Glossary

Wed, 11/21/2007 - 17:45

TERM
DEFINITION
Aerial PhotographsPhotographs mounted from above where the camera is mounted on an aircraft
Agrarian Reform Communityis a barangay at the minimum or a cluster of contiguous barangays where there is a critical mass of farmers or farm workers and which features the main thrust of agrarian development land tenure improvement and effective delivery of support services
Agricultural Landsrefers to lands devoted to or suitable for the cultivation of the soil, planting of crops, growing of trees, raising of livestock, poultry, fish or aquiculture production, including the harvesting of such farm products, and other farm activities and practices performed in conjunction with such farming operations by persons whether natural or juridical and not classified by the law as mineral land, forest land, residential land, commercial land, or industrial land.
Agricultural Land Use Conversionrefers to the process of changing the use of agricultural land to non-agricultural uses.
Agricultural Sectoris the sector engaged in the cultivation of the soil, planting of crops, growing of fruit trees, raising of livestock, poultry, or fish, including the harvesting and marketing off such farm products, and other farm activities and practices.
Agricultural Mechanizationis the development, adoption, manufacture and application of appropriate location-specific, and cost-effective agricultural technology using human, animal, mechanical, electrical and other non-conventional sources of energy for agricultural production and post-harvest operations consistent with agronomic conditions and for efficient and economic farm management.
Agriculture and Fisheries Modernizationis the process of transforming the agriculture and fisheries sectors into one that is dynamic, technologically advanced and competitive yet centered on human development guided by the sound practices of sustainability and the principles of social justice.
Agro-Processing Activitiesrefers to the processing of raw agricultural and fishery products into semi-processed or finished products which include materials for the manufacture for food and/or non-food products, pharmaceuticals and other industrial products.
Alienable and Disposable Landsthose lands of the public domain which have been the subject of the present system of classification and declared as not needed for forest
purposes.
Ancestral Domain Subject to Section 56 hereof, refer to all areas generally belonging to ICCs/IPs comprising lands,inland waters, coastal areas, and natural resources therein, held under a claim of ownership, occupied or possessed by ICCs/IPs, themselves or through their ancestors, communally or individually since time immemorial, continuously to the present except when interrupted by war, force majeure or displacement by force, deceit, stealth or as a consequence of government projects or any other voluntary dealings entered into by government and private individuals, corporations, and which are necessary to ensure their economic, social and cultural welfare. It shall include ancestral land, forests, pasture, residential, agricultural, and other lands individually owned whether alienable and disposable or otherwise, hunting grounds, burial grounds, worship areas, bodies of water, mineral and other natural resources, and lands which may no longer be exclusively occupied by ICCs/IPs but from which their traditionally had access to for their subsistence and traditional activities, particularly the home ranges of ICCs/IPs who are still nomadic and/or shifting cultivators;
Attribute Datadescribes characteristics of the spatial features. These characteristics can be quantitative and/or qualitative in nature. Attribute data is often referred to as tabular data Banks, collective used, means government banks and private banks, rural banks and cooperative banks.
Basic Needs Approach to Development involves the identification, production and marketing of wage goods and services for consumption of rural communities.
Cadastral Map Maps generated from Cadastral Survey
Communal Irrigation System (CIS) is an irrigation system that is managed by a bona fide Irrigators Association.
Competitive Advantage refers to competitive edge in terms of product quality and/or price. It likewise refer to the ability to produce a product with the greatest relative efficiency in the use of resources.
Cooperatives refers to duly registered associations of persons with a common bond of interest who have voluntarily joined together to achieve a lawful common social and economic end, making equitable contributions to the capital required and accepting a fair share of the risks and benefits of the undertaking in accordance with universally accepted cooperatives principles.
Coping capacity: Capacity refers to the manner in which people and organizations use existing resources to achieve various beneficial ends during unusual, abnormal, and adverse conditions of a disaster event or process. The strengthening of coping capacities usually builds resilience to withstand the effects of natural and other hazards.
