4.19 Methods for Field Survey

4.19.01 Guidelines How to Conduct a CLUP Field Survey

Objective The objective for the survey is to locate (or verify) features that cannot be traced from the secondary source data (aerial photos, old maps, etc.) that are available in the planning office. However, it is not only the physical location of a feature that should be recorded during the field survey. The completeness and accuracy of the databases found in the municipal office can also be validated on site, and other useful information about the table objects can also be gathered. For example, when the location of a school site is captured using a handheld GPS, photos of the school buildings are taken, and data about the school facilities such as actual number of classrooms can be listed at the same time. The conditions of the premises can be also be assessed and documented. Hence, the survey must be properly planned at the office before fieldwork is conducted, and cooperative efforts by the planner and ‘sector custodians’ should be encouraged. As explained earlier, the data captured during the field trip is not only for the for the CLUP preparation, but will also be useful for other (sector) purposes, like project planning, maintenance programs, etc. Preparation: 1 Prepare a ‘CLUP Directory Tree’ (if this has not has been done before) for the files which will be the result of the survey, copy and paste the sample directory found in the Toolbox into/create a file structure as recommended in Chapter 5.01.01 on the designated drive of the computer that will be the ‘home’ for the GIS data. Screen dump of the CLUP Directory tree here! 2 Copy the field survey form for spatial objects from Chapter 6.04 and print out enough forms to be used during the field survey. The idea is to use the form for each feature (schools, barangay offices, health clinics, etc.) and manually insert the GPS recordings and identification numbers for photos; 3 Copy from Chapter 5 and paste the head column from the Excel Table Object sheets of each object that is relevant for the respective municipality/city. For reference and selection, see the CLUP Metadata Index sheet (Chapter 5.01.01 ‘Quicklook.xls/index’) to find out what table objects are mandatory and what objects are extensive objects. Note that each object should be found in a separate Excel file. 4 Name the respective table object file according to the CLUP coding standard, which is found in the CLUP Metadata in the respective table object sheet ; 5 In the respective LGU sector offices archive, check the availability of data which is required to insert in the CLUP table object. The best way to do this is to invite the ‘LGU sector data custodians’ to report their versions of what is available in-house in order to find out if the field survey could be used to make up the existing databases. (Photo of a meeting with LGU staff working maps and tables.) 6 Make paper copies of the table object files for which the field survey can contribute and bring together with the CLUP Metadata.   7 Make a route plan for the survey using for example a large size paper version of the old CLUP General (or Urban) Plan: The Survey Team The recommended composition of the Survey Team is as follows: A Team Leader (could be one the mentioned below)   A GPS and Camera Operator (Picture of an equipped (and smiling) Team in front of a vehicle) A Data Capturer who keeps the record   A Driver   In case the field survey is used to update existing table object dataset found in office, staff from the respective LGU sector department is recommended to join the team.   Survey Equipment: A vehicle. Sometimes a motorcycle can be useful if the features to record are found in remote areas with poor roads.   A handheld GPS and don’t forget batteries in case there is no car charger for the GPS.   A digital camera.   Al types of maps and aerial photos useful to track locations.   A compass and a tape meter   White paint to mark ‘beacons’   The Survey Forms indicated above   Examples on How Surveys Can Be Conducted:Example 1: Feature objects of the Base Map data which normally cannot be traced from secondary sources (an aerial photos, etc.) In this case, it will be Administrative features linked to the table object‘ Administration’ And a couple of landmarks linked to the table object Cultural Heritage’ Go to the site, take GPS readings, take photos, interview resource persons (if available) and try to complete the indicators defined in the tables. Try to use the same place for the GPS reading, for example always at the entrance gate of the Barangay Hall compound or outside entrance to the Barangay Hall. (Picture exemplifying) Example 2: Feature object of CLUP Sector data which normally cannot be traced from secondary sources (such as aerial photos, etc.) In this case, it will be Health Facilities features linked to the table object Facilities by Type and Ownership …and table object Facility by Capacity and Condition Go to the site, take GPS readings, take photos, interview resource persons (if available) and try to complete the indicators defined in the tables. Try to use the same place for the GPS reading, for example always at the entrance gate of a school. (Picture exemplifying)   The next step will be to enter the data into the CLUP GIS at the office, assign proper symbology and color coding to the feature Note that Examples 1 and 2 can be surveyed at the same time Example 3: A Business Permit survey for a block in a CBD, zoned as Commercial??? In this case it will be features linked to the table object ‘Business Permits, Year ????’ Take GPS readings of the 4(?) corners of the block   Take GPS readings of each business activity going on, starting in the NW corner go to NE to SE to SW and back to NW. If it involves multistory activities start with the ground level activity and record upwards What about the street vendors, do they also have a business permit? If so are they assigned to a specified location? If so they have to be recorded as well. Take photo of the business activities following the GPS readings and record the photo serial number in the Survey form Back at office, compare the municipal Business Permit Register with the survey, use the Business Permit Register ID as the unique ID and copy/paste the data into the CLUP format   (Example of a scanned business permit register here!) Note that is important to behave discreetly in the data capturing activity to avoid giving a negative impression of the exercise. (e.g. GPS position on the other side and always a ‘tourist’ placed in front of the camera!) If the purpose of your activities is asked, always keep an official ID card. The next step will be to enter the data into the CLUP GIS at the office, assign proper symbology and color coding to the feature See Chapter… for a more in depth case study of this subject.

