and maps in both digital and paper-based formats. Information Products for Step 1 – Getting Organized (to Work with the CLUP) It is equally important to “plan for the planning process” in order to anticipate and prepare the resources necessary for the planning exercise, thus enabling a smooth implementation and timely accomplishment of the planning outputs. Making use of GIS as a tool in CLUP preparation will require the mobilization of the ‘GIS Start Package’ (consisting of five components) to ensure that the needed resources for the GIS activities are readily available. The GIS Cookbook provides the guidelines for the procurement of sustainable hardware, software, development of human resources and possible consultant involvement. In Step 1, it is recommended that the LGU consult with HLURB to find out the scope of data capture that would be applicable for the respective municipality/city based on class, size, economic resources and profile, and so that the budget can also be assessed properly. For more information, see Chapter 3 (The Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS) and referred subjects in the Toolbox. Information Products for Step 2 – Identifying Stakeholders (of the CLUP) No special GIS requirement has been identified for this Step in the CLUP process. Information Products for Step 3 – Setting the Vision (for the CLUP) No special GIS requirement has been identified for this Step in the CLUP process. However, if the city/municipality already has an existing Vision statement, it should be revisited in this Step for further refinement if necessary. Information Products for Step 4 – Analyzing the Situation Step 4 of the planning process - Situation Analysis - basically answers the question: Where are we now? It is both analytical and diagnostic, geared towards identifying issues, potentials and future development needs and the spatial requirements of the city/municipality. Assessment consists of technical and participatory methods. Technical assessment is based on factual data derived from surveys, official publications and records of the city/municipality, concerned national agencies and other entities. It involves the use of indicators such as proportions, rates, frequencies, qualities/conditions (e.g. severity, critical, etc.), standards and other parameters that are vital in characterizing the current situation. On the other hand, participatory assessment is based on the results of barangay/community consultations, focus group discussions (FGDs), meetings with key informants, multi-sectoral meetings, etc. These activities facilitate the generation of the community’s felt needs, desires, and perceived issues and opportunities. Suggestions to address issues and concerns can also be derived from this exercise. It is important to prepare the digital CLUP Base Map at the outset because this takes time to accomplish (see the IP on Basemap preparation found in the Toolbox, Chapter 4.05.01). It is essential to have the Base Map readily available as soon as possible to facilitate sectoral data gathering and analysis. It is also necessary to prepare the demographic data upon which the baseline studies and sectoral analyses for education, health, transport, agriculture, etc. will be based. It is recommended that only one population projection be used for all the sectoral studies. In general there is a lack of accurate current data for municipal land use planning, and much time is needed to acquire data for the CLUP planning. Data acquisition makes up about 80% of the total cost of establishing a CLUP GIS. With regard to data, see the distinction between Key and Optional indicators in Chapter 3.03.02. As mentioned previously, it is important to consult with HLURB at the outset of Step 1 in order to determine the level of data capture applicable to the municipality / city being planned, in accordance with its municipality class, size, economic resources and profile. This should result in a more focused specification of data tailored to the particular requirements of the specific LGU’s CLUP. Once the scope of data requirements has been determined, the data gathering activities should proceed per specifications, and the primary surveys and secondary data acquisition (from the respective entities) should be conducted in a timely manner. A template (Data Request for CLUP Preparation, found in the Toolbox, Chapter 6.05) in combination with the Information Products described in Chapter 4 should be used in this process. Some of the basic data about demography is presented for the entire LGU, hence no GIS is used. In this case, demographic information is presented in Excel format as tables and graphs (see tables in Chapter 5.02). Other basic demographic data are broken down to Barangays, and this may be elaborated in GIS format (see table in Chapter 5.02.04 as an example). Furthermore, the data extracted from these layers can be used as components of the baseline studies in this step and in Step 5. For example, when analyzing the provision of health services, the current and projected population data will be matched with the planning standards and the current availability of basic health facilities. Under Step 4, thematic spatial layers -Baseline Studies- need to be prepared for all sectors and sub-sectors included in the CLUP. The locations of service facilities such as schools, health clinics, etc.; infrastructure such as roads, power transmission lines, etc.; and those areas under protection such as ancestral domains etc.; need to be defined with an accuracy that is acceptable for CLUP planning and analysis. There may be two ways to find out the location of the sector’s features:
  1. Organize a field survey to capture the locations. For example, go to the locations of the health clinics and track the positional coordinates using a GPS.
  2. Get secondary source data and customize it to fit the specific criteria or the specific sector feature. For instance, to identify the distribution of various soil types, get a printed map from the Bureau of Soils and Management (BSWM), and this can be cropped and overlaid on the base map to constitute the soil sector component.
It is also recommended that a proper File and Folder system should be introduced in the computer(s) that will manipulate and store the CLUP GIS data (see Chapter 3.04.03, ‘Guidelines for File and Folder Management’). In the Toolbox, instructions are given on how to carry out the following:
  1. How to conduct a field survey to get/retrieve spatial data (Chapter 4.19)
  2. How to convert secondary source data into spatial data layers (Chapter 4.21)
Chapter 4.19.02 also provides an example on how to conduct a comprehensive and integrated primary survey at the Barangay level. The survey will identify basic data as well as issues and concerns needed for baseline studies that may encourage participatory planning activities. The Needs Assessment Information Products will be a comprehensive combination of maps which will reveal weaknesses or gaps in the municipality/city’s distribution of goods and services as well as the LGU’s basic needs based on population projections. GIS will prove useful for this and Chapter 1.06 shows how it can be used to make it transparent to the general public. The Risk & Suitability Analysis Information Products will focus on the constraints and potentials originating from the natural environment and man-made/enforced restrictions/ rules and regulations. These will provide the bases for some examples for the formulation of a sustainable development plan for the municipality/city. Information Products for Step 5 – Setting the Goals and Objectives (for the CLUP) The next step after the data gathering and analysis is the formulation of goals and objectives that will help the municipality/city to achieve its vision. It is important that the goals and objectives reflect the “common good” and consensus of the broader community so that implementation of the plan effectively engages all sectors, and ownership is shared community-wide. A good way to achieve this is to conduct participatory goal-setting processes in public settings where the Needs Assessment and Risk & Suitability Analysis Information Products can be presented. The presentation should be adjusted to the audience’s assimilative levels (see Chapters 1.09 and 4.21.02). Information Products for Step 6 – Establishing the Development Thrust and Spatial Strategies This step is critical in determining the future overall spatial development of the municipality/city. It involves the understanding of what is appropriate, feasible and possible through an exploration of different land use alternatives or scenarios. After exploring at least three alternatives, the municipality/city will prepare a draft structure/concept plan based on a preferred alternative. Depending on the planners’ levels of knowledge, the use of GIS at this stage will be limited to actual presentation and display work (for beginners), or advance to a more sophisticated spatial analysis (for those with more advanced skills). The information products in this step are the three alternative Spatial Development Forms and the preferred structure/ concept plan (see Chapter 4.12 in the Toolbox). Information Products for Step 7 – Preparing the Draft CLUP It is at this stage that the location and details of the Land Use Plan components are put into final draft form. GIS will be useful in furnishing the templates which are based on map standards in terms of format and symbology (see Chapter 4.21.02). Thematic maps can also be extracted from the GIS and be included in the narrative text of the CLUP. The information product in this step is the Draft Land Use Plan Map. Information Products for Step 8 – Preparing the Draft ZO The drafting of the Zoning Ordinance (ZO) basically entails translating the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) into a legal document / tool. In general, Zoning has the same features or land use classifications as the CLUP, except that it provides for more detailed information on zone boundaries and use regulations / controls, among others. In the same way as the draft CLUP, there is a GIS application for the Zoning Ordinance that will facilitate the preparation thereof. The information product in this step is the Draft Zoning Map (see Chapter 4.15 in the Toolbox for details). Information Products for Step 9 – Conducting Public Hearing on CLUP/ZO This involves a 3-stage process namely: public display and information dissemination; conduct of public hearing/consultation, and the Land Use Committee Hearings. The process aims to inform the general public and ensure an objective and participatory review of the draft CLUP / ZO and to encourage ownership of the plan and gain support for its implementation. GIS will be a useful instrument in translating the plan into a format that will be understood by the stakeholders. The information products in the previous step can be printed out and displayed and / or be included in a PowerPoint presentation. The information products in this step are the refined Land Use and Zoning Maps. Information Products for Step 10 – Reviewing, Adopting and Approving the CLUP and ZO Step 10 involves the mandatory and comprehensive review of the CLUP and ZO, after which adoption of the CLUP and enactment of the ZO by the Sangguniang Bayan/ Panlungsod and approval by either the Sangguniang Panlalawigan or HLURB will take place. This step will benefit from GIS in the form of excellent digital maps compared to the tedious process of reviewing analog maps. Information Products for Step 11 – Implementing the CLUP and ZO ProjectImplementation of the CLUP will require resources, institutional structures and procedures, among others. The local government code allows flexibility for the LGU to design and implement its own organizational structure and staffing pattern, taking into consideration its vision, mission, goals and objectives as contained in the CLUP, and its accountability to the community. GIS enables the planner to readily extract data from the database and CLUP project profile, making it easier for the LGU’s to manage / implement projects as well as share project information with stakeholders / project implementors. Information Products for Step 12 – Monitoring & Evaluating the CLUP/ZO With the CLUP and its implementation program established, assessment procedures for its effectiveness must be instituted. Monitoring and evaluation are performed to assess how fully and how effectively a plan is being carried out. The combination of attribute and spatial data, which is a unique advantage of GIS, greatly facilitates the measurement of development outcomes and trends. For example, the tables and maps for development, clearances and permits will be excellent monitoring tools, that will provide useful inputs in analyzing land use changes, project implementation, and the attainment of the LGU’s vision, goals and objectives. As the GIS software is developing strongly into more user-friendly interface it will also be easier to meet a growing demand for ‘political transparency’ and participatory planning. The information products in this step are the decision maps, charts and figures reflecting status of projects. Summary The following graph summarizes the interaction between the Planning Steps and the Information Products:
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1.05.03 Preparing a CLUP Work Plan

A Project Management Software is useful in preparing the CLUP Work Plan in Step 1. A useful software of this kind is Microsoft’s MS Project, which helps the planner to align the planning activities with the available resources, and set milestones and deadlines for better management and results. By using its flexible reporting and analysis capabilities, the planner is assured of operational information to optimize resources, prioritize work, and align the CLUP planning with overall objectives. The following is a sample outline of Steps 1 to 4 in a Gantt chart using MS Project:
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1.06 Use of GIS as an Analysis or Presentation Tool in the CLUP Preparation

Please note that not all the ‘graphic’ information found in the CLUP can be defined in a GIS. There are, for example, graphs based on tables that will simply facilitate the reading of the report which are listed in the GIS Cookbook’s CLUP Metadatabase Specification. These examples of conventional databases (and the corresponding templates in Chapter 5 in the Toolbox) can be used by LGUs who have no access to GIS but have some knowledge of MS Excel.
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1.07 The Role of the Cookbook in Relation to the HLURB Previous Mapping Guidelines (Volume 7)

Although it is advantageous to use GIS in the preparation of the CLUP (and many other related activities of the LGU), some municipalities/cities may not be able to acquire a GIS system in the immediate future. In this case, the previous CLUP Guidelines Volume 7 (’Mapping’) is still available for use to guide users in manual mapping activities. However the GIS Cookbook’s recommendations for conventional data management and the appropriate templates will still be useful. Relevant parts of Volume 7 are found in the Toolbox, Chapter 9.

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1.08 GIS on a Shoestring Budget: Maximizing the use of GIS within the municipal government organization.

The word ‘shoestring’ is used because the current structure of the GIS presented in the Cookbook is based on lower end technology solutions. It is necessary to emphasize that if the LGU does not have a sophisticated computer environment, i.e. existing departmental and/or cross-departmental networks, modern computers, computer-literate employees or the expertise to maintain the system, then it will not be advisable to proceed to higher end technology solutions. As GIS technology flourishes, the opportunities for establishing GIS in lower-income municipalities/cities will increase. To take advantage of these opportunities, these municipalities/cities need to identify existing data sources within the larger organization. The data can then be accessed and/or exchanged, made possible by data sharing agreements that allow free access to GIS data. Furthermore, instead of hiring additional staff, work loads can be distributed among existing staff, thereby maximizing the use of in-house personnel to do additional GIS work. Training the in-house staff can also be made possible without additional expenses. Finally, financing GIS hardware and software can be done through upgrading of existing systems or by including it as part of a larger project that requires GIS services. (See chapter 2.06.01 for more information on municipal integrated database management.)
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1.09 Map Appreciation

The general public and most stakeholders of the CLUP may not be familiar with maps. It is therefore a very important task for the planner to prepare mapped information that is easy to understand.
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1.09.01 (Geo)graphic Information

Maps are used to answer questions such as: "Where can I find…?", "How do I get to…?", "What feature can be found at…?", or "Where else do I find that feature?" or "What feature can be found to reveal attribute information about, for example schools, which can be compared and analyzed?”, and so forth. Maps have to be well designed to be able to answer questions such as these. If the translation from data to graphics is successful, the resulting maps are the most efficient and effective means of communicating geospatial information. The map user is able to locate geographic objects, and he is informed of the characteristics of these geographic objects by means of the shape and color of the signs and symbols that represent them. The map reveals spatial relations and patterns, and gives the user the insight and overview of the distribution of particular phenomena. Before maps can be designed, the planner should get a feel for the nature of the information, since this determines the graphic options. This is done through cartographic information analysis. Based on this knowledge, the planner can choose the correct symbols to represent the information in the map. The planner has a whole toolbox of visual variables available to match symbols to the nature of the data, which are applied according to cartographic rules and guidelines. However, maps constructed using these basic cartographic guidelines may not necessarily be appealing. Although well-constructed, they could still look sterile. The design aspects required to create appealing maps also have to be included in the visualization process. “Appealing” in a communicative sense does not only mean having nice colors. One of the keywords here is contrast. Contrast will increase the communicative role of the map since it will create a kind of hierarchy in the map contents, assuming that not all information is of equal importance. Google Earth on the Internet is a breakthrough for using spatial data. Formerly known as Earth Viewer. it maps the earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS 3D globe. Depending on the currentness and resolution of the data, it will show houses, the color of cars, and even the shadows of people and street signs for some selected areas. The screen dump above shows the Municipality of Laurel.
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1.09.02 Participatory GIS

Participatory GIS implies making GIS available to all CLUP stakeholders, especially those marginalized groups in the municipality/city, in order to enhance their ability in generating, managing, analyzing and communicating information in the following contexts:
  1. Self-determination (for example, in protecting ancestral land and resource rights and entitlements);
  2. Management of conflicts among local community groups, and between communities and local authorities with regard to access, use, control and allocation of natural resources;
  3. Collaborative research and resource use planning and management;
  4. Good governance in terms of transparency and consensus decision-making with respect to land use;
  5. Raising awareness and assisting with education and social learning for the younger generation;
  6. Promotion of equity with reference to ethnicity, culture, gender, environmental justice and hazard mitigation.
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1.09.03 Visual Variables

Planners and cartographers convey spatial geographic information through a visual language consisting of a combination of the following:
  1. symbols (points, polylines, and polygons),
  2. variables (hue, orientation, value, shape, size and texture), and
  3. interpretation keys.
The effectiveness of a map in communicating its intended purpose depends on the selection of features, the way these features are depicted, and the ability of the users to objectively understand and relate these features to their life situation. For instance, when a map is used to support active interaction among parties during the planning exercise, such as in the formulation of the CLUP Scenarios, it is important that the graphic vocabulary of the maps that have been prepared is fully understood by all parties and each feature is provided with a commonly defined key for interpretation (see Chapter 4.21.02 in the Toolbox).
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2.0 Introduction to GIS

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2.01 What is GIS?