Damage The amount of destroyed or damaged property asset, the injury of people and environment as a consequence of an occurred hazard.
Damage potential The amount of property asset in a threatened area.
Disaster A hazard might lead to a disaster. A disaster by itself is an impact of a hazard on a community or area – usually defined as an event that overwhelms that capacity to cope with.
Economic Scale refers to the minimum quantity of volume of goods required to be efficient.
Economies of Scale refers to the decrease in unit cost as more units are produced due to the spreading out of fixed costs over a greater number of units produced.
Empowerment involves providing authority, responsibility and information to people directly engaged in agriculture and fishery production, primarily at the level of the farmers, fisher folk and those engaged in food and non-food production and processing, in order to give them wider choices and enable them to take advantage of the benefits of the agriculture and fishery industries.
Exposure The economic value or the set of units related to each of the hazards for a given area. The exposed value is a function of the type of hazard.
Extension Services refers to the provision of training, information, and support services by the government and non-government organizations to the agriculture and fisheries sectors to improve the technical, business, and social capabilities of farmers and fisher folk.
Farmer’s and Fisherfolk’s Organizations or Associations refer to farmers and fisher folks cooperatives, associations or corporations duly registered with appropriate government agencies and which are composed primarily of small agricultural producers, farmers, farm, workers, agrarian reform beneficiaries, fisher folk who voluntarily join together to form business enterprises or non-business organizations which they themselves own, control and patronize.
Farm-to-Market Roads refer to roads linking the agriculture and fisheries production sites, coastal landing points and post-harvest facilities to the market and arterial roads and highways.
Fisheries refers to all systems or networks of interrelated activities which include the production, growing, harvesting, processing, marketing, developing, conserving, and managing of all aquatic resources and fisheries areas.
Fisheries Sector is the sector engaged in the production, growing, harvesting, processing, marketing, developing, conserving, and managing of aquatic resources and fisheries areas.
Fishing refers to the application of techniques using various gear in catching fish and other fisheries products.
Fishing Groundsrefers to areas in any body of water where fish and other aquatic resources congregate and become target of capture.
Food Securityrefers to the policy objective, plan and strategy of meeting the food requirements of the present and future generations of Filipinos in substantial quantity, ensuring the availability and affordability of food to all, either through local production or importation, of both, based on the country’s existing and potential resource endowment and related production advantages, and consistent with the over all national development objectives and policies. However, sufficiency in rice and white corn should be pursued.
Forest Land the permanent forest or forest reserves, and forest
reservations.
Fresh Agricultural And Fishery Productsrefers to agricultural and fisheries products newly taken or captured directly from its natural state or habitat, or those newly harvested or gathered from agricultural areas or bodies of water used for aquiculture.
Geohazard Maps maps showing the location of areas prone to Geohazards like volcanoes, tsunami, landslide, earthquake, ground subsidence and storm surges.
GeoreferencingAssigning map coordinates to an image. Usually involves resampling of pixels to extrapolate the values for the new pixels
Geospatial Data also known as spatial data or geographic information. Refers to information that identifies the geographic location of natural or constructed features and boundaries on the earth, including the oceans. This information is available to University students, faculty and staff either via the GIS office in the Library, or, for some software, via a public or home computer via the GIS website.
Global Competitiveness refers to the ability to compete in terms of price, quality and value of agriculture and fishery products relative to those of other countries.
Gross Value-Added refers to the total value, excluding the value of non-agricultural of fishery intermediate inputs, of goods and services contributed by the agricultural and fisheries sectors.
Hazard typology The hazard typology clusters hazards that are somehow interrelated to each other. It is a basis for the development of the typology of regions.
Head works refers to the composite parts of the irrigation system that divert water from natural bodies of water such as river, streams, and lakes.