4.19.02 Case Study: A Barangay Map Survey and Information Product

The Case Study Area Linao is a Barangay located in the west end of Ormoc City Urban Area. The Barangay became urbanized after the flooding in Ormoc in 1991 when a number of relocation sites were located in the Barangay. Prior to that, the area was mostly agricultural and industrial lands. Linao has a number of issues and inconsistencies when it comes to actual land use compared to the zoning of the Barangay. When comparing the aerial photo with the zoning, there are two major industrial activities (Petron Depot and the Mac Builder Corporation) located in an area which is zoned as residential. There is also a widespread area of informal settlements along the coastal areas which are not presented in the CLUP. Barangay Linao has a total land area of about 87 hectares of which 50% is used as agricultural land and 30% as residential. The rest is used for industrial, commercial and institutional activities. There is a large swamp in the western part of the barangay. The Barangay used to be zoned as Industrial and has a large Petrol depot located in the central area. Later on, the zoning was changed to residential for the most part of the Barangay, except for the area where the schools and the Barangay hall are located, which is zoned as institutional. Today the population of Linao is around 9,000. Since 2003, there was a 32% increase in this number. Linao has one of the extensive areas of informal settlements in Ormoc City where just along the shoreline alone, there are approximately 200 households. The other 50 households are located in other parts of the Barangay. There is a problem with lack of nutrition for the children living in the informal settlements, and apparently, this is due to the lack of adequate land to grow vegetables along the shore. Barangay Captain Sofronio Chu has started a program to grow plants in bags and plastic boxes which they distribute among the settlers to improve their ability to grow plants. In the Barangay hall today, they have no map that covers the whole area. The only map available is a Tax Map showing the Tax Parcels in central blocks. The map lacks topographical references and even the Barangay Captain and his staff have a hard time locating the precise points that the map presents. Scope The main target of this survey is to gather useful data in the preparation of the CLUP and at the same time gather information for the preparation of a Barangay map to for use in the barangay hall. The scope of this survey is to:
  1. Compare the Zoning with the Actual Land Use;
  2. Identify major changes in land use, newly built-up areas etc;
  3. Identify issues obtaining in the Barangay;
  4. Prepare findings for use in updating the CLUP, including a Land Use map;
  5. Locate facilities in the Barangay.
Preparation In preparation for the barangay survey, a meeting was held with the Barangay Captain, and secondary source materials such as aerial photos were used in locating the different objects of land uses that should be included in the survey. These were also marked on a map. Prior to the survey the following activities were conducted:
  1. Scheduled a meeting with the Barangay Captain;
  2. Put together a survey team with a driver, a GPS operator and a person to take notes and pictures during the survey;
  3. Prepared note-taking forms for the survey (GPS point ID, photo number, name of location or activity etc);
  4. Prepared Maps to note the different objects to include in the survey;
  5. Made a list of objects and questions for the Barangay officials that are of interest to the survey;
  6. Made sure that the following were available: vehicle, GPS recorder, digital camera, extra batteries etc.;
  7. Prepared for outdoor walking,
  8. Prepared survey team provisions such as drinking water and raincoats.
It is good to have a survey team member living in the area who. Thus, the team is familiar with the different locations and can provide additional information during the survey. Implementation The survey started with a meeting with the Barangay Captain who went through a list of different services located in the Barangay and noted them on the aerial photo. With the help of the Barangay Captain, the locations of sports facilities such as badminton hall, basketball courts and a sports hall under construction were plotted on the map, including schools (an elementary and a high school), a health center, police station, churches, bakeries, industrial activities, etc. that have been constructed and where new residential areas have appeared since the aerial photo was taken in 1997. He also presented other information about the barangay. Also identified on the map was the swamp area that is not suitable for residential use but is within the residential zone. The Barangay Captain also joined the field survey around the vicinity of the Barangay Hall, which took less than one day and covered interesting sites that are useful in the preparation of the full barangay survey. Some basic attribute data were also elicited from the elementary school principal and the Barangay Police Chief in Linao. After the interview, the survey team drove around the Barangay visiting the different sites to gather GPS readings and take pictures of the objects, and at the same time looked out for other interesting objects in the area to survey that may relevant for the CLUP preparation and for the Barangay Map. Objects Surveyed The different objects listed by the Barangay Captain were visited during the survey. The team also ‘discovered’ and surveyed a residential area that is actually a housing area for urban poor which has been built after 1998 when the aerial photo was taken. This was noted among the objects to be surveyed. In total, 28 objects in the barangay were surveyed, ranging from industrial activities to bakeries and sports facilities. The Barangay Police Chief also provided information about crime rate in the area, and the elementary school principal gave data about the school.
Objects visited during the barangay survey
Processing data and updating the Land Use Map During the conduct of the survey, it was determined that the Zoning in Barangay Linao was not reflective of the actual or even intended land use in all areas of the Barangay. This is illustrated by the Petron Plant which is a highly hazardous industrial activity. It is a permanent structure that is located right in the middle of a residential area. The Mac Builder area is also located in the residential zone. With this data and with the use of aerial photo, the current land use map can now be updated to have a better input for the next CLUP preparation process. Based on the survey, the residential area was subdivided into smaller parts and the data for the major land areas were changed from residential to agricultural use. The areas occupied by Petron and Mac Builder were changed to industrial use, and the swamp area in the west end of the barangay was also indicated. The updated Land Use Map forms a good base for the updating of the CLUP and for a more accurate zoning for the barangay. Preparing the Barangay Map With the use of data gathered during the Barangay Survey it is also possible to prepare a barangay map that shows the location of facilities available in the barangay such as the Barangay Hall, Police Station, Health Center, Schools, Religious facilities and sports facilities. The barangay map is a useful information material in the barangay, and serves as an important tool in the political process when discussing development and visualizing the need for new locations for ongoing and proposed activities at the barangay level. The barangay map for Linao is printed in an A2 format, and laminated so it can be used in discussions where the local officials can also draw on the map with whiteboard markers and reuse the map for different projects.