A Geographic Information System (GIS) – is a computerized system for dealing with information about geographically located features. Geographic information is embedded in over 80% of all the goods and services a municipality provides. In a GIS one deals with geographic features, usually presented on top of some type of backdrop map (a Base Map). Also included are the descriptive properties of these features. In a GIS, the features are indicated as points, lines, and polygons or as small squares in a grid. Attribute information regarding these features may also be attached. For example, features representing schools may have attribute information attached to them such as enrolment and teacher/pupil ratio. With GIS, a number of operations and analytical processes can be performed both on the geographic data and on the tabular / attribute data. In its simplest form, GIS can be used to create a map for the user on demand; in its more complex form, it becomes a database with millions of pieces of data that are geographically related, and can be displayed in a format that the user may select to make complex interrelationships visually understandable. GIS is not only a software but is a system that includes the hardware, data, including the users and the organization needed to manage the data.

GIS Can Be Utilized in Many Situations such as Needs Analyses and Risk and Suitability Analyses

Among the various uses of GIS relative to CLUP are:
    Management, analysis and presentation of information, in map form; Show location, distribution, and qualitative information on services, facilities, infrastructure, and other sectoral aspects that are useful in sectoral studies, needs determination, and planning for provision of services. For example, it can show the distribution of public health centers, the types and capability of roads in the municipality/city, and other objects with a defined location; To identify hazardous areas in a municipality/city and overlay with the population density map in order to determine the risk factor as well as the suitability of the area for urban development vis-à-vis land management policies.
Geographic information is information about all those features that are possible to locate to a position. In other words, GIS is a tool to link features with geographic location, mostly presented on a map, together with other types of information such as tables and templates, texts, images, drawings or video sequences. map attribute

GIS as Everybody’s Tool

Computer-assisted systems to capture, store, analyze and present geographic information have been available since the mid-80’s. However, even if many groups were interested in the technology, it has not been predominantly used due to the high cost of these systems, and the high technical skills required. In recent years, this situation has changed as GIS systems have become more user-friendly and affordable, thus opening up the technology for wider use.
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2.02 ‘Digital Mapping’ and ‘Manual Mapping’ Compared

The use of GIS enables:
  1. better work flow;
  2. higher quality information for decision-making;
  3. better integration among different offices / departments;
  4. quicker access to information;
  5. more efficient information dissemination.
All these lead to possible cost reduction and cost effectiveness. The following matrix is a comparison of digital and manual mapping with respect to key activities:
PREPARATION Initial version tedious to prepare but quick and efficient to monitor Start from scratch every time
STORAGE Digital Database Standardized and integrated, compact memory capacity Different scales on different standards, voluminous and bulky
RETRIEVAL Quick retrieval Paper maps and tables
UPDATING Automatic search and replace by computer Manual check and revision
OVERLAY Systematically done Faster integration of complex, multiple spatial and non spatial data sets Expensive and time consuming
SPATIAL ANALYSIS Faster Time and energy consuming, slow
DISPLAY Easier and faster to prepare Better quality Slow Tedious and time-consuming
The computer has revolutionized the ways of communicating and analyzing information about the world, including decision-making. Geographic Information Technology (GIT) is now widely used for computer-assisted management and analysis of data concerning geographically related features. GIS transforms data into timely information. It is capable of sorting out information and separating them into different layers, as well as combining them with other layers of information, according to the needs of the specific user. The information is stored in the computer in such a way that geographic data can be combined according to the needs of the specific user. Integration Benefits One remarkable facility of GIS is that it enables the coordinated use of data from many sources. This integrative ability is made possible by the geographic link through the defined coordinates in the geodetic reference system. The coordinated and integrated information exchange between a number of systems where the same basic data are used by many users for staff work, planning, decision making, information dissemination etc. is very cost-effective. Information Availability Using GIS requires a completely different and more systematic way of information management in order to make the information available. Disseminating information through GIS, makes it accessible to users, and enables transparency in governance for the municipality/city. GIS makes it possible to publish geographic and other data and distribute this data digitally in an instructive, easy and interactive manner.
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2.03 GIS for Presentation

The municipal/city CLUP, as a tool for local governance should be accessible and understood not only by the planners and implementers but by the general public. The requisite information contained in the maps, tables, diagrams, and the plan itself should be easy to read and interpret in order to encourage an open exchange of information, and dialogue among planners, elected representatives and the general public. Public participation in planning and implementation of the CLUP is an integral part of the process, and the voice of the local constituents should always be heard in decisions concerning land use. In order to make the Comprehensive Land Use Plan truly comprehensive, the GIS Cookbook will provide guidelines on how to address some of the following gaps in many of the current CLUPs that have been identified:
  1. Distinguish the difference between a ‘plan’ and a ‘map’
  2. Consistencies in scale and the use of the scale bar
  3. Use of the Legend and consistency of the symbols used in both the Legend and the Map itself.
  4. Appropriate use of point symbols and polygon symbols.
  5. Distinguish between thematic information and base information which are often mixed together or displayed without having a base map as a backdrop for easy reference.
  6. Appropriate use of hatching and raster using proper color-coding and / or line thickness, to make the thematic information clearer to the map reader.
  7. Use of informative charts, graphs, and other illustrative graphics in the narrative text instead of hard to read tables and matrices.
  8. Translating information into more understandable maps for easier comparison and analysis.
The capabilities of GIS for planning and analysis are often overlooked by planners who oftentimes use it mainly for mapping. The GIS Cookbook will introduce examples of how to use the analytical capabilities GIS to enable planners to make more efficient use of the technology. An example is shown below to demonstrate how GIS can improve one aspect of the CLUP, which is the CLUP Base Map, through an integrated use of symbols and color codes, and how these can be used for making thematic maps that will facilitate analysis.
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2.04 GIS for Decision Makers

The decision-makers in the CLUP planning process include the municipal local executives such as the Mayor, the Vice Mayor, the Barangay Captains and the members of the Sangguniang Bayan, and all the other stakeholders who have a stake in setting the municipality’s/city’s future directions and the planned layout of land uses. GIS plays an important role in decision making for sustainable development, given its ability to provide useful information for analysis and assessment. The development process framework shown herein illustrates how GIS can track the results of the decision making process (which includes policy making, planning and management) and how it influences the driving forces of development (such as population, health and wealth, technology, politics and economics). GIS can be used to monitor the results (human impacts) of development, and what its impacts are, on the physical, social, and economic environment (environmental change). The ensuing changes in these processes can be monitored through GIS (with the use of appropriate methods such as remote sensing, for example), and the resulting information can be processed and analyzed with the help of GIS, in order to provide timely, accurate, and concise information that can be provided to the decision makers, and the planners when they plan for the appropriate interventions for the driving forces to achieve sustainable development., thus completing the loop. Sustainability of the whole cycle of development will be enabled by the availability of the information as gathered through GIS and its wider dissemination among the various stakeholders and the general public. This in turn raises public awareness of the issues regarding the impacts of development, and triggers the demand for public consensus and transparency in decision making.
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2.05 GIS for Beneficiaries / Stakeholders

The process of preparing the CLUP requires transparency and public participation. Stakeholders’ participation is important in the planning process since this gives them the opportunity to play an active role in the decision-making and in the subsequent activities whose impacts and outcomes will affect them. Encouraging public participation however is a daunting task, and an important step for enjoining the public to participate in the CLUP planning and implementation process is to raise the levels of their awareness of the value of their involvement in local governance. To make the CLUP better understood by any local citizen, it is important to have a CLUP document that is simple, concise, and makes use of graphics that are easy to understand and are devoid of technical terms. In this way, the CLUP document becomes more comprehensible to the layman, and the proposals that will affect the ordinary citizen will be better understood by them. In order for the CLUP to be appreciated by and useful for the various stakeholders, it will be necessary to prepare a CLUP version wherein the highlights of the plan are condensed for the layman. It could be printed in a leaflet or primer that can be distributed to all the stakeholders. In the planning process there will be a good number of presentations, meetings and hearings where stakeholders will be present. (For more details, see Volume 1: ‘A Guide to Comprehensive Land Use Plan Preparation’). There are now tools available to facilitate presentations that are readily available to LGUs such as PowerPoint presentations, which can be used to present the highlights of the CLUP to the stakeholders during consultative meetings and other forums. There is also a template that can be used by the planner where applicable, see the Toolbox, Chapter 4.13. Furthermore, there are guidelines on how a PowerPoint presentation can be enlarged so they can be and be used as a display. For both the CLUP documentation and for display purposes during meetings, the end products of the GIS will provide opportunities to reach out to the stakeholders and communicate the CLUP document in a manner that they will appreciate.
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2.06 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation in the LGU

The LGUs are usually burdened by the various plans that are required of them by various national government agencies, in addition to those plans that are required in accordance with their own mandates. The information requirements for these plans can be simple or complex, and quite often will involve duplications, contradictions, inconsistencies, and incomplete information from among the different data custodians, resulting in plans that are in themselves difficult to apprehend by the LGU, much less the uninvolved stakeholders. The preparation of these plans can be facilitated by an integrated information management system that will enable the sharing and integration of all the information from the different data custodians in the municipal government resulting in a more coordinated and integrative planning and development for the municipality/city.
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2.06.01 Municipal Integrated Database Management

The contemporary demands of local governance in the face of the wide-ranging and various complexities of modern development, call for a more flexible local government structure that is truly responsive of the needs of a given municipality/city. In order to hurdle the management requirements for these complex tasks, it is important to promote and strengthen the development of a cross-sectoral and intra-or inter-institutional connectivity that will greatly improve the planning and monitoring of the multiplicity of plans, programs, projects and activities, required in local governance. In the order of things in the municipal administration, the Planning and Development Office is given the task of coordinating most of these tasks. In addition, the Municipal Planning and Development Office (MPDO) is in charge of collecting and analyzing data for the CLUP as well as for the Local Development Investment Plan (LDIP), which is an important tool for the annual budget preparation and ‘hands-on’ decision-making at local level. The MPDO is likewise responsible for land use-planning, environmental monitoring, and for issuing permits and clearances based on the zoning ordinances. These are activities wherein geographic information plays a crucial role. However, the other offices such as the Engineering, Assessor’s, and Agriculture Offices are also custodians of data and are implementers of plans and projects that have spatial and environmental implications. Therefore, in the initial stage wherein only the MPDO is in possession of the necessary GIS equipment and software licenses, the MPDO should coordinate with the said offices and set the terms of reference for responsibilities in data gathering, processing, and exchange of information among the relevant LGU office users. This should be done in order to promote sustainability and transparency. The challenge for the municipal planner and the MPDO is to promote the need for, and the importance of GIS among the various stakeholders in the municipal government structure (politicians, heads of departments, etc.). This should also ensure that data is acquired and maintained by all the relevant offices in such a way that this data can be easily imported to the GIS system. A feasible approach is to develop, within the municipal/city government organization’s computer environment, a common computer file directory structure for all the different offices (and their corresponding computer environments) involved in CLUP and other planning activities. If the municipality/city has a network then this computer file directory structure is only necessary on the server. If it is a stand-alone computer or series of stand-alone computers, then the computer file directory structure is necessary on the stand-alone computer(s). The common computer file directory structure allows a stable environment to update information, develop meta-data structures and develop user-friendly applications.
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2.06.02 Municipal Integrated Development Planning

The various national government agencies (NGAs) formulate policies, guidelines, plans, programs and projects, governing their sectors, and these are handed down to the LGU level for local government guidance, implementation, and compliance. Given the numerous NGAs and the corresponding policies, plans, programs and projects, that the LGUs have to contend with, it is usually left to them to integrate all of these within the local government context, and arrive at a set of plans, programs and projects that are aligned to the policies, and compliant to the guidelines. The LGU therefore plays a vital integrative role at the local level In order to facilitate the tasks of the LGU, the GIS Cookbook identifies possible data sharing ‘shortcuts’ between information products needed for the CLUP and information prepared in other municipal plans and programs such as the examples found below. The following are some of the kinds of plans that the LGU is expected to prepare, in coordination with the appropriate national government agencies:
  1. Agriculture and Fisheries Management Plan, including the Strategic Agriculture and Fisheries Development Zone (SAFDZ)
  2. Forest Management Plan or Forest Land Use Plan (FLUP)
  3. Sustainable Integrated Area Development Plan or Local Agenda 21 (SIADP)
  4. Coastal Resources Management Plan (CRMP)
  5. Solid Waste management Plan
  6. Agrarian Reform Community Development Plan
Examples of plans that require inter-sectoral functional committees are:
  1. Local Poverty Reduction Action Plan
  2. Disaster Management Plan
  3. Sustainable Development Plan
  4. Gender and Development Plan
  5. Food Security Plan
  6. Integrated Area Community Peace and Order and Public Safety Plan
  7. Local Development Plan / Local Investment Plan for Children
  8. Ecological Solid Waste Management Plan
  9. Human Resource Management Plan
  10. Revenue Enhancement Plan
Plans that fall within the concern of individual sectors:
  1. Action Plan for the Council for the Protection of Children
  2. Annual Culture and Arts Plan
  3. Agriculture and Fisheries Management Plan
  4. Local Tourism Plan
  5. Small and Medium Enterprise Development Plan Body
  6. Local Health & Nutrition Plan
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2.06.03 Examples on Coordination and Cooperation in an LGU