Hazard A property or situation that in particular circumstances could lead to harm. More specific, a hazard is a potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. Hazards can be single, sequential or combined in their origin and effects. Each hazard is characterized by its location, intensity and probability.
Industrial Dispersal refers to the encouragement given to manufacturing enterprises to establish their plants in rural areas. Such firms normally use agricultural raw materials either in their primary or intermediate state.
Information Products refers to the instructional components needed to present a CLUP Step in a comprehensive way. They consist of tables, graphs and maps in both digital and paper-based formats.
Irrigable Lands refers to lands which display marked characteristics justifying the operation of an irrigation system.
Irrigated Lands refers to lands services by natural irrigation or irrigation facilities. These include lands where water is not readily available as existing irrigation facilities need rehabilitation or upgrading or where irrigation water is not available year-round.
Irrigation System refers to a system of irrigation facilities covering contiguous areas.
Irrigators’ Association (IA) refers to an association of farmers within a contiguous area served by a National Irrigation System or Communal Irrigation System.
Land Classification classify the lands
of the public domain into:
(a) Alienable or disposable,
(b) Timber, and
(c) Mineral lands,
Land Classification Map Map showing the land classification done by NAMRIA
Land Cover
Land Use refers to the manner of utilizing the land, including its allocation, development and management.
Land Use Plan refers to a document embodying a set of policies accompanied by maps and similar illustrations which represent the community-deserved pattern of population distribution and a proposal for the future allocation of land to the various land-using activities, in accordance with the social and economic objectives of the people. It identifies the location, character and extent of the area’s land resources to be used for different purposes and includes the process and the criteria employed in the determination of the land use.
Land Use Planning “” refers to the act of defining the allocation, utilization, development and management of all lands within a given territory or jurisdiction according to the inherent qualities of the land itself and supportive of sustainable, economic, demographic, socio-cultural and environmental objectives as an aid to decision-making and legislation.
Land-use planning Land-use Planning creates policies at the local/municipal level that guide how the land (inside the administrative borders of a municipality) and its resources will be used. The main instrument of land-use planning is zoning or zoning ordinances, respectively. Land-use planning is situated below the regional planning level.
Liquefaction The process in which a solid (soil) takes on the characteristics of a liquid as a result of an increase in pore pressure and a reduction in stress. In other words, solid ground turns to jelly.
Losses The amount of realized damages as a consequence of an occurred hazard.
Main Canal refers to the channel where diverted water from a source flows to the intended area to be irrigated.
Market Infrastructure refers to facilities including, but not limited to, market buildings, slaughterhouses, holding pens, warehouses, market information centers, connecting roads, transport and communication and cold storage used by the farmers and fisher folk in marketing their produce.
Metadata Data about data. Includes information describing aspects of actual data items, such as name, format, content, and the control of or over data.
Mineral Lands refer to those lands of the public domain which have been classified as such by the Secretary of Natural Resources in accordance with prescribed and approved criteria, guidelines and procedure.
Mitigation or disaster mitigation A proactive strategy to gear immediate actions to long-term goals and objectives.
Municipal Waters “Include not only streams, lakes and tidal waters include within the municipality, Guidebook on Sustainable not being the subject of private ownership, and not comprised within national Coastal Land Use Planning & parks, public forest, timber lands, forest reserves, but also marine waters include Management 1977 between two lines drawn perpendicularly to the general coastline from points where the boundary lines of the municipality or city touch the sea at low tide and a third line parallel with the general coastline and fifteen (15) kilometers from it. Where two (2) municipalities are so situated on the opposite shores that there is less than (15) kilometers of marine waters between them, the third line shall be equally distant from opposite shores of the respective municipalities” (Section 131{r}, Republic Act No. 7160)
National Information Network (NIN) refers to an information network which links all offices and levels of the Department with various research institutions and local end-users, providing easy access to information and marketing services related to agriculture and fisheries.