4.19.03 How to Use GPS in CLUP Data Preparation

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a worldwide radio-navigation system formed from a constellation of 24 satellites and their ground stations. GPS uses these satellites as reference points to calculate positions accurate to a matter of meters or up to centimeter level in advanced forms of GPS receivers. GPS receivers have been miniaturized to just a few integrated circuits and so are becoming very economical, making the technology accessible to virtually everyone. These days GPS is finding its way into cars, boats, planes, construction equipment, movie making gear, farm machinery, and of course into laptop computers. Because of the great reduction in price (same price as a mid range cellular phone), GPS surveying is a practical way of getting primary data for the CLUP GIS. This chapter will now show how GPS works, and presents tips that may not be found in the GPS user manual. GPS Survey Know your receiver A GPS receiver is a new device for many people who should familiarize themselves with the device. This information can save time, resolve problems in operation, and prevent accidental data loss. Read the manual. Know the specifications of the GPS model, set-up, functionalities, how to use, and the limitations of the gadget. Find out what operations would result in data loss (reset, delete, clear track records, etc), in order to prevent accidental data loss. Take the time to practice using the receiver before conducting an actual survey. Practice set-up procedures, data collection and data deletion. Observe signal strength and level of accuracy for different weather conditions and locations. Learn to clear all captured data (tracks, waypoint, routes). Observe what happens to the other data if one set is erased (e.g. would erasing all waypoints have an effect on the route). Observe battery life of the GPS receiver. This is important in planning the survey and in case there are no available spare batteries for the unit. Plan the survey GPS survey will consume time and resources (gasoline for the vehicle, manpower). Here are some things to do in planning the survey. Prepare a map of the area to be surveyed and have it printed in a size that can be easy to write on and read while in a moving car or outside the field (A3 or A4). Find source persons for the places to be surveyed if nobody in the survey team is familiar with the places. Plan the survey routes on the map. If working in teams, assign which areas to cover and alternate areas to survey in case the survey is completed early or if problems arise for primary areas. Consider hazards and risks that may be encountered in the survey areas (flash flood areas, road conditions, insurgents, bulwarks of rival political parties, etc.) to avoid delays and prevent any untoward incidents from happening. Plan who to bring with the team, what type of vehicle to use in certain areas (model, marked or unmarked, etc. ) to avoid physical (rough road) and social (presence of insurgents or areas controlled by rival political parties) constraints. Bring along a resource person for the areas during the survey if possible. Assign roles to the members of the survey team (GPS operator, recorder, photographer). Prepare materials before conducting the Survey Prepare extra maps of the route plan if more than one team is organized. Prepare data sheets for the GPS readings. This serves as the back up for the data and a much easier way to write down notes. Use a clipboard folder for writing data in the field. An example of a GPS data capture sheet is found in Chapter 6.04. Bring spare batteries, if available; otherwise make sure to fully charge the battery before going to the field. Bring a digital camera if available and take pictures of the areas being surveyed. Before leaving for the survey Check the weather if GPS survey is possible. Check if all materials are okay and ready to go to avoid any delays. Initialize and set-up the instrument before going out to the field Turn on the GPS receiver and apply appropriate settings. Here are some of the settings that should be applied that would be common to most receivers. Datum : WGS84 Units : Metric Bearing : True Latitude/Longitude Units: DD:MM:SS.S (Degrees-Minutes-Seconds) Find an open space with a good view of the sky and wait for the GPS to set-up. Once the GPS is set-up, take some test readings. Take note of the accuracy of the test readings. This will serve as an estimate for the next readings. Place receiver in the dashboard while inside the vehicle to prevent signal loss thereby eliminating the need to set-up the receiver again. Getting the readings
  1. Locate an open area on the area to be surveyed. If the area is a small building (less than or equal to two floors), find an area near the structure that will still have a good view of the sky.
  2. Get GPS readings on the area and observe the accuracy. Wait for the accuracy to stabilize, at least to a meter level, and take note of the highest accuracy level possible.
  3. Save the reading when the accuracy is within the highest stable reading possible.
  4. If accuracy reading fluctuates and is unstable, try to find a new area and repeat the readings.
  5. If a different area continues to give unstable reading even for a long period of time, save the data with the highest observed accuracy.
  6. Record the readings on the data sheet and the point number recorded in the GPS.
  7. Take pictures of the area using a digital camera and record the photo number/s in the data sheet for the corresponding point.
  1. Take readings from the same area per feature type. (e.g, flagpole for all schools, front of building for all Barangay Halls).
  2. Stay away from tall buildings and sources of strong electrical current or interference (e.g, transmission lines, substations, electrical generators, cell sites);
  3. Track reading is a feature common to GPS receivers today. It records the route of the survey as points that can also be downloaded into the computer. Turn this feature on whenever available. Clear track readings in the receiver whenever starting a new day for survey but before doing so, make sure it is already downloaded and saved in a computer. Take note that track readings (called ‘track logs’ in some models) is different from point readings (‘waypoints’ in some GPS models) to prevent any accidental erasesure of other data stored;
  4. Set-up the GPS using the above procedure whenever it is turned off (e.g. lunch break);
  5. Download the readings (points and tracks) to a computer after a day’s work. Next page contains a form that can be used for the data capturing in the field. In Chapter 6.04 the Excel file is found.