The use of digital data and the application of GIS open the door to improved coordination and cooperation among the different offices / departments in the municipal/city government. For example, the same digital road database that has been used and presented in the CLUP can also be used by the engineering department. Information regarding schools can be used and maintained by the education department and be analyzed in the CLUP, etc. Extracts from some case studies done in the GIS Cookbook Pilot LGUs are presented below. The full case studies are found in Chapter 4.01 in the Toolbox. Example1: A Synchronized Building Permit Application cum CLUP Data Set Once the CLUP and the Zoning Ordinance have been approved, they constitute the basis for the issuance of a number of different permits, such as Locational Clearances, Subdivision Development Permits, Plan Approvals, Building Permits and Business Permits. These permits when consolidated will form part of a considerable database that will provide the important inputs such as land use changes in the municipality/city and other development indicators, when the CLUP is updated. Proposed design for digital format
  1. Existing Log Book
The proposed digital format for the Permits Logbook (or registry) was a simple system that was suited to the current ‘computer appreciation level’ of the Ormoc City Government. In future, the system can be developed into a more sophisticated one such as a network corporate solution. The Building Permit Logbook is translated into a digital format, using MS Excel, with the adjustments needed for consistency and digital processing. A similar GIS application can be made for the Locational Clearances issued by the Zoning Officer. The Case Study is found in Chapter 4.18.01. Example 2: A Synchronized Business Permit Application cum CLUP Data Set The Zoning and the CLUP is used as a basis for issuing the Business Permits. In the period before a revision of the CLUP, these permits can also be used as an indicator of commercial development in the municipality/city. The proposed system presented a method of consolidating and building up of a Business GIS for the LGU that can be used for the issuance of Business Permits, update or revision of the CLUP, preparing statistical maps on developments in the LGU, and providing tourist information. The proposed tables to keep digital records of the Business Permits can be the start up level for those LGUs without current digital records. The system allows the LGUs to get started in MS Excel where a spread sheet containing the attributes, are stored and then linked to a GIS layer holding the surveyed locations of the business establishments that have been given the permits. In the case of LGUs with current digital systems, the suggestion is to instead keep the attribute database they are now using, and extend it with a link to the GIS. Sample Map showing Business Permits and their classification in Barangay District 7 Ormoc City The Case Study is found in Chapter 4.18.02. Example 3: Preparation of an ‘LGU Urban Poor’ GIS While evaluating the prepared CLUPs in the pilot municipalities/cities, it was found that the housing sector of the Plans do not fully recognize the need to focus on the situation for the urban poor, and the corresponding actions needed to improve the situation of the informal settlers. The CLUPs merely describe the policies and whatever pilot projects are existing, and fail to provide comprehensive information and analysis of the housing situation, particularly on informal settlements. The proposed system presented a simple method again based on the current ‘computer appreciation level’ in Ormoc City, and this system can be developed into a more sophisticated one such as a network corporate solution in the future. Two Excel spreadsheets have been designed to start with. One which shows the distribution of informal settlers’ families by Barangays with the indicators as shown in the matrix below. The Case Study is found in Chapter 4.18.03. Example 4: A Barangay Map Survey and Information Product In Chapter 4.19.02 there is a description of how an integrated survey can be conducted for a given Barangay. The survey is part of the data gathering activities in the beginning of the CLUP preparation process (Steps 1 and 4). The objective of the surveys is to gather useful data needed for the preparation of the CLUP and the preparation of the Barangay Map that will be distributed to the Barangay Council members, and to be displayed in the Barangay Hall. The purpose of the survey is to:
  1. Compare the Zoning with the actual land use;
  2. Identify major changes in land use (e.g. newly built-up areas, etc.);
  3. Identify relevant “issues” in the Barangay;
  4. Consolidate the results of the survey to be used as inputs in updating of the CLUP and Land Use Map
  5. Locate the facilities within the Barangay
Current Zoning/Land Use Map Covering the Barangay Linao Updated Land Use based on barangay survey and aerial photo With the data gathered in the survey, and the use of the aerial photos, the current barangay land use map can be updated accordingly. This newly-updated Barangay Land Use Map will be a good basis for updating the CLUP, and for a more accurate zoning for the barangay. Barangay Map of Linao The Barangay Map for Linao (shown above) is printed in an A2 format which can be laminated so that it can be used in consultative discussions, and so that the local officials can draw on the map using whiteboard markers, and still re-use the map for other different projects.
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2.07 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation between Cities/Municipalities and the Province

The province exercises general supervision over component cities and municipalities to ensure that the acts of these LGUs are within the scope of their prescribed powers and functions. Alongside this function, the province is also mandated to prepare the Provincial Physical Framework Plan (PPFP) that will delineate the desired general physical development of the province, showing where the protected areas and preserved lands are, and the development and growth areas such as the settlement areas are identified or established. The PPFP likewise provides the development plan for the physical infrastructures and shows the prospective locations for these, in support of the preferred development strategy of the framework plan. The province sees to it that the municipalities and cities within its jurisdiction have their own integrated social, economic, physical and environmental plans, and are implementing these plans accordingly. The province also monitors and evaluates the implementation of the programs and projects as formulated in their plans. In formulating the CLUP, the LGUs should be guided by the PPFP and the significant provisions that will have direct influence on the LGUs’ respective development thrusts. These provisions include the LGU’s designated role in the province, the projected degree or level of development, the proposed programs and projects to be implemented in the LGU and the proposed general land uses. The Sangguniang Panlalawigan (SP) of the province is tasked to review and approve the CLUPs of their respective municipalities/cities. During the review, the Provincial Land Use Committee (as the SP’s technical arm) will determine if the province’s various relevant sectoral and physical development plans pertaining to the concerned LGUs have been taken into consideration and integrated in their CLUPs. The institutional linkages among the LGUs are well in place. However, there is room for improvement in the “information links” among them that allow prompt and uncomplicated access not only to the plans and programs of the Provincial Governments, but also to sectoral plans and programs of the national government agencies in the province. The use of GIS within the LGUs is a vital factor in terms of data sharing in the preparation of the PPFPs and CLUPs, as well as in the review of the CLUPs by the Provincial Government. With the province coordinating with the LGUs, they can share the available digital data acquired by the province for thematic mapping purposes. It not only enhances the presentation of the maps but increases the accuracy of the information, as well. Having a CLUP with GIS maps is beneficial because it would be easy for the planners in the province to review and compare the CLUPs of cities/municipalities within their jurisdiction and check if it is consistent within the thrust of the PPFP. Further, with the use of GIS, digital CLUPs can be easily incorporated to see and check if the adjacent land uses between and among municipalities are synchronized. So far, only a few provinces have adopted GIS, but there has been no standard symbology adopted or proposed. The GIS Cookbook provides the recommended guidelines which can also be used as reference for the preparation of the PPFP.
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2.08 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation between LGUs and the National Government Agencies (NGAs)

Devolution under the Local Government Code is defined as the transfer of power and authority from the National Government to the LGUs to enable them to perform specific functions and responsibilities. The overarching objective here is to enable the LGUs to increase government efficiency, meet the demands of the community, and to serve as instrument of growth. This strategy allows tor the sharing and realignment of powers and resources of the central government with the LGUs. However, despite devolution, many NGAs have still retained functions that are essential in the development of cities and municipalities. Alongside this, even the associated information, knowledge or data in relation to the said functions, are still lodged with these agencies. Furthermore, the NGAs prepare their respective agency plans and programs that cover a given period of time. These plans, are accessed and used by the LGUs in the preparation of their own plans and programs. However, LGUs gain access by directly coordinating with the agency concerned. The acquisition of information can be facilitated by NGAs by assisting LGUs in getting essential data for their CLUPs. For example, there is an ongoing harmonization project among Phivolcs, MGB, and PAGASA under the direction of the NDCC that is aimed at harmonizing their data sets in digitial format which they will make available to the LGUs in the immediate future. A GIS can provide better presentation maps for CLUP purposes for LGUs. It would also be advantageous for both LGUs and HLURB in reviewing the plans and for decision making purposes. If digital zoning maps of LGUs are shared with HLURB this would facilitate the monitoring of the residential subdivision and condominium projects that are requesting for licenses. It will also reduce the redundancy of data conversion for HLURB. GIS is useful in enhancing public service delivery. For instance, proponents who wish to secure permits can easily check if their projects conform with the zoning ordinance, if there is a GIS map. In this case, it will also enable the LGU to decide quickly. Not all cities/municipalities can afford a GIS and more so, they might not have the technical expertise to operate the GIS. A recommended approach to solve this would be as follows:
  1. A province that has the GIS and technical expertise can provide assistance to its respective municipalities by means of a shared GIS. They can give hands-on training on the use of GIS in cooperation with HLURB.
  2. A province without GIS could establish one, with financial counterpart from component cities and municipalities. This way, the provinces/ LGUs can share technical expertise as well as information between and among them.
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2.09 GIS for Coordination and Cooperation between LGUs and Private Sector

The LGU plays a dominant role in the capture and use of geographic information for all stages of development related planning. The use of GIS supports more open, collaborative planning processes, and improves public access to geographic information in urban and rural planning issues. The private sector is also mobilized in local governance and planning, for example, privatization affects the capture and distribution of what were formerly public domain spatial data. A more accessible public database enables investors to analyze the impact of development projects in relation to municipal objectives for land uses. A GIS system that allows mutual access to and interaction among public and private sectors provides the following benefits:
  1. Savings from elimination of redundancy;
  2. More resources available to improve data;
  3. Better understanding of user needs;
  4. Users gain better understanding of proper uses for the data sets;
  5. Conclusions/analysis have more credibility and chance of accuracy the more current and standardized the data is; Better accuracy of data and reports;
  6. Ability to identify source and credibility of data including liability;
  7. Ease of access which encourages more, and possibly new, uses;
  8. Standardization helps to compare data sets to clean out errors;
  9. Reduces data cost which serves as a barrier to entry for GIS learners /beginners & small businesses;
  10. New uses based on ability to combine data from different sources;
  11. Cycle time improvements make it easier and quicker to generate reports while also reducing the overall costs to generate a report. In addition, by using GIS it can help make private sector input more timely;
  12. Reduces distribution costs for transacting/exchanging data;
  13. Private sector may eventually provide additional funding sources if there is a central repository where they could gain access;
  14. Development of best practices;
  15. Increased expertise in the municipality;
  16. Increased chance of government access to private data as private data sources can use the cooperative
  17. GIS to market/showcase their GIS data.
Below are some examples of valuable cooperation between the Public and Private Sector:
  1. Creation of a model for GIS Data sharing. This might be a form of a Private Sector venture to provide access to data for a fee;
  2. Provide access to municipal data;
  3. Provide access to catalogued commercial data sets centralized in one single location or site;
  4. Sample data sets for educational purposes;
  5. Provide emergency response tools and data sets to both public and private sectors. This would enhance current operations by having data readily available 24 hours a day and 7 days a week instead of just when an extreme emergency strikes, although generally, emergency responses may be transboundary which makes data access and sharing difficult.

3.0 The Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS

3.01 Introduction

3.01.01 Think Big, Start Small 3.01.02 The Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS

3.01.01 Think Big, Start Small

The most significant limitations and obstacles to the operational use of GIS are not of a technical nature. They are rather institutional, organizational, procedural, and information quality issues. To improve the situation, there is a need for a GIS management policy dealing with institutional mandates and linkages, technology strategies, human skills development and financial management. An organization’s GIS capacity can be built up step-by-step while responding to the pressing needs for information on the environment. The first step is to define the information needs and priorities, and relate this to the state of existing information and capabilities of data producers and users.

3.01.02 The Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS

A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer-based tool for mapping and analyzing things that exist and events that happen in a given municipality / city. GIS technology integrates common database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the unique visualisation and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps. These abilities distinguish GIS from other information systems and make it valuable to a wide range of public and private enterprises for explaining events, predicting outcomes, and planning strategies. The cornerstones of a functioning GIS are the following:
  1. People who are skilled and have been trained
  2. Spatial and attribute or descriptive data
  3. Analytical methods
  4. Computer Software
  5. Computer Hardware
A functioning GIS is the combination of all these which are all organized to automate, manage, and deliver information through geographic information. It is a common mistake among GIS clients that after having seen GIS being presented by a salesperson and becoming impressed by the technique, they buy the GIS software and then think that the matter is solved. Applying a strategy in which all five components are dealt with will result in a successful introduction to GIS. In the following chapters are the recommendations made for all the cornerstones of a functioning GIS in connection with the CLUP.

3.02 People (GIS Advocacy and Skills Development)

3.02.01 Advocacy for a Municipal GIS with Elected Officials and LGU Management 3.02.02 Management, Institutional and Organizational Issues in the Development of a Municipal GIS (Action) Plan for the Introduction of an LGU GIS 3.02.03 Preparation of a (CLUP) GIS Training Program for LGU Staff 3.02.04 Recommendations for Training 3.02.05 Training for Using GIS as a Tool in CLUP Preparation 3.02.06 GIS Training Opportunities 3.02.07 Some Recommendations for External Technical Assistance in CLUP Preparation When a municipality is getting started in GIS, the initiative should come from within the organization. The LGU management should know its own organization well enough to be able to make it more efficient in delivering the services that the local constituents expect of it. And in order to maintain its organizational efficiency, the LGU’s GIS staff should initially consist of people who are already in the organization. If a new employee can be hired, he/she should bring technical knowledge and experience. Otherwise, those existing employees, such as a draftsman for example, can be trained. The LGU management can encourage them into the shift by giving a supportive and positive attitude. In a municipality, the GIS staff may have primary job responsibilities in other areas of concern. Since GIS is an add-on to the employees’ existing duties, the LGU management must be sure there is enough time to give each activity its due. To give proper attention to the GIS, some other work responsibilities of the staff must be lessened or altogether cleared, especially if the employee managing the GIS operation has other responsibilities. Some of the current employees may apply for GIS positions and they should be considered based on their existing knowledge and ability to be trained for the position. The key is to have a team of people who have knowledge of both the organization and GIS. Training for existing staff that will be part of the GIS Team can focus on technical matters while training for newly-hired staff should also include, aside from the technical matters, training on how the organization operates. It is important for the GIS staff to understand the existing operation of the organization in order to enhance the use of the GIS to its fullest.