National Irrigation System (NIS) refers to a major irrigation system managed by the National Irrigation Administration. Network of Protected Areas for Agricultural and Agro-industrial Development (NPAAAD refers to agricultural areas identified by the Department through the Bureau of Soils and Water Management in coordination with the National Mapping and Resources Information Authority in order to ensure the efficient utilization of land for agriculture and Agro-industrial development and promote sustainable growth . The NPAAAD covers all irrigated areas, all irrigable lands already covered by irrigation projects with firm funding commitments; all alluvial plain land highly suitable for agriculture whether irrigated or not; Agro-industrial crop lands or lands presently planted to industrial crops that support the viability of existing agricultural infrastructure and agro-based enterprises, highlands, areas located at an elevation of five hundred (500) meters or above and have the potential for growing semi temperate and high-value crops; all agricultural lands that are ecological fragile, the conversion of which will result in serious environmental degradation, and mangrove areas and fish sanctuary/ies.
On-Farm Irrigation Facilities refers to composite facilities that permit entry of water to paddy areas and consist of farm ditches and turnouts.
Orthophoto An aerial photo that has been corrected to eliminate the effects of camera tilt and relief displacement. The ground geometry is recreated as it would appear from directly above each and every point.
Preparedness Readiness for short term activities, such as evacuation and temporary property protection, undertaken when a disaster warning is received.
Primary Processing refers to the physical alteration of raw agricultural or fishery products with or without the use of mechanical facilities.
Projection A map projection is any of many methods used in cartography (mapmaking) to represent the two-dimensional curved surface of the earth or other body on a plane. The term "projection" here refers to any function defined on the earth's surface and with values on the plane, and not necessarily a geometric projection.
Post -Harvest Facilities includes, but it is not limited to, threshers, moisture meters, dryers, weighing scales, milling equipment, fish ports, fish landings, ice plants and cold storage facilities, processing plants, warehouses, buying stations, market infrastructure and transportation.
Premature Conversion of Agricultural Land refers to the undertaking of any development activity, the results of which modify or alter the physical characteristics of the agricultural lands to render them suitable for non-agricultural purposes, without an approved order of conversion from the DAR.
Public Forest the mass of lands of the public domain which has not been the subject of the present system of classification for the determination of which lands are needed for forest purposes and which are not.
Raster Also referred to as bitmap images, these are images that are represented by a sequence of pixels (picture elements) or points, which when taken together, describe the display of an image on an output device. There are many different raster image formats in use, among them GIF, JPEG, PCX, and TIFF.
Reaction While mitigation is characterized by long-term actions, reaction aims at short-term actions in case of an occurring disaster. Reaction comprises preparedness, response and recovery.
Recovery This constitutes the last step of post disaster actions, such as rebuilding or retrofitting of damaged structures.
Regional plan (as defined for the purpose of ESPON 1.3.1 Hazards): The spatial plan of an administrative area (superior to the municipal level); is part of the official (national of federal) planning system; makes statements and/or determinations referring to the spatial and/or physical structure and development of a region (spatial distribution of land use: infrastructure, settlement, nature conservation areas etc.); has impacts on the subordinate levels of planning hierarchy (local level, e.g. municipal land use plans etc.); textual and cartographic determinations and information normally refer to the scale 1:50 000 to 1:100 000.
Regional Planning Regional planning is the task of settling the spatial or physical structure and development by drawing up regional plans as an integrated part of the formalized planning system of a state. Thereby regional planning is required to specify aims of spatial planning which are drawn up for an upper, state, or federal state wide level. The regional level represents the vital link between the state-wide perspective for development and the concrete decisions on the land use taken at local level within the land-use planning of the municipalities.
Remote Sensing A means of acquiring information using airborne equipment and techniques to determine the characteristics of an area. Aerial photographs from aircraft and satellite are the most common form of remote sensing
Resource Accounting refers to a tracking changes in the environment and natural resources biophysically and economically (in monitory terms)
Resource-based refers to the utilization of natural resources.