3.02.01 Advocacy for a Municipal GIS with Elected Officials and LGU Management

Phases To ensure success of the GIS, the commitment of the LGU management must be total. It should be demonstrated by putting this commitment into concrete actions that will have to be sustained throughout the operation of the GIS. To get GIS as a tool for everybody within the organization is a process that can take place in a span of at least five to ten years. The whole process can be viewed as a project with four phases. Phase One can be called ‘the convincing phase,’ whose purpose is to the get politicians and the top management convinced about the benefits of implementing a GIS for the municipal (spatial) planning activities such as the revision of the CLUP. Phase Two is ‘the inventory phase,’ with the objective of finding out the capacity of the LGU (or the internal ‘state of the art’), what’s going on in the surrounding world, where to utilize lessons learned, and who are the prospective members in the project team. Phase Three is ‘the design phase,’ where the project team is established, the important initial data sets (both available within the LGU organization and outside it) have been identified and acquired, and a viewer GIS is being installed within the organization. In this phase a requirement specification for ‘corporate’ GIS (how the data can be shared by the stakeholders) and for a metadata base are completed. Phase Four is ‘the implementation phase,’ wherein the development of the corporate GIS is made and the GIS applications implemented. The provision of data to users is on-going, the knowledge enhancement plan is implemented and the GIS network is up and running. In this phase additional data sets for installation on the GIS server are decided and new requirements on GIS functionality are recorded for a future development project. In order to succeed with the fourth phase of implementing GIS it is absolutely necessary to get through, and achieve good results from, the first three phases. Below are some issues that have to be considered during the process: Analyze and Discuss the Benefits of GIS The core questions in discussing the benefits of GIS are:
  1. How can the use of GIS contribute to the LGU management?
  2. What are the prerequisites for increasing the internal efficiency within the organization?
  3. How can decision-making be supported by GIS?
Chapter 2 includes plenty of justifications which can feed these discussions. Incorporate GIS into the IT strategy The introduction of GIS requires a clear commitment and the active involvement of the entire LGU organization in order to succeed. The initial step is to establish the GIS strategy and incorporate it in the Information System Strategic Plan of the LGU. Training Needs Assessment and Skills Enhancement An important component of the action plan is to find out the needs for education and training. Based on the training needs assessment, a GIS Knowledge Enhancement Plan (KEP) should be formulated. It is important to determine the training needs of the staff that will comprise the GIS core team. The HLURB Regional Offices will assist in the building of the basic capacity of LGUs, and the intention is to develop a training facility at HLURB that will provide applied GIS CLUP training. Create a GIS Network The team leader – a ‘Geographic Information Officer’ (GIO) needs to be appointed, who will network with other colleagues in the different offices within the LGU organization. It would be advantageous if these colleagues have the same skill as the GIO in order to have a strong internal GIS organization. A separate training program is normally necessary for the members of the GIS network. A low-income municipality with low computer proficiency may not be able to appoint a GIO, in which case the MPDC, or a knowledgeable person from the LGU organization may be assigned the task of GIO. Accomplish Activity and Information Need Analysis Processes Another initial activity in the GIS implementation is the analysis of the processes concerning the needs for and current uses of geographic data, and the requirement for GIS software. This should enable the LGU management to make the right decision for data management, the procurement of a suitable GIS software, and efficient access to needed data. Information within the Organization At the outset, it is important to establish what internal information is available, the quality of such information, and to analyze the information needs of identified target groups within the organization. Ensure Immediate Access to Software and Data GIS software and local basic data sets must be available for use prior to training of staff. It is also important to give the trainees the opportunity to start working with GIS directly after training.

3.02.02 Management, Institutional and Organizational Issues in the Development of a Municipal GIS (Action) Plan for the Introduction of an LGU GIS

Implementation of GIS should be the result of a strategic decision by the LGU management, and emanating from the IT or GIS Strategy (if such is available). Development of the GIS system should proceed on the basis of the organization’s information needs and the availability of geographic data. A step by step process should be followed, beginning with the use of simple applications which are needed by the various users in their daily work, and progressing to more advanced and complex user applications. Using GIS for CLUP preparation is one application that starts from simple tasks and can grow into a more sophisticated use of the tool. The Geographic Information Officer Has a Key Role The GIO must be a good project manager and negotiator; he must be diplomatic; and, he must be very familiar with the business. It is not enough that he is highly proficient with GIS. And the GIS team that supports the GIO should operate as a cohesive GIS human network, with skills corresponding to that of the GIO. This is the way of establishing a robust GIS organization. Plan Carefully for the GIS Implementation The first task is the formulation of an implementation plan based on the results of a survey of information needs for the different business activities. Chapter 4.02.01 in the Toolbox presents an example of an implementation strategy for using GIS in CLUP preparation. Availability of Data – A True Success Factor An important factor in GIS implementation is the availability of relevant data. It is therefore necessary to evaluate existing data sources prior to formulating the implementation plan. Chapter 6.02 includes a form that outlines the steps in finding out the current status of available attribute and spatial data needed for the CLUP preparation. Likewise, Chapter 5 of the Toolbox gives more details on the attribute tables that need to be compiled. The implementation of GIS is facilitated if the staff already has knowledge about how non-spatial databases are designed and how to work with the attribute datasets in Excel. Implementing GIS and training the staff (including the end users) must be done in parallel to ensure success. It is important to have the trained end users work with GIS soon after the training in order to keep the momentum of work and the knowledge fresh, and the enthusiasm to work with the new tools is still high. Common Functionality and Activity-Specific Applications “Common GIS functionality” refers to a centrally implemented GIS that is simultaneously available and or accessible to all users. “Activity-specific applications” however, are developed for a specific branch or service or group of users. Development of such applications should be the responsibility of the specific office concerned. These applications have to be compliant with standards and structures that are applicable for the entire organization. The CLUP GIS can perform these operations of common GIS functionality and activity-specific applications, and this versatility will enable users within the organization to freely use and exchange data for use in other applications. Chapter 4.18 gives examples on the multi usage quality of a versatile geographic information system.

3.02.03 Preparation of a (CLUP) GIS Training Program for LGU Staff

One of the causes of poor and unproductive use of GIS is the lack of training for the people who are supposed to operate the tools related to the system. If users don't know how to address spatial problems and use the computer to find the geographical answers, they won't be able to know how to apply GIS. It is important, therefore, to assess training needs and options. One of the most important factors for successful GIS implementation is the availability of trained staff. Efficient staffing and appropriate training must be part of the GIS implementation strategy. Some of the conditions that can help retain staff are:
  1. interesting and challenging tasks
  2. supportive management environment
  3. continuing opportunities for staff development (attendance to GIS-related seminars, contact with other GIS professionals, etc.)
There are two main staff groups who are expected to work directly with the GIS system:
  1. GIS primary users consisting of the planners and / or the planning team involved in the CLUP preparation
  2. GIS end users consisting of staff that will use the results of the CLUP preparation process such as the sector data, land-use plan, ZO; etc. in their daily work
Geographic Information Officer The ‘Geographic Information Officer’ (GIO) who will manage the CLUP GIS application will have to be appointed at the outset and be given sufficient training. He should be competent in general management as well as GIS. The GIO’s proficiency in managing people, information, priorities, and time will contribute to the success of GIS implementation. Management seminars provide opportunities for enhancing such proficiency, by listening to experts and by interacting with others in similar positions. Courses designed to help in specific subjects such as general management skills, project management, strategic management, and total quality management, will all be helpful to the GIO. For low-income municipalities, the MPDC will most likely fit the role of GIO. However, if there are opportunities or other projects for strengthening the LGU’s IT capacity, and there is an available full time competent staff person with knowledge in implementation of computerization strategies, then that person can be designated as GIO. For a low-income municipality where the CLUP GIS is one of the first computerized applications, there is a training program included in the Toolbox, Chapter 7.01. Introductory trainings for advocacy purposes should also be conducted for the LGU officials and the LGU top and middle level management. GIS Primary Users The primary users comprise the staff that is responsible for creating, maintaining, and operating both the data and the system infrastructure. Defining the common ground for information, such as agreeing on a uniform metadata base and entry of data into databases plus capacity building and training, are important matters that need to be dealt with at the start. The primary users will require regular refresher courses to keep them updated on current and new techniques and methods. In addition to the GIS staff, training for system administration staff (network administrator, database administrator, and hardware technicians) must be considered by those larger cities / municipalities that can afford to mobilize these positions. In the CLUP GIS preparation it is recommended that the respective sectoral offices are made responsible for sector data capture and maintenance. These sectoral offices will need custodians who will monitor the maintenance of the sector database and give support to the end users regarding CLUP project studies, data maintenance, and map production. GIS End UsersThe prospective user of a GIS must be confident with analyzing and manipulating attribute data in order to be receptive to learning about GIS. GIS end users need training in the software and applications with which they will be working. GIS is inherently a multi-disciplinary science and attention should also be given to training in other areas where the technology will complement the work that users do every day. Introductory trainings for advocacy purposes should also be conducted for the LGU officials and the LGU top and middle level management.
Organizational Chart for Laurel
Example of an Organizational Chart for a City

3.02.04 Recommendations for Training

Database management in LGUs varies from the traditional analogue (paper based) system to secured digital operations. Generally, a minority of the workforce involved in database management has achieved a computer awareness level where only MS Office Word and Excel software are being mastered. One objective in general training for the LGU should be the elimination of disparities among the various LGU offices and reach a level where everyone ‘speaks the same language.’ The training program should consist of a step-by-step process allowing all the prospective trainees to be given a general introductory training in GIS, while providing opportunities for specific trainings to produce local expertise in attribute and spatial database management. During the learning process it is very important that the trainees have data from their own offices to practice with. In the preparation of the GIS Cookbook, two training modules (Basic GIS training and Applied GIS training) have been prepared to give support to ‘non-computer literate’ staff that will be involved in the CLUP preparation using GIS. GIS Staff Computer Literacy and GIS Training Needs Assessment When the GIS team has been organized and mobilized, a training needs assessment should be conducted which will be presented in a KEP (Knowledge Enhancement Program). The number of GIS users that will browse geographic information on a daily basis should be determined. The number of GIS primary users who will give support to the respective offices regarding GIS project studies, data maintenance, and map production should also be determined. After the training needs assessment has been conducted, the number of staff that need GIS training can be established. However, at least two persons in each office must have sufficient skills to manage the sector (attribute) databases. During the implementation phase, more work staff will be needed to populate the datasets.

3.02.05 Training for Using GIS as a Tool in CLUP Preparation

HLURB has prepared a training package for municipal planners who are literate in MS Office but have no previous experience of GIS software: Module 1, (one week) Basic Computer Training and Introduction to Digital Database Management The new application is presented and the rationales for a digital database are given. There is also a beginner or review component for word-processing and data entry into spreadsheet and prepared forms. The participants will bring information about their job activities and there will be practical exercises on how to fill the forms, etc. It will also give an introduction to GIS, which will give the participants an understanding of what a GIS is, what it is intended for and how it is structured. The module also includes basic knowledge about hardware and trouble-shooting. Module 2, (one week) Applied CLUP Database Management Training This module is intended for GIS primary users who will be managing a sector database. It should enable the trainees to be competent with database building and management. The participants will use real data from their own sector and the outcome of the training will be a set of databases included in the CLUP sector database. It also includes an introduction to GIS, which will give the participants an understanding of what a GIS is, how it can be used and how it is structured. At the end of the course participants will have a working knowledge of the concepts, terminology and tools used to create and manage integrated mapping data in a local government environment with special reference to the CLUP. The CLUP GIS training modules and programs are found in the Toolbox, Chapter 7.01. Specialist Training For special trainings that may be required by the more specialized GIS staff such as the GIS Software Expert and GIS Database Analyst, as well as the system administrators such as the Computer System Manager, Network Administrator, Database Administrator and Hardware Technicians, the best option is to find suitable advanced training opportunities in the private market. Such special trainings however will not be applicable to the GIS Cookbook’s target group of municipalities. Advocacy and Applied Training This module is intended for Municipal/City Councilors, LGU top and middle management officers, who will not directly work with the GIS system, but need to know how GIS can assist in decision-making, and the requirements for a sustained GIS. The GIS Cookbook provides guidelines (see for example Chapter 2) for advocacy which can be used for raising awareness among the local officials and LGU senior management, about the advantages of a GIS

3.02.06 GIS Training Opportunities

Current training opportunities for learning GIS in the country may be available at the following:
  1. University of Philippines which offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Geodesy. These courses are primarily intended for students who want to specialize in GIS and Remote Sensing.
  2. Geodata which is the country’s authorized distributor of ESRI software (such as ArcView, ArcGIS, etc.) offers basic and advanced short-term trainings on how to manage the software. However, their exercises are based on refined and very accurate data from the USA, which is not reflective of the situation in the Philippines.
  3. NAMRIA has a computer laboratory and offers short-term trainings customized to the Philippine environment. The agency has conducted on-demand courses targeted for national agencies and LGUs
  4. HLURB, as mentioned above, will provide on-demand training on how to use GIS as a tool in CLUP preparation. It will be conducted for municipalities that are in the pipeline to update their CLUPs.
For more information, please refer to Toolbox, Chapter 7.

3.02.07 Some Recommendations for External Technical Assistance in CLUP Preparation

The HLURB Regional Offices extend technical assistance in the preparation of the CLUP. Nowadays however, LGUs also engage the services of consultants in the preparation of their CLUPs. The HLURB CLUP Guidelines are meant to encourage LGUs to take the lead in the planning activities, with technical assistance from technical experts as needed. The GIS Cookbook provides guidelines for preparing the Terms of Reference for the hiring of technical experts in CLUP preparation using GIS. General Recommendations The following recommendations are given for the procurement of technical expertise to assist in the GIS development activities of the LGU. They can be included in the Terms of Reference for the technical expert’s activities, and incorporated in the MoA between the LGU and HLURB or in the contract between the LGU and the private consultant for the CLUP preparation:
  1. The technical expert shall use the same software environment as the LGU (in HLURB’s case, it is Arc View 9). All end products of the technical expert’s work should be delivered in shape files in a digital format;
  2. Upon completion of the technical expert’s work, all attribute and spatial data, micros, applications, etc., are turned over to, and become property of the LGU, and can be freely manipulated by the LGU. All outputs of the consultancy work such as, but not limited to, digital data, survey data, statistical data, etc. shall be turned over to the LGU;
  3. The LGU shall be the primary distributor of all data produced under the consultancy;
  4. The end products, such as data, micros, applications, etc., cannot be sold by the technical expert to a third party without the consent of the LGU;
  5. On the job training should always be provided, with the objective that the assigned LGU staff will acquire or enhance their capability to manage, make revisions and updates of the CLUP after completion of the technical expert’s contract.
Please refer to Chapter 4.04 in the Toolbox for more details regarding what should be considered in a ToR and included in a MoA for CLUP preparation using GIS.

3.03 Methodology

3.03.01 The Flow from Data to Information to CLUP Application 3.03.02 What are (KEY) Indicators? 3.03.03 An Example on How to Apply the Methodology to Increase the Information Value 3.03.04 Information Product Description – What do you want to get out of the GIS? 3.03.05 Objectives of Information Products Preparation 3.03.06 Basic Steps for the Preparation of Information Products 3.03.07 Information Products for CLUP 3.03.08 Land Cover Mapping Using Remote Sensing Data

3.03.01 The Flow from Data to Information to CLUP Application

Definition Knowledge which is the basis of competence is by itself not sufficient. There must be an understanding of the meaning of what is known, but again, this is not enough either to complete competence. Wisdom must be applied as well in order to achieve the desired outcome. Knowledge and understanding can often be taught, but wisdom is usually acquired through experience. Information is qualified data. It is “processed data.” Data is only useful if it is interpreted and transformed into information. This transformation from data to information requires knowledge and understanding. One needs wisdom to be able to grasp the information and apply it usefully. Data and information need to be structured and stored in a way that makes them readily accessible to those who are to use them. Some applications of information are often repetitive and can therefore be automated. These automated processes are themselves often called applications. An information management system such as GIS must be combined with the competence levels within the organization. These levels of competence should also be developed to improve the quality of the applications of information at a higher rate to improve overall productivity.

3.03.02 What are (KEY) Indicators?

Definition Indicators are intended to be part of an enabling process, measuring sector-wide progress of all activities (and actors) towards achieving goals. The indicators of municipal activity emphasize sustainability and efficiency goals rather than simple production goals. The major emphasis is in developing capacity for establishing indicators that will help in policy review and implementation, and which can be monitored regularly. The aim is to engender commitment, develop the expertise, and to set the routine for collecting data for all sectors included in the CLUP. Important characteristics of indicators are that they should be:
  1. easily understood by all stakeholders;
  2. related to the interests of one or more groups of stakeholders;
  3. measurable using immediately available data at the municipal level;
  4. clearly related to municipal policy goals and capable of being changed by the use of policy instruments;
  5. linked where possible to the three themes of economic, social and environmental sustainability.
Sectoral data when overlaid together will be used to determine the overall status of the provision of the basic utilities/facilities/services for the municipality. Indicators should be based on two levels of priority: First priority or 'key' indicators require only immediately available data and present the facts that are of interest to a broader audience rather than only to specialists in the field. Second priority or ‘extensive’ indicators contain indicators of lower policy relevance but of much interest for the sector specialist or which are more difficult to collect or define. The indicators should be readily available, easily collected or estimated, and should not require special surveys or studies. Indicators are not data; they are ‘models’ simplifying a complex subject to a few numbers, which can be easily grasped and understood by policy makers and the general public. Indicators are statistics directed specifically towards policy concerns and which point towards successful outcomes and conclusions for policy. They should be user driven, and are generally highly aggregated and have easily recognizable purposes. Classic examples of indicators include unemployment rates or GDP growth rates, which are statistics that are authoritative and recognizable indicators of the performance of the economy. Example on Key Indicators for Basic Needs/Life Quality Targets The following list exemplifies the most basic needs, and linked to the need specification is an indicator which makes it possible to measure increased (or decreased) need fulfillment over time:
Basic Needs / Targets Key Indicator Provide a Job Percentage of Unemployment per Barangay Provide Adequate Housing Percentage of Households per Barangay who live in an Informal Settlements Provide Access to Safe Water Percentage of Households per Barangay with Access to Drinking Water within ----meters. Provide Access to Decent Sanitation Percentage of Households per Barangay with a sanitary toilet. Provide Connection to Electricity Services Percentage of Households per Barangay with Electricity Connection Provide Primary Education Percentage of Households per Barangay with a Primary School with Sufficient Classrooms and Teachers within ------ meters. Provide Primary Health Care Percentage of Households per Barangay with a Health Clinic with Sufficient Staff and Medicine within ------ meters.
The CLUP should reflect the basic needs of the less privileged people

3.03.03 An Example on How to Apply the Methodology to Increase the Information Value

A Table with no GIS Implication Let’s look at one example of a table which has no GIS implication. The table below presents the secondary school enrolment by males and females in government and private secondary schools and is taken from a CLUP. This is an extract from the old Education Sector Guidelines of HLURB. (A revision is under way and will be included in Volume 2) An improved table version is likewise presented to show the increased information value.
Information Product ChecklistObservation Made
Is the table defined as a CLUP data requirement in the (old) Guidelines?No. Then why is it here? There is no clarification in the text as to why the table is included in the report.
Does the table have an index number?Yes
Does the table have a title that corresponds to the table content?Yes. However, is providing the proportion between Government and Private schools the most important indicator? If the gender disrowibution is more important, then the table should have been titled accordingly.
Is there a date of data in the table?Yes. This makes it easy to access if the data is of immediate interest or obsolete
Is there a comprehensive ‘Source’ for the table?Yes. However, the acronym should be known to everybody. There should be a list of acronyms included in the report.
Is the table referred to in the text?No. However, the text is adjacent to the table.
Is the wording consistent?There is no explanation distinguishing the difference between ‘secondary’ and ‘high school.” It also does not clarify the difference between a ‘public’ and a ‘government’ school. In order to avoid confusion, there should be consistency in the use of terms. Use only one term instead of two terms that mean the same. It would also be useful to add explanatory graphs to the text to increase the availability and understanding of definitions and standards, as shown below.
Does the table add something to the narrative text?Not really, since it simply duplicates what is explained in the text. The only difference is that the text provides the percentage indicators.
Does the table data qualify as ‘information’?No. The data in the table does not contain anything to compare with. The table presents a disrowibution of enrolment between private and public, and nothing more. It also presents a gender disrowibution, which again is not exrowaordinary. In other words, the table does not present comparative information that can be noted, showing for example some compliance to or deviation from standards, or some deficit in targets. The table does not warrant action on the part of the decision maker or user.
Is the table easy to work with?No. It is done in MS Word and not in Excel, hence it cannot be manipulated easily.
Does the table have a rational layout?Yes. However, there should be a row at the bottom showing the totals.
Does the table have a good design that facilitates reading?It is possible to enhance the table design as shown in the example below.
This is the result of the analysis, which can be used in the CLUP narrative part. For assistance, a template is found in the tool box that can be copied into CLUP. A Table with GIS Implication As pointed out previously, most of the services and utilities that a municipality provides have a geographic reference – a location on a map. Using mapped information in a GIS will increase the information value and make it easier for the stakeholders particularly LGU officials, planners and the general public to analyze the situation and make informed decisions. Information ‘hidden’ in a table will become transparent and more visual in the process of deciding what actions are needed to improve the situation. For example the status of the road system in the municipality is presented in the following way in a CLUP: Based on this table it is possible to calculate for a total road improvement. However, it is not easy for a decision maker/planner to prioritize, given limited funds available which is normally the case in a low-income LGU. By translating the results of the survey done to get the data compiled in above the table above into a map layer in a GIS, and combining the attribute information from the survey, it will be much easier to prioritize projects so as to optimize funds. The example shows an extract of such a road layer on top of a simple CLUP Base Map. By combining the road layer information with population data (how many people are using the road?) and traffic counts (what types of vehicles and how many are using the road?) it is possible to assess how important the road is, in the context of the overall road network in the municipality/city. By using unit cost for repair/upgrading of a road in “critical” condition, the GIS can provide the costs that can be incurred for the repair/upgrade of the said road, which can be compared with the available budget for infrastructure improvements. The map is also useful in determining the existing road system vis-à-vis current land-uses and other socio-economic activities. The map presents a bird’s eye view of accessibility from one destination point to another.

3.03.04 Information Product Description – What do you want to get out of the GIS?

The key to preparing a GIS is knowing what you want to get out of it. If you know what information you want to produce, then you can determine what data you have to put in. One should also know what functions have to be performed on that data in order to get the required information results you want to produce. If you do not know what you want to produce, you can have no real idea of what to put in or what functionality you want in your system. Information Product Descriptions are the building blocks for the information needed in the CLUP planning process. The establishment of Information Product Descriptions (IPD) entails specifying and describing what one expects the GIS to create. The IPD contains the requirements to come up with the final product. When the IPD is made, specification on what the GIS must be able to master is prepared for the first time. Once done, the rest of the planning activities follow what are outlined in the descriptions. Defining each product that the GIS must create will help provide adequate justification for obtaining GIS hardware and software. At this stage in the preparation process it is important for the planner to consult with the representatives of the concerned office or sector together with other concerned stakeholders to:
  1. clarify the information products that need to be produced by the system;
  2. establish what data is needed to create the information products;
  3. identify the system functions that will be used to create the information products.
While it may require some hard work, once solid information product descriptions have been generated, the rest of the GIS planning is ‘easy’. The following list will serve as a useful guide for the planning team in preparing the IPD for the first time, or if there are additional information product requirements for the CLUP as a result of the consultation. A useful information product description includes a title, the name of the department and person who needs the information product, and the following components: Summary of the information product – a narrative text providing an overview of the information product, who requested it, and what it is used for. When writing the IPD, before getting into the details of it, there should be a summary of the information product needed and its purpose. Map requirements — details of maps needed for an information product, including a sketch of sample maps. The first step in creating an IPD is to describe each map that has to be an output. It is important to include a sketch of the map with the IPD. The sketch can be simple, but should show at least one of every feature type that the final product is expected to display. List and report requirements — details of the information that will be in any reports, lists, or tables for an information product, including headings and typical data entries. An information product is not always a map. It could be a list of figures, a table, or a report. Or, there may be a map product that needs a list, table, or report as a supplement. The information product description should identify each of these lists, tables, or reports. Each list, table, or report should have a title, appropriate column headings, typical entries, and details of the data file that contains the source information. Document and image requirements — details of documents and images that have to be retrieved to create an information product. An information product may be a document or image or include a document or image as a supplement. In the IPD, each image or document that the user needs to retrieve from the GIS should be identified. Steps to make the product — details of the data and GIS functions needed to create the information product. The second, third, and fourth components of the information product description (map, list, and document requirements) clarify details of the information product that is required. Once something is known about the information product, the steps needed to create it can be outlined. Logical linkages — details of any linkages that need to be established between data elements in the database to create the product. The next step in describing an information product is to determine the relationships that are required between data elements. These relationships are called "logical linkages," and they must be in place in order to be able to build the database later on. In the IPD, one needs to establish how data from the same or different datasets must be combined to create the information product. There are three types of logical linkages:
  1. Relationships between tables and graphic entities — these are relationships between characteristics (attributes) of features and the features themselves (points, lines, polygons);
  2. Relationships between maps — these are relationships between different maps (or data layers);
  3. Relationships between attributes — these are relationships between characteristics.

3.03.05 Objectives of Information Products Preparation

With GIS support it is possible to create better source material for analysis and decision-maiking. Tailored GIS applications, and integration with other IT support, can make it easier to search for data, data processing and presentation. The weak components in the system are data reliability, data quality, data completeness and data relevance together with the skills of the staff to interpret the results correctly. Production of Source Material for Decision with GIS Support Information produced by using GIS often is presented as maps together with tabular data and/or additional text. The presentation may also include images, diagrams or video sequences. The GIS software will be tailored or expanded in accordance with the tasks which are to be performed, and the skills of the staff. Therefore it must not be difficult to get a requested decision source material by using a well-designed GIS. The decisive factor is to define the needs based on relevant business activities before creating this tailored GIS To Select Relevant Data It can be difficult to decide which data is to be used and how to analyze the data in order to create a source material for decisions by using a GIS application. The needs for data are a result of the way of performing the business activities and the shape of the specific issue. To Interpret the Source Material for a Decision The second major challenge might be to interpret the information produced with GIS support. What conclusions can be drawn from the results of an analysis operation? What are the uncertainties? In which parts of the interpretation are there uncertainties? There are a number of critical issues affecting the possibility of giving good answers to these rather difficult questions. Such issues are:
  1. What does the geographic information that I used, stand for? And what does it not stand for?
  2. How complete are the business activities described therein, prior to the development of the GIS application? Was there a proper activity modeling process as a bottom line for the application development?
  3. Is it possible, and realistic, to use this specific GIS application for the analysis operations or data processing operations necessary for the specific issue?

3.03.06 Basic Steps for the Preparation of Information Products

In a typical GIS analysis activity like the CLUP preparation, the objectives of the activity are identified, the database containing the data needed to solve the problem is created, and the results of the analysis are presented. Below are the steps that should be considered when the information product for a subject is prepared: 1. Background and Objective of the GIS Analysis The first step is to give a short overview of the particular information product and the objective of the GIS analysis. The following questions should be considered in identifying the objectives:
  1. What is the problem to solve? How is it solved now? Are there alternative ways to solve it using a GlS?
  2. What step of the planning process are we in?
  3. Who is the intended audience of these products i.e., the public, LGU staff, LGU officials?
  4. What are included in the final products of the activity – reports, working maps, presentation-quality maps?
  5. Will the Information Product be one of the baseline studies? Will it be needed for ‘Needs Analysis” or for ”Suitability Analysis”? Will the data be used for other purposes? What are the requirements for these?
  6. In this step it is important to determine the answers to the questions above, determine the scope of the activity as well as how to proceed.
2. Identify the Indicators to Evaluate Objective Achievement/to Evaluate Performance/Evaluate Suitability Define the planning standards and common practices that are applicable for the sector. (For example, for the education sector there are planning standards for accessibility, student/teacher ratios, student/classroom ratios, student/school yard ratios, student/schoolbook ratios; physical condition of buildings and plots, etc.). Regarding information about what planning methods that can be used, please refer to guidelines on sector studies. In the absence of a national standard, the local planner may opt for an acceptable/reasonable value based on the specific municipal objective for the planning issue at hand. The Information Products are grouped into the following:
  1. Base Line Studies- When sector studies are prepared, most of the data can be translated into spatial data which will be further used in Needs Assessment.
  2. For Needs Assessment, indicators are important for measuring the quality of service being provided or for determining the physical condition of a facility for a particular service.
  3. For Suitability Analysis, this refers to identifying what areas in the municipality are considered suitable for future urban expansion. However, there has to be criteria for determining those areas which are considered as suitable (suitability criteria).
  4. Scenario-building. This visualizes three different options that show alternative courses of action based on identified needs and existing constraints.
  5. CLUP/ZONING -The comprehensive results of the discussions over scenarios and spatial strategies will result in the draft CLUP. Zoning further subdivides the community into zones or districts.
  6. Projects – this establishes a basic GIS application about the status of various projects resulting in a Basic Project Monitoring GIS in coordination with other offices within the LGU.
3. Create a Database The third step is to create a database, which consists of the following: designing the database, automating data for the database, and managing the database. Designing the database includes identifying the attribute and spatial data requirements for analysis, determining the required feature attributes, setting the study area boundary, and choosing the coordinate system to use. The GIS Cookbook provides the digital templates for tables ready to be used for encoding the data. The Metadata table has also been prepared containing the list of tables that have to be accomplished, showing both the optional and key tables. Automating of the data involves digitizing or converting data from other systems and formats into a useable format, as well as verifying the data, and correcting errors. Attribute data, however, should be encoded using the tables that have been prepared. Managing the database involves verifying coordinate systems and joining adjacent layers. Creating the database is a critical and time-consuming part of the activity. The completeness and accuracy of the data for use in the analyses determines the accuracy of the results. 4. Analyze the Data The fourth step is to analyze the data, which consists of a range of tasks from simple mapping to creating complex spatial models. A model is a representation of reality used to simulate a process, predict an outcome, or analyze a problem. A spatial model involves applying one to three categories of GlS functionality to some spatial data. These functions are:
  1. Geometric modeling functions – calculating distances, generating buffers, and calculating areas and perimeters;
  2. Coincidence modeling functions – overlaying data sets to find places where values coincide;
  3. Adjacency modeling functions – allocating, path finding, and restricting.
The result of this step may be a simple process to evaluate for example, the service that is being provided for a barangay, which will be an input for assessing the needs of the said barangay. Or it may be to determine the actual physical conditions in terms of the environment, and the hazards within the municipality. The GIS can quickly perform such analysis that would be impossible or very time-consuming if done manually. Alternative scenarios can be created by changing the methods or parameters and running the analysis again. 5. Present the Results The fifth step is to present the results of the analysis. The final products should effectively communicate the findings to the target audience (stakeholders). In most cases, the results of the GIS analysis can best be shown on a map, or they may also be presented in charts and reports of selected data. These charts and reports can be printed separately, or be embedded in documents created by other applications, or placed in the maps. In the following, examples on CLUP Information Products from the various planning sectors are compiled and presented. A complete representation of the Information Products for the planning sector subject is found in the Toolbox, Chapter 4.05 – 4.12.