Response The term of ”response” contains three different meanings: 1) as an element within the DPSIR chain, 2) in a general meaning as a spatial planning answer as proposed in the tender and 3) as a narrower term which describes specific reactions immediately after a disaster has occurred. Response in the broader sense means the sum of long-term actions (mitigation in terms of planning responses) and short-term actions (reaction) to prevent disasters or mitigate their impacts. In this case it is linked to the Response chain link of the DPSIR chain. In a narrower sense, response is a part of short-term actions (reaction) when a disaster occurs. Then, response means short-term emergency aid and assistance, such as search-and-rescue operations, during or following the disaster.
Risk A combination of the probability or frequency of occurrence of a defined hazard and the magnitude of the consequences of the occurrence. More specific, a risk is defined as the probability of harmful consequences, or expected loss (of lives, people injured, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human induced hazards.
Risk analysis Risk analysis is the mathematical calculation including the analysis of a hazard (frequency, magnitude) and its consequences (damage potential).
Risk assessment Risk assessment consists of risk estimation and risk evaluation.
Risk estimation Risk estimation is concerned with the outcome or consequences of an intention taking account of the probability of occurrence.
Risk evaluation Risk evaluation is concerned with determining the significance of the estimated risks for those affected: it therefore includes the element of risk perception.
Risk perception Risk perception is the overall view of risk held by a person or group and includes feeling, judgment and group culture.
Risk reduction Risk reduction may be defined as the “consequence of adjustment policies which intensify efforts to lower the potential for loss from future environmentally extreme events.” (Mileti, et al. 1981; Nigg and Mileti. 2002). Such adjustment policies may refer to a broad range of guidelines, legislation and plans that help to minimize damage potential (i.e. exposure to a hazard or maximizing coping capacity of a region or community by, e.g. guaranteeing resources and preparing adequate plans for pre-disaster mitigation and post-disaster response measures). Risk reduction involves both policy/regulatory issues and planning practices. In other words, risk reduction – as defined above – is the result of what has earlier been defined as risk management related response (prevention orientated mitigation, non-structural mitigation, structural mitigation, and reaction).
Rural Industrialization refers to the process by which the economy is transformed from one that is predominantly agricultural to one that is dominantly industrial and service-oriented. Agriculture provides the impetus and push for industry and services through the market that it creates, the labor that it absorbs, and the income that it generates which is channeled to industry and services. As development continues, with agriculture still an important sector, industry and services begin to generate income and markets and concomitantly increase their share of total income.
Satellite Image A picture of the earth taken from an earth-orbital satellite. Satellite images may be produced photographically or by on-board scanners (eg, MSS).
Storm Surge A rise of the sea, preceding a storm (usually a hurricane) due to the winds of the storm and low atmospheric pressure.
Strategic Agriculture and Fisheries Development Zones (SAFDZ)" refers to the areas within the NAPAAD identified for production, Agro-Processing and marketing activities to help develop and modernize, either the support of government, the agriculture and fisheries sectors in an environmentally and socio-cultural sound manner.
Secondary Canal refers to the channel connected to the main canal which distributes irrigation to specific areas.
Secondary Processing refers to the physical transformation of semi-processed agricultural or fishery products
Sectoral planning ’Sector’ in terms of ‘sectoral planning’ means the spatial planning under consideration of only one planning criteria (e.g. traffic, environmental heritage, etc.). Sectoral approaches are (in the ideal case) weighted and combined in the context of comprehensive development planning. Sectoral as well as comprehensive planning can take place on different administrative levels.
Sensitivity/highly sensitive areas In general, sensitivity describes how a system responds to permanent influences. In the context of the ESPON 1.3.1 Hazards project, the highly sensitive areas are defined as those areas that are most sensitive towards the entirety of all hazards. In terms of the chosen methodology the highly sensitive areas are represented by risk intensities of 8, 9 and 10 (red, brown and black colours in the colour scheme of the synthetic risk map).