3.03.07 Information Products for CLUP

Below are some examples of the Information Products that may be needed for CLUP Preparation. Information Products for CLUP NEEDS ASSESSMENT
Information Products for Identifying Suitable Areas for Urban Expansion

3.03.08 Land Cover Mapping Using Remote Sensing Data

Remote Sensing (RS) is a means of acquiring information about an object without contacting it physically using airborne equipment and techniques to determine the characteristics of an area. Aerial photographs and satellite images are the most common forms of remote sensing data. Introduction Land cover mapping is one of the most important and typical applications of RS data. Land cover corresponds to the physical condition of the ground surface, for example, forest, grassland, concrete pavement etc., while land use reflects human activities such as the use of the land, for example, industrial zones, residential zones, agricultural fields etc. Generally land cover does not coincide with land use. A land use class is composed of several land covers. RS data can provide land cover information rather than land use information. Initially the land cover classification system should be established, which is usually defined as levels and classes. The level and class should be designed in consideration of the purpose of use (national, regional or local), the spatial and spectral resolution of the RS data, user's request and so on. For beginners in GIS, most probably it will take some time to start with digital RS techniques. Instead, most of the time will be used for setting up the GIS, getting the data organized and preparing the information for the CLUP, using GIS as a support. RS will require that learning more about a new ‘data environment’, involving how to extract information from pixel/raster data which is different from the vector data analyses in the GIS. Likewise, an RS software or RS module addition to the GIS software will be needed, and these might be costly additions for a low-income municipality to set up. Methods Digital Classification When RS data is available in digital format, digital processing and analysis may be performed using a computer. Digital image classification is performed to automatically identify targets and extract information. Techniques such as unsupervised classification are largely automated while others such as supervised classification require considerable human input in the classification process. However, rarely is digital processing and analysis carried out as a complete replacement for manual interpretation. For the users of RS, it is not sufficient to display only the results obtained from image processing. For example, detecting land cover change in an area is not enough, because the final goal should be to analyze the causes of change or to evaluate the impacts of these changes. Therefore the result should be overlaid on maps of land use zoning. In addition, the classification of RS imagery will become more accurate if the auxiliary data contained in maps are combined with the image data. Manual visual interpretation of paper or on-the- screen data of aerial photo/and satellite imagery is still today a good way for extracting features, especially line features. Change Detection Change detection via satellite data is probably the most promising application from remote sensing. It can be done often without too high data costs and can deliver reliable results. Often it is not possible to get data with very high resolution covering the same area because of the costs, instead, satellite data can be used. The best way of using remote sensing for change detection is to point out areas where changes occurred. One of the most important advantages is that you get a date for the change. Not the exact date, but a time interval when the changes appeared. For changes in vegetation most often a spatial resolution of 15-30 meter is enough, but for detailed change detection one might need a 5- 10 meter spatial resolution. For more detailed urban mapping a 10-meter spatial resolution data such as SPOT Pan will be most suitable. Aerial photos can be used for land use change mapping, but it should be noted that changes shown in a very high resolution photo often is caused by other things such as the movement of vehicles, or the different shadows of vegetation, etc. There will be lots of changes that are of no interest. One should also be aware of shadow effects in the flight direction. Aerial photos are not taken during the same solar conditions. What’s in the Toolbox of Remote Sensing? The following case studies will give some ideas on what issues could emerge when remote sensing is being applied in the field of spatial planning.
  1. Study on remote sensing and change detection in Bangladesh, see Chapter 4.18.04.
  2. Overview of Satellite Data currently on the market, see Chapter 5.10.03.
  3. A Remote Sensing tool, Enforma, that can be downloaded, including a tutorial with some exercises from the Philippines, see Chapter 8.03.

3.04 Data

3.04.01 Types of Data Used in a GIS 3.04.02 Data Preparation 3.04.03 Data Management 3.04.04 Legal Implications on Data Capturing and Storing

3.04.01 Types of Data Used in a GIS

Although the two terms, data and information, are often used interchangeably, they mean two different things. Data can be described as different observations which are collected and stored. Information is processed data which is useful in answering queries or solving a problem. “Analogue data,” “paper version” or “hard copy” are terms often used to denote any document or dataset produced on paper while “digital data” or “soft copy” refer to files processed by GIS software in the computer. The result of the computer manipulated data can be transformed into a paper format such as the printout of a map. Geographic data are inherently a form of spatial data organized in a geographic database. This database can be considered as a collection of spatially referenced data that acts as a model of reality. There are two important components of this geographic database: its geographic position and its attributes or properties. In other words, spatial data (where is it?) and attribute data (what is it?) Spatial Data Spatial data pertains to the location and spatial dimensions of geographical entities, and data that can be linked to locations in geographic space, usually via features on a map. Attribute Data Attribute data refer to the properties of a specific, precisely defined location. The data are often statistical but may be in text, images or multi-media. These are linked in the GIS to spatial data that define the location. They are often referred to as non-spatial data since they do not in themselves represent location information. Spatial data can be represented into two fundamental approaches:
  1. Vector data wherein objects or conditions in the real world are represented by points and lines and polygons that define their boundaries, much as if they were being drawn on a map. The position of each object is defined by its placement in a map space that is organized by a coordinate reference system, as shown below.
  2. Raster data wherein the space is regularly subdivided into cells (usually square in shape), as shown in the figure below. The location of geographic objects or conditions is defined by the row and column positions of the cells they occupy. The area that each cell represents defines the spatial resolution available. The value stored for each cell indicates the type of object or condition that is found at that location in the raster model, and the homogeneous units are the cells.
[size=14]Comparison of the Raster and Vector Models. The landscape in 1 is shown in a raster representation (2) and in a vector representation (3). The pine forest stand (P) and spruce forest stand (S) are features. The river is a line feature, and the house (H) is a point feature. Some basic properties of raster and vector data are as follows:
  1. Each entity in a vector file appears as an individual data object. It is easy to record information about an object or to compute characteristics such as its exact length or surface area. It is difficult to derive this kind of information from a raster file because raster files contain little (and sometimes no) geometric information.
  2. Some applications can be handled much more easily with raster techniques than with vector techniques. Raster works best for applications where individual features are not important.
Comparison of Raster and Vector Data
RasterVector Advantages Good for complex analysis Efficient for overlays Data structure common for imagery Compact data structure Efficient for encoding topology True representation of shape Disadvantages Large datasets Topology hard to represent Maps less "realistic" Complex structure Overlay operations difficult Might imply false sense of accuracy<?td>

3.04.02 Data Preparation

Search for Data Possibly the most important component of a GIS is the data. Geographic data and related attribute data can be collected in-house or acquired from a public agency or a commercial data provider. For the database building, standards for data acquisition and data entry, data maintenance and storage, data analysis and processing, data display and reporting have to be defined. By formulating and agreeing on a metadata base, specifications can be developed that facilitate the system integration. The process of putting data into a GIS takes time. The process can be slow and laborious; and time equals money. Every year someone promises that next year there is going to be a faster, more intelligent scanning system that is going to get data into the system much easier. Things are indeed getting better and more and more data is becoming available in digital form, but the process of building a database still typically represents 80% of the first five-year costs of establishing a GIS. This is real money expenditure and that is where much of GIS time is going to be spent. In this context one has to remember that the LGU is primarily an institution for data users, not data producers. Consequently, if customized GIS data is available on the market, it is better to purchase the data, instead of starting an in-house ‘production line’ to transfer data to a GIS format. The GIS Cookbook presents a collection of CLUP Data custodians to facilitate the data searching by LGUs in their CLUP preparation. There is an inventory of available or accessible attribute and spatial data that are needed in preparing the CLUP. (Chapter 4.17.01 in the Toolbox.) Data Capture In the data capturing process the data are taken from the real-world [/b](primary source), or from a secondary source such as a paper map, and entered into GIS software. The Preparation of Primary (Attribute) CLUP Data When the ‘Search-for-Data’ process starts, in some cases attribute data will not be stored in a digital format. In ArcGIS and most other GIS software have a tool to manipulate attribute data. However, for beginners in GIS it is recommended to use MS Excel for two reasons:
  1. The custodian of the attribute data will (hopefully) be a representative from the specific sector (education, engineering, etc.) and the staff will most probably be familiar with the Microsoft Software package, which includes Excel.
  2. The custodian of the spatial data will be the MPDO, and since the software is an expensive part of the GIS start package, it should be the unit that holds the GIS software license. As a consequence, it will be the MPDO who will assist the attribute data custodians in including the attribute datasets into the GIS. Furthermore, the MPDO will have to extend services by providing GIS browsers and producing print outs for the other GIS stakeholders so that they will be able to use the information in their tasks.
Eventually, the stakeholders will have the confidence to work with the attribute data in the GIS software and the methodology recommended during the ‘introductory phase’ mentioned above will cease to be a problem. Aside from using Excel, it is also recommended that files to be used in the GIS should be stored in dBase file formats DBF4 (dBase IV). This is because in many instances, the dBase format can be used in the older version of the GIS software, for example ArcView 3.x. However, since the dBase IV format saves only the text and values as they are displayed in cells of the active worksheet, special attention is needed, as described in Chapter 4.20.01. How this is practiced is shown in Chapter 7.03.03. The Preparation of Spatial CLUP Data In the ‘Search-for-Data’ process, there will be instances wherein primary data gathering of spatial features will be done. It is recommended that a GPS be used in this activity. Chapter 4.19 in the Toolbox will show what to do in this case. There will also be analogue spatial data (paper drawn maps) that must be transformed into digital format. The process of capturing, processing and converting analogue spatial data into digital format is the same whether it is for basemap purposes or other maps for the CLUP. Chapter 4.21 will discuss these matters. Map Accuracy and Level of Acceptance GIS technology has broadened our view of a map. Instead of a static entity, a map is now a dynamic presentation of geographic data. The advantages are outstanding but there are also risks involved. In this case study, the importance of observing positional accuracy between the input data and the end product in the form of a CLUP map is shown. Six accuracy issues can be identified in a GIS:
  1. Positional accuracy by which the location has been determined;
  2. Attribute accuracy for the information describing a geometric element;
  3. Logical consistency which means that lines are connected, polygons closed, etc.;
  4. Completeness, which describes if the data is valid for the whole area or for parts of it;
  5. Currentness that describes the time for data collection;
  6. Lineage that describes all operations and manipulations that were used to produce the data (air photo interpretation, digitizing, etc.)
In the preparation of the CLUPs using GI Technology, secondary source data will be used. The LGU planner must rely on data captured by a national agency (e.g. geologic map, soil map, erosion map, flooding map, etc.). The source data will most likely be in a paper format, the data has been produced using manual methods, scales may vary, and little is known about the accuracy (few metadata is attached). Chapter 4 in the Toolbox provides some metadata specifications for some of the data, but a lot more needs to be done to assist the planner. The source maps, in order to be useful in a CLUP GIS database, must be transformed into a digital layer. However, data from paper format will only be converted into digital format. Scanning and georeferencing are discussed in Chapter 4.21 where acceptance and accuracy should be observed in these processes. It is likely that errors inherent in the paper source will be also be transferred to the digital form including any errors that might have been incurred during scanning and georeferencing processes. The accuracy of the digital data will depend on the accuracy of the secondary source, and comparison would only be between secondary data sources. The way how to treat errors between primary and secondary sources will be discussed in the Toolbox. How much error (errors from source and from scanning and georeferencing) is acceptable? The answer depends on how much accuracy the secondary source can provide. If the accuracy of a secondary source is not known, the data could be compared with other secondary sources which have similar features that are comparable. However, one must be cautious in comparing data. Most secondary source data done manually would contain a lot of errors. It is also possible that there are secondary sources which were produced digitally like orthophotos and GPS surveys. These sources would have greater accuracy than all other secondary sources, and these secondary source data will have to be evaluated differently. Lessons Learned The spatial data, especially the data for the Base Map:
  1. must be captured with agreed and acceptable (positional) accuracy;
  2. must be properly georeferenced;
  3. must be defined in the right projection;
  4. must have enough information about how it was prepared (metadata)
It should not be expected of a planner to be able to assess whether ‘technicalities regarding the cartography’ are properly set from the beginning. There should be enough guaranties for the planner that the data has a workable standard so he can focus on his professional task, which is the actual planning and the preparation of the CLUP. Metadata Metadata is the term used to describe the summary information or characteristics of a set of data or "data about data". Metadata can be defined as geospatial data describing its characteristics in terms of content, quality, processing history, format etc, into a common set of terms and definitions. In simple words, metadata is “data about data”. A map legend on a paper map is a type of metadata that describes the different map elements, publishing date, projection and coordinate system, etc. A common perception of GIS data is that it consists of two parts: spatial data (coordinates and topology), and attribute data (descriptive information). However, without proper documentation, GIS data will remain incomplete. It is thus equally important that GIS data also includes a metadata component. Metadata creation is typically considered to be an obligation of the data producer. The data user needs metadata to determine whether or not a particular data set exists, and to decide whether or not the data is appropriate for use. Proper metadata should describe the who, what, when, where, why and how regarding all aspects of a GIS data set. The use or creation of Metadata is often ignored or avoided. However, with the rise in use of digital data, the advantage of including metadata for datasets is increasingly recognized. Whereas cartographers rigidly provided metadata within a paper map’s legend, the evolution of computers and GIS has seen a decline in this practice. As organizations start to recognize the value of this ancillary information, they often begin to look at incorporating metadata collection within the data management process. Metadata helps people who use geo spatial data find the data they need and determine the best way to use it. Metadata benefits the data-producing organization as well. As personnel change in an organization, undocumented data may lose their value. Incoming and newcomer staff may have little understanding of the contents and uses for a digital database and may find they can't trust results generated from these data. Lack of knowledge about other organizations' data can lead to duplication of effort. It may seem burdensome to add the cost of generating metadata to the cost of data collection, but in the long run the value of the data depends on its documentation. In the GIS Cookbook there are Metadata Specifications and Standards for the attributes as well as the spatial datasets. What Are Standards and Why Use Them? The benefits of using GIS will be truly achieved once data is shared and exchanged between and among producers and users of geographic data. A prerequisite for such cooperation should be the capability of reading and interpreting the data among the exchanging entities. One basic condition is to standardize data, technically and conceptually Paper Maps Means Conceptual Standards As Well The printed map, in itself, represents a standardized way of describing geographic information. With our knowledge, experience and intuition we understand a meaning, an image and properties of that road which is described with a certain symbol. It works pretty well as long as we deal with a certain map category. The problem is that the important aspects can easily draw in all information on the maps when performing analysis procedures by using a number of different thematic maps. Computer Assistance Will Increase the Demands for Systematic Management of Data When changing to the digital world, there is a need to describe the tasks in a logical manner to get the computer to do what we want. A Corporate Language GIS, as well as our own language, is created to transfer and disseminate information. A corporate language consists of a corporate vocabulary and a corporate grammar. In the computer world we talk about corporate feature names, feature definitions, attribute lists and uniformly defined data format and data base design. This is standardization. Use of Geographic Data Many organizations use many types of geographic data from numerous data vendors or producers. These data should be used together. Standardization concerning geographic data such as using the same projection is an absolute prerequisite. As we use many data types from different producers it is also necessary with information about who is producing what, about data quality, about data capture methods etc. This is metadata. A uniform metadata structure also requires standardization, in order to easily understand the meaning of metadata. Use of Geographic Data A standard is agreed upon by a group of users who have cooperated in order to standardize a certain thing. The work is approved by the standardization organization and appointed official standard. In addition to the official standards for geographic data, a certain group can decide to apply a standardized data description for a certain purpose. In this case the result will occur as a de facto- standard. This needs no approval by a standardization organization since it is just for the use of the internal organization that agreed on this standard. Today there are a number of official standards concerning geographic data. Those are developed within the International Standard Organization (ISO), for example ISO TC 211 (Global level). There are also a lot of other unofficial standards. One example is the product de facto- standard established by Microsoft as this company is dominating the software market for computers. Another strong player is Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), the world leading vendor of GIS software. In the Philippines, the Inter Agency Task Force on Geographic Information (IATFGI) has made serious effort to come up with technical standards for geodata. The preparation of the GIS Cookbook has been coordinated with their recommendation and applicable metadata specifications have been adopted. However, the metadata specifications have been improved focusing not only on national government institutions but the local government data environment as well.