Shallow Tube Well (STW) refers to a tube or shaft vertically set into the ground for the purpose of bringing ground water to the soil surface from a depth of less than 20 meters by suction lifting.
Small Farmers and Fisherfolk refers to natural person dependent on small-scale subsistence farming and fishing activities as their primary source of income.
Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) refers to any business activity or enterprise engaged in industry, agribusiness and/or services, whether single proprietorship, cooperative, partnership or corporation whose total assets, inclusive of those arising from loans but exclusive of the land on which the particular business entity's office, plan and equipment are situated, must have value falling under the following categories:
Micro - not more than P 1,500,000
Small - P 1,500,001 to P 15,000,000
Medium - P15,000,001 to P 60,000,000
The Department, in consultation with the Congressional Oversight Committee on Agricultural and Fisheries Modernization, may adjust the above values as deemed necessary.
Spatial Data Data that define a location. These are in the form of graphic primitives that are usually either points, lines, polygons or pixels.
Spatial typologyThis is a general term that describes the result of a clustering process that is based on relevant spatial data. Consequently, the typology of regions is a spatial typology.
Socio-culturally Sound means the consideration of the social structure of the community such as leadership pattern, distribution of roles across gender and age groups, the diversity of religion and other spiritual beliefs, ethnicity and cultural diversity of the population.
Technology-based refers to utilization of technology.
Typology At its simplest level, a typology involves the clustering of a large number of items (variety of descriptions) into smaller groups by virtue of their shared characteristics. In the ESPON 1.3.1 Hazards project, the term typology is used in different contexts:
Typology of regions The typology of regions clusters areas in Europe, which are threatened by similar hazards. This typology does not consider the aspect of vulnerability and it is therefore a hazard based typology instead of a risk based typology. In the typology of regions, interactions between certain hazards are taken into consideration.
Typology of risk / risk typologisation A risk typology clusters risks into groups by the characteristics of probability (and certainty of assessment), extent of damage (and certainty of assessment), ubiquity, persistency, irreversibility, delay effect and mobilization potential. The typology of risk distinguishes the risk types of Cyclops, Damocles, Pythia, Pandora, Cassandra and Medusa.
Vector Data A coordinate-based data structure commonly used to represent map features. Each line feature is represented as a list of ordered x, y coordinated. Attributes are associated with the feature (as opposed to a raster data structure, which associates attributes with a grid cell). Traditional vector data structures include arc-node models vertex one point along a line.
Unclassified Lands Lands which have not yet been subjected to land classification
Unique ID  
Urban Area (1) If a barangay has a population size of 5,000 or more, then a barangay is considered urban, or
(2) If a barangay has at least one establishment with a minimum of 100 employees, a barangay is considered urban, or
(3) If a barangay has 5 or more establishments with a minimum of 10 employees, and 5 or more facilities within the two-kilometer radius from the barangay hall, then a barangay is considered urban. (Source: NSCB Resolution No. 9, Series of 2003)
Vulnerability Vulnerability is the degree of fragility of a person, a group, a community or an area towards defined hazards. In a broader sense, vulnerability is defined as a set of conditions and processes resulting from physical, social, economical and environmental factors, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards. Vulnerability is determined by the potential of a community to react and withstand a disaster, e.g. its emergency facilities and disaster organization structure (coping capacity).
Zoning Zoning is the local governments’ tool that regulates land-use, promotes orderly growth, and protects existing property owners by ensuring a convenient, attractive and functional community. Zoning is the way the local governments control the physical development of land and the kinds of uses to which each individual property may be put.
Zoning Ordinance refers to a local legislation approving the development land use plan and providing for the regulations and other conditions on the uses of land including the limitation of the infrastructure that may be placed within the territorial jurisdiction of a city or municipality.

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