3.04.03 Data Management

In a GIS it is very important that data is named and stored in a logical way otherwise it will be difficult to find, which version that should be used, and to maintain the information property. If there are no previous file and folder management standards in the municipality, the following guidelines should be followed. In case there is a recognized file and folder system in the municipality then that system’s standards should be used. The guidelines are meant for a stand alone computer environment, with the files stored locally in one computer. In the case of networks, standards for data sharing should be applied. Guidelines for File and Folder Management The goal is to minimize duplication of datasets and to have the data well organized and easily accessible. This will help avoid confusion during the CLUP preparation, and in future revisions of the CLUP. To facilitate an overview of the folders, the subfolders should be organized in a specific order. They are automatically placed first in numerical and then alphabetical order. If you start with digits you can decide the appropriate order. It might not be necessary to use figures for all folders, but this is preferable for the most used or important folders. It is important to name the folders and files in a coherent way, so that will be easier to view the content of the drive. Using meaningful names and abbreviations can help see at a glance what each dataset is. The folder structure described below is a proposed setup that can be used in the preparation of the CLUP. It is recommended for better organization and management of files in case no previous standard has been used by the municipality. All the files such as written reports and other documents, graphs and photos used in the narrative part of the CLUP and the geodata needed to build up the CLUP GIS, are organized into 4 folders, which then are divided into subfolders and sub-sub folders accordingly: 01_CLUPGIS; 02_CLUPdoc; 03_CLUPpic; 04_CLUPmix. 01_CLUPGIS – contains the data, mostly tables/spreadsheets that is needed for the GIS. The building stones of the GIS consist basically of spatial data (which configures the features on the map), and attribute data (which describes the specific map feature). For example, a school is represented as a point on the map (spatial data) and when you click on it one will find information on how many teachers, classrooms, etc. (attribute data) the school holds. Aside from the geodata there are also (Excel) table data that have no GIS representation, and can be used in the narrative part of the CLUP report as tables or graphs originating from the spreadsheets. The components of the CLUP GIS data are divided into sector folders which follow IATFGl recommendations on metadata as shown below. Code Name of folder Content of sector folder BM Basic Information Fundamental data sets that can be used to make the sector data described above more meaningful. Displaying or analyzing the base data with the sector data assists the user in making more effective and well-informed decisions. SE Socio-economic The ‘software issues’ which in a GIS context are combined due to international GIS standards and technical rationales. Data related to public services and economic development. EN Environment The ‘valid to’ tag, which identifies data that can be used to protect and develop environmental sustainability, conditions in the municipality. IS Infrastructure Infrastructure is the ‘man made features’ ‘with layers, which depict the location, distribution, volume, standards and type of infrastructure utilities within the municipality. LM Land (use) Management Land-use Management’ symbolizes the ‘price tag’ with layers which provide basis for zoning, land ownership, taxation and assessment of land values, which can be inputted to fiscal resources of the municipality. PR Project Management Monitoring development activities in projects that have been initiated by the CLUP or have impact on the land use.
Each of the sector folders is divided by planning component subjects (Housing, Education, etc.) in order to differentiate between table files being used for preparatory activities (both for the GIS and to be inserted in the CLUP narrative text), and files that are being used in the GIS. Each planning component subject folder is further subdivided into two subfolders, namely ‘Tables’ and ‘GIS.’ A ‘Quick-look’ file placed together with the sector subfolders in the CLUPGIS folder describes important information about the data, which could be of good use and facilitate understanding by a new user/custodian. Refer to Chapter 5.01.01 for more information about the ‘Quick-look’ file. The GIS Cookbook does not give any recommendation how the data used in the CLUP Report should be organized. However, below are some general suggestions: 02_CLUPdoc – contains drafts of the CLUP document eventually divided into subfolders for drafts and final version. Each subfolder is recommended to have numbered subfolders corresponding to the division of chapter in the document, such as, 01_Introduction; 02_Baseline Studies; etc. 03_CLUPpic – contains all types of imagery, such as photos, satellite imagery, aerial photos, graphic illustrations, etc. For easy reference it is recommended that all imagery used in the final version should be placed in a separate subfolder and if there are several images, these may be subdivided into chapters such as 02_CLUPdoc. 04_CLUPmix – contains miscellaneous files, preferably organized into subfolders according to the steps in Volume 1 prepared, such as minutes from meetings and consultations; correspondence, etc. A preset directory that can be copied and inserted in the computer is also found in the Toolbox. Guidelines for Naming of Files It is important to name the folders and files in a coherent way, so that it will be easier to view the content of the drive. Using meaningful names and abbreviations can help see at a glance what each dataset is. The following guidelines are recommended, where the name of the folder or file should be:
  1. Clear and comprehensive;
  2. Not too long, not more than 40 characters (including space between words);
  3. Written following the sentence rule (start with capital letter);
  4. Acronyms with capital letters;
  5. No dots, slashes and backslashes. Only underscore can be used.
The following table sets out the characters that may NOT be used in file or folder names, as they are generally reserved by the operating system and will cause file retrieval problems if used: Character Description / Or \ Slashes (“/” or “\”) – these are used by the operating systems to denote directories. : Or; Colons (“:”) or semi-colons (“;”) * Asterisks – used in search criteria as wildcards % Percent symbol () or [] or{} Brackets . Period – used to denote the file extension ? Questions marks – bad form = Equals sign “ or ‘ Quotation marks < or > Greater than or less than signs $ Dollar sign – this has a special usage for security permissions. ~ Tilde – used by the operating system to truncate files names that are too long. ! Exclamation marks – bad form.
It is recommended that the geodata files be named as follows:
  1. Product/ feature name + year (2 digits) + eventual more detailed description about the feature + property, version or other property information. file extension
  2. For example: Admin96b_pline.shp. where:
    1. ‘Admin’ is the code for an administrative feature;[/li]
    2. ‘96’ indicates the year the data was captured/revised (for example when the CLUP was prepared);[/li]
    3. ‘b’ defines the type of administrative feature, namely a barangay (b is the coding for a barangay);[/li]
    4. ‘_pline’ is the polyline version (as there is also a polygon version of the same feature needed for the base map)
The shape file format defines the geometry and attributes of geographically referenced features in as many as five files with specific file extensions that should be stored in the same project workspace. They are: . shp - the file that stores the feature geometry. Geographic features in a shapefile can be represented by points, (poly) lines, or polygons (areas). .shx - the file that stores the index of the feature geometry. .dbf - the dBASE file that stores the attribute information of features. When a shapefile is added as a theme to a view, this file is displayed as a feature table. .sbn and .sbx - the files that store the spatial index of the features. These two files may not exist until you perform theme on theme selection, spatial join, or create an index on a theme's Shape field. If you have write access to the source data directory, the index files will be persistent and remain after your ArcGIS session is complete. If you do not have write access to the source data directory, they will be removed when you close the project or exit ArcGIS. .ain and .aih - the files that store the attribute index of the active fields in a table or a theme's attribute table. These two files may not exist until you perform link or join on the tables. If you have write access to the source data directory, the index files will be persistent and remain after your ArcGIS session is complete. If you do not have write access to the source data directory, they will be removed when you close the project or exit ArcGIS .apr is a project file in ArcView3 .mxd is a map document in ArcGIS. Data Sharing GIS and supporting technologies will lead to the development of decision support systems that facilitate the municipal planning process. By using indicators and alternative development scenarios it is possible to measure the performance of the LGU and future land-use. Planning support systems like the CLUP GIS can measure and compare performances of different planning scenarios according to planner- or citizen-defined indicators for land use, transportation, education, natural resources, and employment, to name a few. However, the ultimate goal is to bring together all potential players to work collaboratively on a common vision for their community. GIS-based planning support systems allow planners to quickly and efficiently create and test alternative development scenarios and determine their likely impacts on future land use patterns and associated population and employment trends, thus allowing public officials to make informed planning decisions. With a basic understanding and implementation of data sharing one can provide more information to local residents and the municipality without increasing capital or personnel costs. Employing these techniques will actually reduce the amount of time spent updating municipal management and planning data and increase accuracy and timeliness. The idea that is advocated for in the GIS Cookbook is that much of the data presented in the CLUP tables (see Chapter 5 in the Toolbox) can be designed/formatted so they can be used both in the CLUP preparation and in the day-to-day work of the respective sector office (health, education, social welfare, building and business permits, etc.) that is responsible for providing the specific municipal service. Once municipal offices (and other government agencies interacting with the LGUs) agree to share or replicate the data, they face the challenge of maintaining up-to-date datasets. Both attribute and spatial data are changing continuously as new social services, infrastructure, etc. are provided, or more accurate data is collected. To maintain up-to-date databases the various data “owners” (custodians) must exchange their most current datasets with those they share their data with. This can be done in two ways:
  1. Complete data load. This is the most straightforward approach. The current dataset is removed and completely replaced with the new dataset. However, this approach is sometimes impractical due to the volume of data, which may be difficult to distribute and take a prohibitively long time to reload, resulting in the database being inaccessible to the users for extended periods of time;
  2. Change only updates. This approach requires smaller data volumes to be distributed as only the records that have changed (modifiications, deletions and additions) are exchanged. Change only updates also reduce the time for the data load because of the smaller data volume. The update process is more complex than the complete data load approach.
Corporate datasets and working databases may also have different data models (or schemas). Posting scripts are used to control the transfer of the data between the different databases, and these scripts must be capable of handling these different configuration issues and formats, as shown in the figure below. Unique Feature Identifiers: To simplify the update process, unique ID’s are used to keep track of joining tables, which features have changed, etc. Consequently all CLUP GIS tables, (see Chapter 5) have been given a field for a unique ID. For example, a school unit will always be identified with a unique alphanumeric ID which is referred to by all users and used when joining tables in a GIS. A good example on unique ID is to start from the coding of municipalities (and barangays) that is used by NSO (see Chapter 5.09.01 for more detailed information). Data Ownership: It is important to clarify data ownership to eliminate potential conflicts. For example, who ‘owns’ the table data for education? Which department is responsible for maintaining the school unit locations and attribute data about enrolment? Data ownership may also have to be shared. For example in a low-income municipality it might be the best solution that the planning unit takes responsibility for the data management of the spatial data, and see to it that the locations of schools are properly identified, while the school unit keeps records on the attributes such as number of classrooms and teachers, etc. However, aside from agreeing about unique IDs and Data Custodianship, for municipal offices that share data with external users (those outside their administrative sphere of influence), “change only updates” result in a number of potential challenges that may include versioning, data transactions, data validation, coordinate systems and accuracy. Sometimes the CLUP/corporate datasets (shape files, Excel) are a different format to the external databases (ESRI Geodatabase, Oracle Spatial, MapInfo TAB, GeoMedia, AutoCAD, etc.). To cope with these issues there is a need for special GIS and IT knowledge. In the Toolbox (Chapter 4.18), some examples illustrate the benefit of data sharing. Data Security Whatever the current value of the database, if it is properly maintained, this will increase considerably over the years. A successful GIS will be an integral part of daily operations. Over time, the value of information derived from the GIS database grows beyond a monetary cost to one measured by the functionality it provides to the work. Consequently, considerations for the protection of the GIS from damage will be necessary at some stage. The possibility of the system and data being destroyed or severely damaged is real and deserves attention. The system is vulnerable to both deliberate and accidental damages. A disgruntled employee might purposely corrupt data, hackers may steal information, or a computer virus could find its way into the server. Natural disasters also pose a threat. Earthquakes, floods, fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, and lightning are all examples of natural hazards that could disrupt a GIS. While deviant behavior and natural disasters are intriguing subjects, threats more common are found in day-to-day operations. Examples include coffee being spilt in the wrong place, a well-intentioned employee who accidentally deletes or corrupts a database, or a power disruption with no automatic battery backup. When conducting a security review, the physical, logical, and archival security of the databases are examined. Physical security measures protect and control access to the computer equipment containing the databases. Protection of database storage includes guarding against human intrusions (such as unauthorized personnel) and environmental factors (such as fire, flood, or earthquake). Logical security measures protect and control access to the data itself. For example, users may be restricted to certain types of terminals, particular datasets, and particular functions. One common security measure is to ensure that only database management staff have editing and update rights to particular datasets. Archival security is essential for many applications. Metadata, information about past coding and updating practices, the location of data, and the type of media on which data is stored, must be kept track of to allow for data recovery. The table below illustrates the sections and subsections that might be included in a document that describes the security recommendations of systems and databases for a municipality. Recommendations are made that affect the current and future operations. This document will also help set priorities for actions and costs involved. Further, the security recommendations should be approved and a budget allocated to put the measures into effect. Physical SecurityLogical SecurityArchival Security Prevent access to main data storage from unauthorized entrances. Develop a policy for terminal access Establish an audit trail for copies of data Review the construction plans for the office buildings to ensure appropriate errand climate control Create an access matrix by document types Establish an offsite backup facility Upgrade fire protection Review protection of storage media Create and organize metadata Initiate document sign out and follow up procedures Implement virus protection standards Purchase storage media
Backup Basics There are many ways one can unintentionally lose information on a computer; a power surge, lightning, floods, for instance. Sometimes the equipment just fails. Backup copies of files kept in a separate place is a good practice to ensure that the information is still there when something happens to the original files in the computer. Before making backup copies, a checklist of files for backup should be made. This will help determine what files to back up, and also provide a reference list which will be useful in retrieving backed-up files. Backup copies should be stored in external storage media, such as an external hard disk drive or flash drive, CDs, DVDs, or some other storage formats. The size of the files needed for the CLUP database will be relatively modest providing not so much raster data is included. Consequently, the recommendation is that the CLUP folder should be written to a DVD/CD on a regular interval (like once a month) and the backup be kept in a safe environment outside the office.

3.04.04 Legal Implications on Data Capturing and Storing

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) IPR is currently governed by Republic Act No. 8293, known as the Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines (IPC), which was enacted and signed into law in 1997, and took effect on January 1, 1998. It consists of Copyright and Related Rights, Trademarks and Service Marks, Geographical Indications, Industrial Designs, Patents, Lay-out Designs (Topographies) integrated circuits and Protection of undisclosed information. Copyright and Related Rights Copyright – is the protection extended to expressions and not to ideas, procedures, and methods of operation or mathematical concepts as such. These expressions may be in the forms of literary, scholarly, scientific and artistic works. Related Rights – is the protection extended to derivative works, to include among others, dramatizations, translations, adaptations, abridgements, arrangements, and other alterations of literary or artistic works. Programs / Software Computer programs are protected by the IPC. The Code expressly protects computer programs as literary works. It also protects copyright in the manuals and packaging, which accompany the software. Some notable points about the IPC law are:
  1. It protects databases and tables;
  2. It grants an exclusive rental right to the copyright owner;
  3. It recognizes and expands the protection of an author’s moral rights, i.e., the right of an author to preserve the integrity of his work and name;
  4. It penalizes the possession of infringing software for the purpose of sale.
IPC allows reproduction of backup copies or adaptation of a computer programs without authorization of the author / copyright owner provided that the copy is necessary for:
  1. the use of the computer program in conjunction with a computer for the purpose, and to the extent, for which the computer program has been obtained;
  2. archival purposes, and, for the replacement of the lawfully owned copy of the program in the event that the lawfully obtained copy of the computer program is lost, destroyed or rendered unusable.
Such copy must be destroyed in the event that continued possession of the copy of the computer program ceases to be lawful. Enforcement The Intellectual Property Rights Code protects the owner’s copyright, giving him the exclusive right to do certain things with the work, which in this case consists of the computer program, the manuals, and the packaging. These “exclusive rights” include:
  1. The right to copy the whole program or a substantial part of it.
  2. The right to adapt or translate the program.
  3. The right to rent the program to another person.
This means that one may only copy, adapt or rent a computer program if the copyright owner gives the permission to do this. This permission is given in the form of license. Every purchase of a legitimate copy of a computer program entitles one to receive a license agreement.

3.05 Software

3.05.01 Overview 3.05.02 Open Source GIS 3.05.03 Recommendations on GIS Software Setup for CLUP Preparation (Based on Best Practices) 3.05.04 Maintenance and Licensing GIS and image processing software are still not very user-friendly and are not up to par with other software, such as MS Office. Software vendors are beginning to address this, largely due to market and user demands, but there is still a long way to go. Although GIS software is becoming less expensive, it still constitutes a major share of the initial costs in setting up a GIS for CLUP preparation.

3.05.01 Overview

In most organizations GIS can be used for a number of different staff tasks with various requirements on analysis operations and presentations. Instead of focusing on selection of software, the basic questions are:
  1. In which staff work is GIS supposed to be used in order to get good enough support?
  2. How is GIS planned to store data and make data available?
  3. How is the data planned for use in different applications and staff tasks?
Thus, selection of software should be a result of considerations and decisions about which business activities should be supported by use of GIS and the kind of data that should be used. In the case of the formulation of the CLUP, there is a number of GIS software available on the market that can be used for land-use preparation. Some of them can be described as common GIS software that includes all basic functionality for data capture, data production, data storing, data processing, analysis operations and presentations. Some of them are commercial software, but there are also freeware and shareware programs available. A few are using open source. As an alternative, applications can be developed within the organization. However, this is not recommended, as the life cycle costs of such applications tend to be high. Instead it is recommended to purchase commercial software and then make necessary modifications /updates. The planned use for the software, and the categories of users are very decisive factors for the selection of GIS software. The range of GIS use is very wide – from browsing pre-drawn maps to advanced analysis operations. This means that it might be necessary to select different software solutions with due consideration of the types of users. However, as a start for a low-income municipality, it would be enough to procure one software license to be used by the planner(s) and use a freeware GIS browser for the CLUP stakeholders.

3.05.02 Open Source GIS

Open Source programs are applications in which you can access the source code. In recent years, the GIS industry has witnessed a dramatic growth in the development and adoption of open source technologies and there is a number of Open Source GIS Software available on the market for free or at a low price. The technical GIS community has adopted open source technology and it now mainstreams GIS. Broader IT industries have come on board as open source products have matured. The availability of GIS open source software provides researchers and solution developers access to a wider range of tools than what is currently offered by the commercial companies. However, for the target group of the GIS Cookbook, the low-income municipalities with limited experience of computer technology, it is not recommended to use Open Source GIS as it is still complicated for the beginner to work with. It might be an alternative later when the staff is more confident with the computer environment.

3.05.03 Recommendations on GIS Software Setup for CLUP Preparation (Based on Best Practices)

The graph below shows the brands of GIS software that are commonly used by the LGUs in the Philippines some years ago. The findings originate from the NAMRIA nation-wide survey and if the trend is the same as with the rest of the world, the situation today will give an even bigger dominant position to ESRI which is the provider of ArcView, ArcGIS, ArcInfo, etc. As Microsoft Word drove Word Perfect out of the market some ten years ago it is also likely that ESRI will outmaneuver most of its competitors in the long run, simply because much resources are needed to keep software apace with users’ preferences and needs. A geographic model is an abstraction of the real world that employs a set of data objects that supports map display, query, editing and analysis. To date there have been three generations of software in use, separately or integrated together and different GIS software make it possible to a greater or lesser extent to represent natural behaviors and relationships of features. These models are as follows:
  1. The CAD Data Model is the very first computerized mapping system that draws vector layers. However the representation of the attribute data is very limited. In this era, maps were created with CAD software;
  2. The Coverage Data Model introduced better options to combine spatial data with attribute data. The major advantage of the coverage data model is the user’s ability to customize feature tables. Not only could fields be added, but the database relationship could be set up to external database tables. The Coverage Data Model is still the dominant model in GIS. An example of the software that handles this data model is ArcView 3 using shapefiles.
  3. ArcGIS/ArcView 8 introduces a new object-oriented data model called the Geodatabase Data Model, which makes the features in the GIS datasets more proficient by endowing them with more natural features.
The GIS Cookbook recommends that data be prepared in a Coverage Data Model (Shape files, Excel/dBase attributes). However, as ESRI has terminated the development of the ArcView 3 environment, it is recommended that GIS software that also can manage Geodatabase Data Model such as ArcGIS be procured by a low-income municipality. The reasons are briefly as follows:
  1. More flexibility for future improvements and upgrading of the GIS is possible;
  2. The amount of data required for the CLUP is not voluminous so it requires a Geodatabase Data Model;
  3. The queries and analysis used for the CLUP are relatively simple and do not require a Geodatabase Data Model;
  4. The amount of data sharing does not initially need a network solution.
However, it is more advantageous to use a Geodatabase GIS Software when it comes to displaying and visualizing the information products of the CLUP A checklist with items and costs is enclosed in the Toolbox, Chapter 4.03.01.

3.05.04 Maintenance and Licensing

Most commercial software manufacturers are offering (often quite expensively) annual maintenance agreements that provide general support and troubleshooting. For the CLUP GIS however, it is not recommended for a low-income municipality to sign up for such an agreement as the problems that will occur will mostly not be related to the actual software but to inconsistencies among the other GIS elements, namely: training, data, hardware and the actual application - the CLUP GIS. In this case, the main provider of useful advice will be HLURB. Licensed software comes normally with a password and a dongle which only allows the software to be used in one computer at a time. In the Philippines like the rest of the world, there are cracked versions that enable the use of the software without any restrictions. Although the price of the software is a hefty investment for a low-income municipality, it is not advisable to use pirated software, which is illegal.

3.06 Hardware (and Network Set Up)

3.06.01 Computer 3.06.02 Peripherals 3.06.03 Network Developments in the PC market have led to faster and cheaper machines that support multiple operating systems. Peripherals remain costly and difficult to repair. Maintenance and technical support continue to be problems, although the development of local markets has begun to help. PC-technology is most often the appropriate choice for municipal-scale projects in developing countries. As with any project, it is important to evaluate the user needs, and pick hardware appropriate to the project, the long-term goals of the installation, and which can be realistically supported.

3.06.01 Computer

Today, GIS software runs on a wide range of hardware types, from centralized computer servers to desktop computers used in stand-alone or networked configurations. Consequently, all new PC hardware will function well with GIS software today. As the GIS processes files that might be quite voluminous in size, it is recommended that special attention is given to boost internal memory (RAM) to 1024 MB. A laptop is more expensive than a PC with the same performance but might be more practical to use for surveys and consultations (connected with a projector).

3.06.02 Peripherals

Aside from a functioning computer the following peripherals are useful: An A3 (ink cartridge) color printer. The A3 format (or the somewhat smaller portfolio size) has been proven to be a most suitable format to present maps on a municipal ‘scale’ to be included in reports, etc., and can also be used for other graphs aiming to visualize the work of the Planning Office (posters, brochures, banners, etc.) in an attractive way. There should be extra sets of ink cartridges in stock and must be always replenished. They are however ‘perishables’ and have an expiration date, and the ink eventually runs dry. In most cases, for quality prints, the ‘fast-print/economy-print’ mode will save a lot of ink and money as many prints might contain maps and illustrations. Laser printers, which have become much cheaper lately, are a cost saving alternative for large quantity printing of monochromatic documents compared to using an ink cartridge printer. Although prices have come down from the previous years, a low-income municipality will not frequently need a plotter that can print in larger formats than A3. Instead, try to make friends with a nearby private or public institution with such plotter that can help with the reproduction during the few times it is needed. Digital cameras have become very cost-effective and easy-to-use instruments for monitoring and maintenance activities. It is recommended that the Municipal Planning Office procure one for its use. A camera with 3 MB picture resolution is more than enough for photo documentation in a CLUP. A handheld GPS is affordable nowadays and is most useful in capturing spatial locations of objects in the CLUP. It is advantageous (but not extremely necessary) to bring a laptop and data cable to transfer positions. A car lighter plug for the GPS is also necessary because the battery is often at risk of running low in the middle of a field work. Nowadays, GPS is already being integrated into PDAs and cellphones. Software installed in these PDA GPS allows user-made datasets like their base map which allows them to view the positions being observed in real time without the need of a laptop. Other units also have Bluetooth or WLAN which allows wireless connection to a laptop or PDA with a GIS software via Bluetooth or WLAN, and allows real time readings. An A4 scanner has an affordable price tag and is extremely useful once one has got the right touch. In combination with Optical Character Reading (OCR) software it will save a lot of time when large amounts of paper data need to be put into digital format. External USB hard disks are becoming inexpensive, and are very useful as a back up for a small planning office. The flash disk memory (USB flash drive) has replaced the floppy disk and is very handy in data sharing. A USB flash drive is like a small hard drive, about 2-3 inches long, that plugs into the computer through a USB port. Data can be downloaded into it for storage. It is portable and files can be saved, modified, or deleted as often as needed. However, because of their size, USB flash drives are easy to misplace. The flash disk is normally a sufficient solution for data sharing (but not data storing) in a low-income municipality. (But might need a driver if you are using old computers) A computer projector is slowly going down in price and can be useful at large meetings. Lumen (ANSI) and resolution (dpi) are the quality indicators and keep in mind that the lamp is very expensive to replace. Access to a reliable power supply is still a major problem in many developing countries, though this is improving in some urban areas. The use of voltage regulators and Universal Power Supply (UPS) units is critical to safeguarding hardware and mitigating work loss and stoppages. In environments where adequate office space may be scarce and heating and cooling systems may be less than adequate, working conditions can be troublesome.

3.06.03 Network

In the CLUP GIS Guidelines, not much attention will be paid to networked GIS solutions as such models miss the mark in the situation when a low-income LGU is starting up a GIS for CLUP preparation. However, for information purposes there are four kinds of networks, namely: Local Area Network (LAN), which connects computers in limited numbers in, for example, an office, using a server, Wide Area Network (WAN) is a more complex system in which a number of LANs are linked together. It is suitable for a large LGU with a corporate GIS with several office buildings spread over an area. Network Attached Storage (NAS) is a network designed to attach computer storage devices such as disk array controllers and tape libraries to servers. Storage Area Network (SAN) is a network designed to attach computer storage devices such as disk array controllers and tape libraries to servers. The relatively small amount of data that is needed to prepare a CLUP and the frequency of sharing the data kept within reasonable bounds do not justify a network solution. Instead, data sharing using flash disks or read and writable CD-ROMs is a cheaper and sufficient solution. And in due time when the amount of data becomes unmanageable in a stand alone computer environment, and the pace of data sharing requires a more sophisticated solution, the municipality/city will be motivated to step up connectivity by introducing a network. It is then recommended to install a wireless solution, which in a few years time will be both cheaper and more reliable than a line network.